Atomic and nuclear physics ppt

basic nuclear physics ppt and collective model in nuclear physics ppt
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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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PHYS490: Nuclear Physics 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 1 Prehistory (400 BC)  This chart of Plato and Aristotle shows the relation of the four elements and their four qualities  A fifth element was ether or material of the heavens (dark matter in early cosmology )  The chart was used for over 1000 years 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 5 Atomic and Nuclear Sizes 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 6 More and More Isotopes Z Segre Chart N 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 7 Discovery History  Today around 3000 isotopes have been observed  Only 284 are stable 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 8 Limits of Stable Nuclei 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 9 The Unique Nucleus  The nucleus is a unique ensemble of strongly interacting fermions: nucleons  Its large, yet finite, number of constituents controls the physics  Both single-particle (out-of-phase) and collective (in-phase) effects occur  Analogy to a herd of wild animals. Individual animals may break out of the herd but are rapidly drawn back to the safety of the collective 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 10 Nuclear Models  Quantum mechanics governs basic nuclear behaviour  The forces are complicated and cannot be written down explicitly  It is a many-body problem of great complexity  In the absence of a comprehensive nuclear theory we turn to models  A model is simply a way of looking at the nucleus that gives a physical insight into a wide range of its properties 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 11 Nuclear Physics in the Thirties: Splitting of the Atom Cockcroft-Wilson accelerator – atom ‘split’ in 1932 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 12 Nuclear Physics in the Forties The first cyclotrons were built in Berkeley, California 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 13 Oliver Lodge Lab. Opening (1969) 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 14 Nuclear Physics in the Seventies  An Open University program from 1979, shot in the Liverpool Physics Department, showing the forefront of nuclear structure experimentation (and fashion) at the time  Also on youtube: http://youtu.be/s43rxUA8euY 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 15 Nuclear Physics in the Eighties TESSA3: 16 (small) γ-ray detectors at Daresbury, UK 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 16 Even Bigger Arrays  This picture shows ESSA30, an array of 30 (small) γ-ray detectors at Daresbury, UK  It was a European collaboration  Again, spot the Liverpudlians 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 17 Nuclear Physics in the Nineties Gammasphere: 100 (big) γ-ray detectors, USA 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 18 Nuclear Physics in the Noughties 2003: The Hulk destroys Gammasphere 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 19 Nuclear Physics Tomorrow The next generation of Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) accelerators in Europe 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 20 Nuclear Physics in context  Nuclear Physics is ‘the study of the structure, properties, and interactions of the atomic nuclei’  Nuclear Physicists investigate nuclear matter on all scales, from sub-atomic particles to supernovae  Research areas include the structure of the nucleus at different temperatures and pressures, the origin of elements, and the structure and evolution of stars 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 21 1. Nucleon-Nucleon Force 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 22 The Nucleon – a Spin ½ Fermion  The nucleon is a hadron, i.e. it feels the strong force The Ford Nucleon (1957) nuclear powered car 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 23