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Nuclear Physics

Nuclear Physics
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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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PHYS490: Nuclear Physics 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 1 PHYS490: Schedule 2017  Lectures : Thursday 11:00 – 13:00 (CHEM-BRUN) Friday 12:00 – 13:00 (MATH-106)  Lectures : weeks 1 - 6  Tutorials : weeks 3, 6  Text book : K.S. Krane (or LaTeX notes on VITAL)  Eddie Paul (E.S.Paulliv.ac.uk) Oliver Lodge Lab. 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 2 PHYS490: Nuclear Physics 1. Nucleon-Nucleon Force 2. Nuclear Behaviour 3. Forms of Mean Potential 4. Nuclear Deformation 5. Hybrid Models 6. Nuclear Excitations 7. Rotating Systems 8. Nuclei at Extremes of Spin 9. Nuclei at Extremes of Isospin 10. Mesoscopic Systems 11. Nuclear Reactions 12. Nuclear Astrophysics 13. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 3 0. A Brief Introduction 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 4 Prehistory (400 BC)  This chart of Plato and Aristotle shows the relation of the four elements and their four qualities  A fifth element was ether or material of the heavens (dark matter in early cosmology )  The chart was used for over 1000 years 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 5 Atomic and Nuclear Sizes 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 6 More and More Isotopes Z Segre Chart N 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 7 Discovery History  Today around 3000 isotopes have been observed  Only 284 are stable 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 8 Limits of Stable Nuclei 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 9 The Unique Nucleus  The nucleus is a unique ensemble of strongly interacting fermions: nucleons  Its large, yet finite, number of constituents controls the physics  Both single-particle (out-of-phase) and collective (in-phase) effects occur  Analogy to a herd of wild animals. Individual animals may break out of the herd but are rapidly drawn back to the safety of the collective 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 10 Nuclear Models  Quantum mechanics governs basic nuclear behaviour  The forces are complicated and cannot be written down explicitly  It is a many-body problem of great complexity  In the absence of a comprehensive nuclear theory we turn to models  A model is simply a way of looking at the nucleus that gives a physical insight into a wide range of its properties 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 11 Nuclear Physics in the Thirties: Splitting of the Atom Cockcroft-Wilson accelerator – atom ‘split’ in 1932 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 12 Nuclear Physics in the Forties The first cyclotrons were built in Berkeley, California 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 13 Oliver Lodge Lab. Opening (1969) 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 14 Nuclear Physics in the Seventies  An Open University program from 1979, shot in the Liverpool Physics Department, showing the forefront of nuclear structure experimentation (and fashion) at the time  Also on youtube: http://youtu.be/s43rxUA8euY 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 15 Nuclear Physics in the Eighties TESSA3: 16 (small) γ-ray detectors at Daresbury, UK 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 16 Even Bigger Arrays  This picture shows ESSA30, an array of 30 (small) γ-ray detectors at Daresbury, UK  It was a European collaboration  Again, spot the Liverpudlians 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 17 Nuclear Physics in the Nineties Gammasphere: 100 (big) γ-ray detectors, USA 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 18 Nuclear Physics in the Noughties 2003: The Hulk destroys Gammasphere 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 19 Nuclear Physics Tomorrow The next generation of Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) accelerators in Europe 2/24/2017 PHYS490 : Advanced Nuclear Physics : E.S. Paul 20