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Do's and Taboos of Public Speaking
Do's and Taboos of Public Speaking 13
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Do's and Taboos of Public Speaking How to Get Those Butterflies Flying in Formation Roger E. Axtell Illustrations by Mike Fornwald John Wiley Sons, Inc. New York • Chichester • Brisbane • Toronto • Singapore In recognition of the importance of preserving what has been written, it is a policy of John Wiley Sons, Inc., to have books of enduring value published in the United States printed on acidfree paper, and we exert our best efforts to that end. Copyright © 1992 by Roger E. Axtell Illustrations by Mike Fornwald Published by John Wiley Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley Sons, Inc. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. From a Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers. Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Axtell, Roger E. Do's and taboos of public speaking : ho w to get those butterfiles flying in formation / Roger E. Axtell ; illustrations by Mike Fornwald. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0471536717 (alk. paper) ISBN 0471536709 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Public speaking. 2. Business communication. 3. Oral communication. I. Title. PN4121.A87 1992 808.5'1—dc20 9142526 Printed in the United States of America 10 9876543 2 To the late John D. Davies, a great speech coach. And to Arthur W. Foster, a great business speaker, mentor, and friend. Acknowledgments When we are watching the "Oscar" or "Emmy" award shows, the most boring segments of the evening occur when each honoree recites a whole list of names—people completely un known to us—". . . without whom this night would not be possible." I'd like to change that. I'd like to try to breathe some life into those faceless names by telling you who aided in the writing of this book and what each contributed. Furthermore, each of the follow ing is fully capable of writing his or her own book. So, in the future, you may want to be on the lookout for their names on the bookshelves. Robert Williams is a speech writer, journalist, and presi dent of his own public relations firm, Idea Associates Inc. Among his many credits are successful campaigns for dozens of state and federal legislators and at least one governor. He has also supplied the words and ideas that saved the necks of scores of business executives. Bob reviewed the entire manuscript of this book and offered helpful advice and anec dotes as well as encouragement and edits. Mike Fornwald is art director at Arian, Lowe Travis, a prominent Chicago advertising agency. Prior to that, he was a political cartoonist and then an animator for animated films. Mike supplied the wonderful illustrations throughout this book. vii DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING vlil Peter Rosenberg is a marketing manager with a back ground in journalism who has also acquired special skills in the use of audiovisual materials in business presenta tions. Peter was responsible for researching and drafting Chapter 7, "Using AudioVisual Equipment." He is a talented and personable young man headed for a successful career in business. David Horwitz was a top television news executive for more than 20 years at CBS News, ABC News, and Group W. He produced awardwinning broadcasts with Ted Koppel on ABC as well as the "CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite" at CBS. David has converted this unique experience into a valu able consulting service that tutors business executives and others on TV appearances . David contributed substantially to Chapter 6, "Appearing on Television," with specific, memora ble advice. Phyllis Corbitt McKenzie, as you will learn in Chapter 9, "How to Turn Professional," is the founder and president of Capital Speakers Incorporated, a nationally known speakers bureau in Washington, DC. She works with hundreds of client companies and organizations in booking professional speak ers from the ranks of business, government, literature, sports, politics, and entertainment. Phyllis provided substantial infor mation for Chapter 9, a valuable contribution exceeded only by her personal charm. Richard E. Rosenberg, a successful trial attorney, is now retired. He carefully reviewed and edited most of the manu script for this book. When I becam e troubled by the enormous amount of time involved, his son explained, "Don't let it bother you. You've given him the three things he loves to do most: Work, help people, and criticize" Fred R. Holt is a former superintendent of schools, who was an outstanding debate and forensics coach. Fred kindly reviewed the early chapters of this book to assure that the principles being suggested were not only clear but correct. His solid "passing grade" was reassuring, to say the least. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS IX Contributing in smaller but equally important doses were the following: Ron Dentinger, a standup comedian and ban quet entertainer, who helped me with Chapter 5, "Humor"; the staff at the National Speakers Association who provided information on that organization for Chapter 9 as well as per mission to reproduce data on NSA chapters around the coun try; Fred Knapp, of Frederick Knapp Associates, Inc., a college friend who has established his own national training and con sulting firm for business executives in the areas of public speaking, media appearances, and image; and, Ron Dale, a delightful Scotsman and professional comedian who shared some wonderful insights into the art of humor. My thanks, too, go to Steve Ross, my editor at John Wiley Sons, New York City, who entrusted me with my last three book projects. Also, to Nancy Land of Publications Develop ment Company, Inc., in Crockett, Texas, whom I have met only by telephone but for whom I have developed untold respect and admiration because of her special editing and design skills that magically turn typed words into a readable text. And she does it with a smile in her voice that actually warms the telephone. Finally, I hope you will pause, if only briefly, at the Dedi cation for this book. The two names there represent a pair of admirable men who were blessed with special communica tion talents and who, throughout their lives, never hesitated to share them. ROGER E. AXTELL Janesville, WI Contents Introduction 1 1 The Three Secrets for Banishing Fear 7 When Not to Speak 11 Believe, Believe, Believe 15 The Third Rule 17 2 Organization of Business Speeches 25 The Art of Asking Questions 27 What Are the Six Magic Questions 31 The Four Parts to Every Presentation 33 Timing a Speech 44 3 To Read, or Not to Read 47 Writing for the Ear 48 The Art of Reading Aloud 52 Is It Fair to Your Audience 53 When to Read a Speech 54 Tips on Using Notes 58 4 Getting Physical 65 The Eyes 67 The Voice 69 Gestures 72 Posture 73 The Lectern and Microphone 75 The Room 79 Xi DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING xii 5 Humor 83 When Not to Use Humor 85 What Makes Humor Humorous 87 Specific Examples 91 Humor to Bend, Borrow, or Steal 95 Roasts 101 Introductions 102 6 Using AudioVisual Equipment 105 Which Medium for Which Meeting 108 Which AudioVisual Medium to Use 110 Designing Visual Aids 113 How Visuals Are Produced 115 A Checklist for Your Next AudioVisual Presentation 125 Room Preparation 127 General Tips 128 Summary 129 7 Appearing on Television 131 Where and How to Start 133 Nervousness 136 Clothing 136 Makeup 137 Body Language 138 Eye Contact 139 Gestures and Mannerisms 140 Selecting Your Words 141 Answering Hostile Questions 142 Other Types of Questions 144 InHouse Video Presentations 146 Summary 147 8 Special Speaking Situations 149 How to Introduce Other Speakers 150 Serving as an Emcee or Moderator 153 The QuestionandAnswer Period 156 Speaking to International Audiences 159 CONTENTS Xiii 9 How to Turn Professional 165 How to Start 166 Marketing Yourself 169 Role of a Speakers Bureau 171 Fees for Professional Speakers 173 The National Speakers Association (NSA) 175 Other Groups 177 10 Resources for Help 179 General Sources 180 Toastmasters International 181 Dale Carnegie 183 11 Parting Advice from Successful Speakers 185 Appendix Local Chapters—National Speakers Association 189 Additional Reading 193 Index 197 Do's and Taboos of Public Speaking Introduction What's in this book for me DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 2 JLhis book is intended for the businessperson who must speak to any audience of any kind, whether it be to the sales force, to stockholders, or to the Rotary Club; to the local city council, to union members, to the church membership, or to the corpo rate board of directors; or to a television reporter on camera. Each of these occasions is a test of personal poise and busi ness ability. And while this book will help you achieve poise and confidence when speaking to an audience, it may also produce some unexpected side benefits: • How to write a better business memo, letter, or report. • How to read the newspaper faster and better. • How and when to use—and not use—humor in busi ness presentations. • How to prepare for an appearance on television —which may come about much sooner than you expect (The reasons are explained in Chapter 7.) Finally, some advice in this book may even stir up dis agreement—even downright controversy—between differ ent schools of thought on business public speaking. Whatever the business situation, today's successful busi nessperson when speaking before an audience, must come across as intelligent, articulate, confident, and likable. Televi sion comedian Bob Newhart once described the archetypical airline captain as "confidence personified, with straight teeth, crooked smile." And so it must be with the captains of business. They must appear before audiences as pinstriped Chuck Yeagers, the first test pilot to break the sound barrier and the model for every chief pilot since, complete with crooked smile. INTRODUCTION s However, many captains of business do not necessarily have that Yeagerlike image. The reason is simple: In their career preparation and rise, most managers have just not taken the time to hone that important communications skill called public speaking. Speaking before an audience is not easy. In fact, televi sion programming has made it even more difficult. Now, by punching a remote control button, we have professional pre sentations costing millions of dollars per minute delivered instantly into our living rooms. In the face of such competition, it takes a brave and wellschooled businessperson to dare to stand before an au dience and maintain interest effectively. Still, it must be done; and in this day of "great communicators," public speaking is rising higher and higher among the coveted man agerial skills. The businessperson who is an effective public speaker will not only stand out but stand above his or her colleagues. He or she will also be a better motivator and manager of people, whatever the career assignment, simply because so much of good management today requires good communica tion skills. This book, by itself, is not the magic potion for becoming a polished public speaker. As we quickly learn in Chapter 1, "To learn to play the flute, you have to play the flute." Transla tion: Nothing great is accomplished without actual practice, practice, practice. But this book does provide a road map to help the reader find more comfort, confidence, and compe tence in all types of business presentations. The book begins by presenting "The Three Rules" that banish stage fright and provide the essential confidence for any business presentation. Then, in Chapter 2, the organiza tion of a speech is taught, and as you'll see, it's as easy as adding 6+4, which happen to equal a perfect 10. The natural temptation is to write out a speech verba tim and then stand up and simply read aloud what you have 4 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING written. In Chapter 3, you will learn what's wrong with that method. One authority even calls it a way to "insult" your audience. However, many businesspeople are shocked, even angry at the thought that they should not read a speech ver batim, so this chapter could generate debate. Chapter 4 deals with the physical aspects of public speak ing: posture , eye contact, and gestures. Experts say more than half our daily communication is nonverbal, and so it becomes especially important to learn how to "get physical" when speaking to an audience. This chapter also offers numerous tips on turning lecterns and microphones into assets rather than impediments between you and your audiences. In Chapter 5, you will learn not only about the role of humor but about the effective use of humor in your own public appearances. Numerous anecdotes and examples are provided to help you craft good openers, closers, and a few laughers in between. Chapter 6 offers a short course on how to get the best from audiovisual equipment in support of business presenta tions. The days of using a few simple 35mm transparencies or slapping a couple of transparent films on an overhead projec tor are passing by quickly. Television has conditioned our eyes to expect slick multi media presentations. This chapter will teach you how to develop the audio and visual side of a business presentation, how to work with the technicians who prepare the visuals, and how to integrate all these elements into your presentation so smoothly that words and images are merged into memorable messages. Next comes television. One young business friend told me, "I'll skip that chapter. I'm an accountant. I don't ever expect to appear on television during my business career." As you will read in Chapter 7, "Appearing on Television," the chances are close to 100 that, indeed, the experience of appearing on television will occur not once but many times in the career of any business manager less than 50 years old. INTRODUCTION 5 Chapter 8 offers advice on "Special Speaking Situa tions" such as the following: How to properly introduce other speakers, how to serve as a master of ceremonies or a moder ator, how to handle those tricky question and answer periods at the end of every program, and how to speak to audiences of people from other countries. Chapter 9 is designed for the business speaker who may want to consider branching out into speaking for fees. It is titled "How to Turn Professional" and details how to climb the ladder to professionalism. Business is the spawn ing ground for thousands of professional speakers—why not you Chapter 10 provides ideas for "Resources for Help." Here you will find ways to continue in your quest to improve busi ness public speaking skills. Specifically, detailed information is provided on two national organizations that help train hun dreds of thousands of businesspeople each year to communi cate verbally with greater effectiveness. The book concludes with Chapter 11, whic h offers some "Parting Advice from Successful Speakers." Some of these direct quotations might stick in your mind and may just help you make that jump from an average business speaker to an outstanding speaker. The cartoon illustrations sprinkled throughout this book come from the talented pen of Mike Fornwald. Mike is art director at a large Chicago advertising agency and is a former political cartoonist and film animator. Knowing that you are an effective public speaker can be a great source of pride and joy—and a distinct career enhancer. Unfortunately, few people in business today have discovered these truths. And with public speaking, as with just about every other skill, we all have our good days and bad days. Yet, on one of those good days when you find yourself facing an audience that pays rapt attention to your every 6 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING word, perhaps even nodding in agreement, and you finish your presentation with a final flourish, there is no higher plateau of satisfaction than knowing that you have achieved something both rare and enjoyable. That's when you feel as if you are flying higher than any jet pilot . . . and you can look out at the world and crack one of those confident but crooked smiles. 1 The Three Secrets for Banishing Fear . . the only thing we have to fear is fear itself . . ." Franklin D. Roosevelt 7 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 8 A he Book of Lists has accumulated and ranked a dizzying assortment of fascinating topics. Among them is a list of hu mankind's worst fears. Is death our greatest fear No. That's tied for only sixth place along with sickness. In fifth place, above death, is our fear of deep water. In fourth place comes our fear of financial problems. Third place marks our fear of insects and bugs, and second place, of heights. What ranks as our worst fear Even though our every day act of talking is learned early in childhood, the prospect of talking to an audience, large or small, is branded as our worst fear. It may be reassuring to learn that this preeminent fear is not limited to "ordinary folk." In the 1920s, one of the stage's brightest dramatic stars, Sarah Bernhardt, would upchuck before each performance. Today, celebrities such as TV weatherman Willard Scott and comedienne Lily Tomlin confess to powerful nervousness when stepping before the cameras. And, probably the greatest actor of our time, the late Sir Laurence Olivier, developed an almost disabling case of stage fright at the age of 60 If, by chance, you happen to be one of those people who has never experienced this dreaded malady, count yourself among the celestially charmed. The converse of fear is joy, and you can experience that, too, in speech making. Knowing that you have prepared and presented a nifty, wellreceived speech can generate a "high" fully equal to winning a championship sports contest, to re ceiving a public award or recognition, or to experiencing that flush of delight and wellbeing when your own child achieves some new goal. On the other hand, if you have ever shaken hands with that old devil called stage fright, you can probably describe THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 9 the encounter with the acuity of horror writer Stephen King: rapid, thumping heartbeat; quivering voice; a sudden moist, hot flash; a stomach that seems to be harboring a cold, alien being; and a mouth that tastes like an ancient, overflowing ashtray. Why Is it because of all those eyes staring back at you Is it because an audience of your business peers seems to exude a cold air of expectancy that goes right for the throat How can a superman or super woma n of business suddenly be turned into shivering jelly by merely ascending a platform and facing an audience Whatever the causes of stage fright, be assured it is no emotional weakness, no personality flaw. In fact, it is as com mon as a cold and as real as a quarterly earnings report. Diverse solutions for overcoming stage fright can be found in scores of other textbooks. Those solutions range from deep breathing and other relaxation exercises to imagining that the audience sitting before you is completely naked. All that practical and wellintentioned advice can be syn thesized into three simple timeproven rules. Adopting these three rules will conquer the demons of fear. Practice this ad vice and the tension unwinds. Apply these three rules regu larly, and your business presentation skills will begin to shine. Before we examine those three rules, it is important to accept that a certain amount of fear (better to call it "ap prehension") is not all bad. When speaking to an audience— any audience—it is natural to have some degree of tension. "Constructive tension" is what corporate executive and writer Richard W. Holznecht calls it. He is describing that upsurge of concentration, energy, and positive anxiety that football players feel when lining up for the kickoff. Sprinters do the same when putting their feet into the starting blocks. Observe Luciano Pavoratti in the wings before a concert. Even through the narrow eye of the TV camera you can see his body and mind tensing for the challenge. It can actually be a very exhilarating feeling. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 10 Baseball great Lou Gehrig probably described it best. Late in his career, he was asked, "Weren't you nervous com ing to bat in the ninth inning with two on and your team down 43" "Of course I was nervous," Gehrig replied. "If I wasn't, I couldn't have hit that double off the wall." "What you want to do," says Phyllis Corbitt McKenzie who heads Capital Speakers Bureau Inc., in Washington, D.C., "is to get all those butterflies in your stomach to fly in a planned formation" (Figure 1). Figure 1 Get those butterflies flying in formation. THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 11 Now on to the three rules for vanquishing stage fright: • Know your subject (in other words, "prepare"). • Believe in your subject. • Practice, practice, practice. On first reading them, they sound simple—almost mun dane. But resist the temptation to say to yourself, "OK, those are easy enough. I can do that. I'll just jum p ahead to the next few chapters." Think about the first rule: Know your subject. Prepare. In that context, let's apply Rule Number One itself—and come to know precisely what is meant by those words. WHEN NOT TO SPEAK Many years ago, a mentor gave me this bit of homespun ad vice about life: "Buy low, sell high . . . and never walk be hind a manure spreader." The corollary is "Learn the value of good timing. And then, don't ever do anything stupid" Applying this advice to public speaking means: Know when to speak but also when not to speak. Speak only when you know the subject. Decline to speak if you are unsure about or unprepared for the topic. Otherwise, you may do some thing stupid . . . and end up walking behind that manure spreader. Take calculus, for example. Teachers of calculus claim that a person can never truly understand calculus until he or she teaches it. To teach, a person must know. To know, a person must prepare. As another example, one of my early English teachers drilled into us that we could not truly understand the defini tion of a specific word until we could define it aloud to DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 12 someone else. And so it is with public speaking: Don't attempt to explain something aloud until you are fully prepared. When accepting a speaking assignment, allow plenty of time to get ready. Research, plan, study, accumulate, sift, re fine. It is better to decline an invitation to speak than to be illprepared and then speak poorly. Listen to four successful executives: • Robert Williams is a veteran public relations counselor to a wide range of corporate chiefs and has success fully managed dozens of political campaigns for gover nors and congressmen. "Ego so often gets in the way," says Williams. "When the chief exec should decline a speaking opportunity or delegate it to others, ego steps in the door and caution walks out. One result is bluff ing. The boss is not fully versed on a subject and so policy can be made inadvertently from the platform. In fact, one day I plan to write a book about the egos of business CEOs. I plan to call it My Daily Prayer: Lord, Deliver Me From Ego." • John Stollenwerk is president of AllenEdmonds Shoe Company, a major manufacturer of quality shoes. John is a popular platform speaker at diverse business forums around the country because he dared to buy a shoe company during the 1980s at a time when more than 800 U.S. shoe factories closed their doors because of imports. He has turned AllenEdmonds into a classic American success story. Stollenwerk's first and most important piece of advice for business speakers is simply "Know your subject." Your audience will quickly sense whether or not you are knowledgeable about your topic. • Vincent Vinci, director of public relations for Lock heed Electronics Company, counsels that a solid THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 13 presentation is based on three elements: Preparation. More preparation. Still more preparation. • Serge E. Logan served as public relations director of the multibilliondollar S. C. Johnson Wax Company, until his retirement in 1989. His job required him to (1) be the official spokesman for his company and (2) know his subject—Johnson Wax—as well as the original Mr. Johnson knew shiny, polished floors. When Logan traveled, he always carried two brief cases: one for the presentation he was making at that time, and the other to carry office "catchup" work. One morning, when leaving his hotel for the presenta tion, he inadvertently picked up the wrong case and arrived to find he had no presentation notes whatso ever. "I was told it was the best talk I ever gave," Logan said. "Thoroughly knowing your subject is the first key to successful business speaking—notes aren't neces sary or even important if you're thoroughly versed." The best salespeople in any field are, like Logan, the ones who know their product or their service: know it, live it, breathe it. Such intimacy breeds confidence and develops en thusiasm. Top sales performers like these can usually handle any resistance, objection, or question. James H. Rich was the eastern regional sales manager for an internationally known consumer goods company who delivered hundreds of sales presentations to toughminded buying committees for huge chains of retail stores in New York City. "The secret is in the preparation," Rich always advised. "When I prepared well, I did well. When I knew my material well, I was always more confident, more com fortable . . . and my audience could sense and see that immediately." Knowledge of your subject defeats those fearbearing demons. Knowledge breeds confidence and you actually DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 14 become eager to relate your facts, to tell your story, and to illuminate your audience. You can avoid the following dreaded situations: • Remember that leadfilled stomach when your class room teacher, without warning, called on you for the answer to a question . . . and you didn't know the answer, or hadn't even been listening • What about the common nighttime dream that you are thrust on a stage. You seem to know something about the play but can't recall your lines (No wonder evil spirits are pictured as hiding under the bed at night.) While none of these scenarios is likely to happen in your company conference room, they dramatize that the best way to experience humankind's number one fear—speaking in public—is to be caught unprepared. Speech consultant Robert Orben puts it succinctly: "Procrastination is the booking agent for stage fright." Orben is saying that if you delay preparing for a speech, it's like making a contract to guarantee fear. Heavy preparation produces one other benefit, accord ing to Bob Floyd, founder of his own giftware company: "I find that if I have an abundance of information and knowl edge about my subject, I not only become more confident when I stand up to speak, but also that—because I am usually allocated only so many minutes for my presentation—I am forced to carefully select just the key and critical pieces of information. That makes my presentation more compact, more effective. The surplus data remain helpful in answering followup questions." Don Aslett is the chairman of one of America's most successful cleaning firms and has more than 8,000 speeches behind him. Aslett has also written a book titled Is There a Speech Inside You (Writer's Digest Books, Cincinnati, 1989). "I promise you," he writes, "that if you're prepared, THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 15 95 percent of the fear of speaking will leave you. (You need the other 5 percent to keep you humble.)" Aslett even cites the scripture: "If ye are prepared, ye have no fear." With this corps of business professionals as testifiers, plus a venerable scripture for added import, I hope the simple sounding words "Know your subject" have newfound meaning for you. We now move to the second ingredient in the prescrip tion to banish the fear of speaking: You must have belief in your subject. BELIEVE, BELIEVE, BELIEVE Nick K. was a reasonably successful sales executive in the Chicago area, but he had one significant weakness. When his company staged national sales conferences to unveil new pro grams for the next season, Nick would often disagree with parts of th e new selling strategy. "It won't work. I'll sell it," he would say loyally, and then he would add, "but it won't work." Then, as Nick toured his territory with the new programs, he would prove his prediction. What Nick lacked was belief in what he was selling. The result was a selffulfilling prophecy that kicked into action and justified his prediction. Have you ever watched evangelist Billy Graham on stage in a floodlit baseball stadium addressing thousands of follow ers Is there any doubt that he believes in his subject Zeal is not limited to religion. Lee Iacocca's television commercials are probably the best contemporary example of the blunt, direct, "cutthecrap" style of speaking. As with Billy Graham, there can be no doubt that Iacocca believes in what he is saying. The late John Davies was one of the most successful speech coaches in the United States. He would always warn his students to "Never, never, never give a speech on a subject 16 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING you don't believe in. You'll fail. On the other hand, if you have prepared properly, know your material, and believe in it . . . your audience will not only hear but feel your message." Davies also counseled that proper preparation plus belief in your topic produces certain side benefits: Gestures become more natural, more automatic; the body is more relaxed, the mouth more lubricated, the voice steadier, and the eye con tact more direct. (You will learn more about this physical side of speaking in Chapter 4.) Now let's take these two pieces of advice—to prepare and to believe—and apply them to reallife situations. Situation A Let's say you or your management has just agreed to let the local Red Cross bloodmobile come to your company for a half day to collect plasma donations. Your job will be to ad dress all the employees in your company on the subject of why donating blood is easy, painless, and important. If you were asked at that moment to step up to a microphone and present that information, two things would likely happen: (1) appre hension and fear would start to build, and (2) you'd probably flop. The reasons would be lack of preparation and lack of belief or conviction. On the other hand, if you take the time to study all the available literature about donating blood, talk to the Red Cross nurses, and interview veteran donors of blood, then you are not only preparing but you are persuading yourself, "Hey Donating blood is truly easy, painless, and important. Yeah I can do this with confidence and comfort because I believe in it." Situation B Now shift to another reallife situation: You must appear before the Financial Committee of the Board of Directors of your company to present the case for a major capital expendi ture in your division. The very same formula applies. Prepare and believe. Prepare by assembling all the facts. Prepare by asking questions—especially those questions a Board mem ber might ask. Then ask yourself: "Am I truly convinced that THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 17 this capital investment is warranted and necessary Do I re ally believe it is proper and right If it were my own money, would I invest in this" // you cannot convince yourself—if you lack belief in your message—how can you effectively inform and persuade others Remember Nick He said the program wouldn't work, and he proved it wouldn't work. The same applies in any busi ness speaking situation. Belief and conviction are contagious. And with them come two more attributes, enthusiasm and sincerity. Business speech consultant Dorothy Sarnof f in her book Never Be Nervous Again (Crown Publishers, New York, 1987) describes this belief as a "spirit." She quotes the English poet John Milton: "A good teacher is one whose spirit enters the soul of the pupil." And then Sarnof f adds her own message on the power and the role of believing: "For me, a good speaker is one whose spirit enters the soul of the listener." THE THIRD RULE This rule—to practice —is as old as Aristotle, who wrote: "To learn to play the flute, you have to play the flute" (Figure 2). You could read every book ever published on how to play the flute but wouldn't be able to blow a note without sitting down and actually playing, and practicing, the flute. The same applies to any learning endeavor where you turn study into action: tennis, gardening, cabinetmaking, pho tography, poetry writing, skiing . . . and, of course, public speaking. In fact, try to think of an activity that does not improve with practice. The other word for practice is "rehearsing." Marsha Lindsay, an advertising agency president, has a disciplined regime when preparing for a speech: "I try to rehearse so 18 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Figure 2 "To learn to play the flute, you must play the flute." much that I can give the speech with such ease and confi dence it seems I am just up there talking, extemporaneously. I rehearse by not only practicing it silently, but also saying it aloud in front of a mirror and then into a tape recorder. I will also take the tape and play it, perhaps in the car en route to work, so that I can listen to my sequence of thoughts, my phrasing, my enunciation. Replaying the tape also helps im plant the speech in memory." Arthur W. Foster spent much of his business life training and motivating sales teams. He also presented quarterly sales programs to account executives for them to take into the field and present to thousands of customers. THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 19 Here was his stepbystep procedure for preparing a typi cal business presentation: 1. He began with research and, from that, decided on his basic message. Then he would "dump" all the raw material into one long, written rough draft. His pur pose was to get all his ideas and facts laid out, albeit disjointed and unrefined. 2. Then Foster would carefully select attractive, memo rable parts that were key to his message and covertly begin verbally trying them out on small, informal, un witting audiences of friends and associates. He would do this to gauge reactions. In this process, he was also rehearsing the material by experimenting with differ ent ways to relate the information. 3. Next, he would go back and convert the long first writ ten draft into shorter, better organized, and proven "bites" of sound. Once again, he would start trying this revised version on fellow business executives, usually without their full knowledge of his purpose and, again, to gauge reactions and to gain more prac tice in voicing the messages. 4. As the speech became more and more refined, he would then start practicing it before a mirror (Fig ure 3). He would rehearse over and over, working on phrasing and timing. Not reading the speech, mind you. But, instead, talking it. During all of this, the words were being imprinted on his mind. 5. By the time the actual presentation time arrived, Foster had probably spent several weeks in prep aration, had "auditioned" portions of the speech nu merous times as insurance, and had presented the speech—aloud, for practice—at least a dozen times. The result A polished, relaxed, convincing, enter taining, proven, and compelling message. 20 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Figure 3 Practice, practice, practice. If you consider Foster's method as long and laborious, Lockheed's Vinci tells of an entirely different, shorter, and more courageous approach. He tells of an East Coast com pany that established a "murder board" composed of knowl edgeable and experienced managers who would listen to, and constructively tear apart the presentations of their fellow managers. Which would you prefer The slow, steady, deliberate method of developing and practicing .. . or the firingsquad version THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 21 A more compassionate "audience" might be resting on your closet shelf: your portable video camera. It can be a wonderful supporting friend for practicing and rehearsing presentations. Set it up, start it running and do your stuff. In fact, the video camera has provided a marvelous new device to help us improve speaking skills. Consider these points: • Until the advent of the video camera, the aspiring speaker had to rely solely on the critique of friends and associates. This was tough duty for both parties. • The video camera is totally objective and serves as a mirror with a memory. Most of us are disturbed, even appalled, when first seeing ourselves on the screen. "Is that how I look" we ask. "I didn't realize those lines in my face showed so much." When seeing ourselves on camera, we ar e usually harshly critical of ourselves. We often notice first what is unnotice d by an audience, and vice versa. While teaching public speaking to a class of business managers and recording each of them on cam era, I had one woman executive become terribly flus tered because, she said, "My hands look so ugly. I should hide them behind the lectern." That's what she had no ticed first on the video replay. However, those in the audience quickly disagreed, saying, "No. Your hands are expressive. Don't change." • On the other hand, until that same woman saw herself on camera, she did not realize that she was using poor posture when speaking. After seeing the videotape, she corrected it immediately. The camera was far more effective than if I, as the instructor, had com mented "You ten d to slump when you stand before an audience." Incidentally, whenever you practice, try doing it in a situation that resembles the actual speaking situation as DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 22 much as possible. In other words, if you will be making your presentation while standing, then practice it while standing. Similarly, if you will be seated for your presentation, prac tice delivering it while seated. If, for your actual presenta tion, your notes will be on a lectern, then be sure to place them at just that height when you practice. If possible, re hearse in the actual room where your presentation will oc cur. By all means learn if a lectern will be present. Better yet, you decide if you want to use one and place it where you will be most comfortable. Does rehearsing pay off Ask a President of the United States. Before any televised press conference, biographers tell us that Presidents and their staff meet routinely to work over "briefing books." These books contain every conceivable ques tion that might be asked. Suggested answers and background information are provided. Then, the President rehearses likely answers over and over again. In business, the same procedure is often followed when the corporate chairman of the board or the president prepares for the annual stockholders meeting. In many companies for weeks before this annual corporate rite, staffers are scouring The Wall Street Journal to cull questions that are being asked at other annual meetings. Also, they are looking for "hot top ics" that might apply to their particular corporate situation and therefore might be asked by either wellintentioned stock holders or professional provocateurs. As a result of this type of preparation, many corporate CEOs enter the annual meeting with a thick briefing book, tabbed according to likely questions, so that if and when a specific question is asked, the executive merely skims through the tab headings and flips to a wellprepared "spontaneous" answer. Of the three rules presented in this chapter, this third piece of advice, to rehearse and practice, is probably the most important of all. The reasons are these: THE THREE SECRETS FOR BANISHING FEAR 23 1. You may know your subject, and you may believe in it, but all that can be ruined if you don't present it effectively. In sports terminology, this is what coaches call "execution." In other words, a football player may know the play, and he may believe that it will be highly successful in this situation, but if he does not execute the play smoothly, it can easily flop. No wonder foot ball coaches require athletes to execute plays over and over and over again. 2. Rehearsing helps build confidence and conviction. Af ter repeating one fiveminute segment of your presen tation three or four times, you'll find that soon you need only glance at one or two typed words or phrases in your notes and your mind will tell you, "Oh, yes, I know this section." 3. Rehearsing lessens fears. "The only antidote to that poison called stage fright," John Davies counseled, "is selfconfidence . . . and the path to selfconfidence is knowing and believing in your message, then bol stering that by having rehearsed and rehearsed again." Practice does not always make us perfect . . . but it surely makes us better. Apparently one of the greatest orators of our time, Sir Winston Churchill, agreed. One day, while the Prime Minister was splashing in his bathtub, his valet overheard him talking loudly. Believing he needed assistance, the valet entered and inquired, "Did you call, sir" "No," Churchill replied, "I was just giving a speech to The House of Commons." With these three critical rules in mind, the first and major hurdle to a successful speech—fear—becomes an ob stacle no more. In fact, employ the basic rules of this chapter and you not only will go a long way to banish fear but will have the basic ingredients for any successful speech. 2 Organization of Business Speeches Six Magic Questions + Four Basic Parts = A Perfect"Ten" 25 DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 26 J. sure wish I'd done a better job of communicating with GM (General Motors Corp.) people. Then they would have known why I was tearing the place up, taking out whole divisions, changing our whole production structure .. . I never got all this across." These apologetic words were offered by Roger Smith, Chairman of The General Motors Corporation, one of the largest corporations in the world. Smith retired in 1990, lamenting his failure to communicate effectively to his col leagues and employes during his 10 years at GM's helm. Smith presided over a near 10point drop in the company's share of the U.S. car market, down to about 36 percent in 1989, and he said he feared GM would never regain the market share lost to rivals Ford and Chrysler. Why Why do CEOs of large—or medium, or small—U.S. corporations fail to communicate effectively In this day of the "great communicators," managers of businesses, large or small, must keep others informed. "Others" include business colleagues, employers, stockhold ers, the investment community, and government leaders. This chapter deals with that vital business command ment "Thou Shalt Inform." In fact, another title for this chap ter might be "Thou Shalt Inform Effectively . . . And Here's How." We learned in Chapter 1 the three keys to good public speaking: (1) Know your subject. (2) Believe in your subject. (3) Practice presenting it over and over again. This chapter will deal with how to organize a business speech—any business speech—so that you are certain to in form effectively. In fact, the lessons in this chapter will also help you become a more effective author of business memos, reports, and daily correspondence. ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 27 In this chapter, you will first learn about asking the right questions, because to inform, you must begin with questions. After that, you will learn the four basic parts to organizing any business presentation. When you finish this chapter, you will be able to tackle a speaking assignment and organize it into a smooth, logical, and effective communications opportunity. Succeeding chapters will deal with the physical side of the speaking as signment: gestures, body language, use of audiovisual mate rial, and humor. THE ART OF ASKING QUESTIONS Have you ever considered that the first statement ever uttered in the Garden of Eden might have been a question As in, "Eve, would you like an apple" (Figure 4). Figure 4 Mankind's first question DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 28 In business, the art of asking questions—especially the right questions—is respected, almost revered. There's much truth in the phrase "There are no dumb questions, only dumb answers." One CEO confessed to me that, when taking on new business assignments or projects, he would begin with this thought: "I not only don't know the answers yet, I'm not sure I even know all the necessary questions." You do not have to search very far to find examples of the power of good questions: The time was Fall 1988. It was the third and crucial nationally televised debate between Presidential candidates George Bush and Michael Dukakis. Less than a minute into the debate, Cable News Network anchorman Bernard Shaw opened with a brutal question that many political analysts believe helped determine the outcome of the election. Shaw asked: "Governor Dukakis, if Kitty Dukakis were raped and murdered, would you favor an irrevocable death penalty for the killer" Dukakis paused and, in a careful and objective manner, replied that he hoped justice would prevail. His answer made him ap pear cold and emotionless, upholding an image Democrats wanted him to shed. It may have been the single turning point in the presidential campaign. Another example of the critical role of questions occurs every day in American courtrooms. Trial lawyers are trained and drilled on the use of questions. They are taught, "Never ask a question of a witness where you are uncertain of the answer." In other words, ask only those questions that will support your case. Avoid surprises. Turning from courtrooms to business boardrooms, where surprises are also an anathema, the executive who is adept at asking good questions is a wise and usually effective manager. As I think back on 35 years in business, the two most able executives I ever worked for shared two admirable qualities: they were both good listeners, excellent listeners, in fact; and they both knew how to ask good questions. Through their questioning, they could drill right to the marrow of a subject. And, best of all, their questions would not reveal their ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 29 particular biases or where they were heading in a discussion. Some of my colleagues, trying to interpret where these men were going with their questions, would often misjudge, try to jump aboard the boss's wagon, and find it heading in a differ ent direction, leaving them sitting in the dust. Whether you sell ideas or products, the process of selling has been described as the art of asking the right questions. Sales trainers and counselors teach that the purest form of selling occurs when the customer convinces himself or herself of the need to purchase the product or service. How By the salesperson's asking a series of the right questions, which either elicit information that he or she can use to show how the product fills a need perfectly, or questions that steer the customer toward that same conclusion. Here's a simple demonstration, a card trick that you can teach your children, but a trick that also demonstrates how the right questions can cause your audience to arrive at ex actly the conclusion you want. The Trick The presenter stands before an audience, exhibits a deck of cards, shuffles them, and then holds the cards behind his or her back while asking these questions: "There are, of course, four suits in a deck of cards. What are two of them" (Someone replies, "Spades and diamonds.") "OK. Which of those two do you prefer" (Someone answers, "Spades.") "That leaves diamonds. What are three cards within the dia mond suit" (Reply: "King, Jack, Queen.") "What are three more" (Reply: "Ace, two, three.") "What are three more" (Reply: "Four, five, six.") "Select two from the four, five, and six." (Reply: "Five and six.") "That leaves the four of diamonds, doesn't it How many cards do you want me to draw from behind my back before I come out with the four of diamonds" 30 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING (Someone replies, "Six." The presenter draws six cards from his or her back and then, eureka magically produces the four of diamonds.) My father taught me that card trick when I was seven years old, so, as you probably suspected, the solution is not difficult. The Solution As you shuffle the deck in front of the audience, you surrepti tiously note the bottom card before putting the deck behind your back. In the preceding illustration—and here's the whole solution—that card was the four of diamonds. Through simple but adroit questions, you steer the audience to the conclusion you wanted all along: the four of diamonds. Now, knowing that your whole object is to steer the audience to the four of diamonds, here's how the right series of ques tions can accomplish exactly that. When you ask "Name two of the four suits," if they reply, "Spades and diamonds" (as they did in the preceding illustra tion), fine, you are right on track. But, if they happen to say "Spades and clubs," your response is "That leaves hearts and diamonds, doesn't it" (Once again, a question.) Naturally, your audience agrees. Ask them to choose either hearts or diamonds. If they say "Diamonds" you're OK, but if they reply "Hearts," you say, "So that leaves diamonds, correct" The same process applies right through the trick: "Name three cards in diamonds." If they name "King, Queen, Jack," just ask for three more . . . until they hit the desired four of diamonds. You know that the card at the bottom of the deck behind your back is the four of diamonds, so you simply draw the excess cards from the top and then, finally, produce the diamond four after the number the audience has decreed. Simple All tricks are, once we know the answers. But th e message here is more profound: Learn to ask the right ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 31 questions to guide the audience to the desired conclusion or the product. WHAT ARE THE SIX MAGIC QUESTIONS In the field of communication, the true professionals are jour nalists. They are trained to observe, ask questions, organize the results, and put them into words. "Good writing is clear thinking made visible" is one injunction in journalism. The very first lesson budding journalists learn involves the Six Magic Questions: Who What When Where Why How "Oh, that's nothing new," you say. "I knew those all along." Of course you did. But now that you are reminded of them, memorize them and begin to. use them. Start using these six questions regularly when composing business let ters, memos, reports, and especially when preparing for your businessspeaking occasions. You will become a modernday Moses, delivering that Eleventh Commandment for business: "Thou Shalt Inform." Let's put this proposition to a test. How do those Six Magic Questions inform effectively The follow ing is the first paragraph of a typical news story from a daily paper. MANILA, Philippines—Philippine jets and helicopters today blasted suspected military rebels battling President Corazon Aquino's forces for a second day in the strongest bid yet to topple her administration. In journalistic terms, this is called the "lead," or the "lead paragraph" to a story. The purpose of the lead is to give the reader, right at the outset, the maximum amount of information in the shortest possible space. Let's see if the writer of the lead for this news story answered each of the questions: DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 32 QUESTION ANSWER Who . . . rebels battling president Corazon Aquino's forces. What . . . blasted . . . rebels When .' . . today . . . Where Manila Why .. . to topple her administration. How . . . jets and helicopters . . . In a lead of just 27 words, the writer of the news story was able to answer all six questions and effectively inform the reader exactly what had happened that day in Manila. A jour nalist would continue the story by expanding on each of these pivotal points. Picture a pyramid: The lead is the tip, and each succeeding paragraph is a supporting layer of blocks. With this lesson now in mind, you can begin to read your daily newspaper more effectively. As you scan your paper, read only the lead paragraph of each news story. From there, you can decide if you want to spend the time to read the rest of the article, which will only amplify that lead paragraph. You should know, however, that this rule does not apply to newspaper feature stories. It applies only to straight news stories. Feature stories are a different form of writing be cause they usually pertain to human interest subjects and are more anecdotal, whereas a news story is relating specific in formation about a specific event. We digress into newspapers, lead paragraphs, and meth ods for reading your daily paper more effectively because this exercise provides important evidence that answering the Six Questions is the most effective single way to inform people on any subject. (Note that we have dropped the word "Magic" because, in truth, it really isn't magic anymore .. . it is just good common sense.) Remember the lesson to be found in your daily news paper: ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 33 Most business presentations are intended to inform. If your objective is to inform your audience, you should assure that your material is organized so as to answer the Six Questions: Who, What, When, Where, Why and How. How many business meetings do you attend each week One consulting firm in business communication conducted a nationwide survey of almost 500 companies and learned that executives in those companies were attending more and more meetings, and liking them less. More than 70 percent of the respondents labeled the meetings "a waste of time," and 89 percent said the meetings "lacked advance planning and organization." You can avoid these criticisms by organizing your mate rial properly. Borrow from the journalists and other writers. Ask yourself good questions about your topic. Do your re search. Then make certain your presentation provides an swers to the six basic questions you've now memorized. From crucial questions, we now turn to critical parts. There are four basic, fundamental parts to every business presentation. THE FOUR PARTS TO EVERY BUSINESS PRESENTATION A familiar quotation in public speaking is from an unknown country preacher who said: "How do I organize a good ser mon Very simple. I start by telling 'em what I'm going to tell 'em. Then, I tell 'em. Then, I tell 'em what I told 'em." Good advice. The preacher's homespun logic applies to business presentations, also. We'll come back to those wise words later. The four parts of any business presentation have simple, innocentsounding names, but each one could deserve a sepa rate textbook: • The Headliner. • The Middle. • The Opening. • The Closer. 34 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING You should organize your remarks into these four basic compartments no matter what the occasion in business speak ing (Figure 5). The Head liner Think of a headline in a newspaper. Are you aware that there are specialists, artisans in every newspaper room, who are Figure 5 There are four parts to every business presentation. ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 35 absolute masters in arranging just the right words in the smallest spaces Using a halfdozen words or less, these head line writers capture the essence of a complex event that may take a thousand words to describe or explain in detail. Like most artists, they learn it through constant practice. So it is with business public speaking. James R. Peter son, former president of Pillsbury and later executive vice president of R. J. Reynolds, says he begins preparing for every speaking occasion by asking, "What is my headline" This headline is not the title of your presentation, but it is a short description of your whole objective for the presentation, as in the following example. The marketing vicepresident of a huge consumer goods com pany offers this reallife experience: "For many years, we cus tomarily equipped our sales representatives with beautifully printed and crafted portfolios containing the current seasonal program. Our salespeople were supposed to visit the head buyers at each of their accounts and go through the portfolio, often page by page. But if you've ever been in a buyer's office, you know that it is often small and cluttered and the buyer is impatient and harried. We learned that more and more of them would just brush aside our beautiful portfolio and demand that the salesperson 'Just tell me what the basic program is.'" Using this example, how do you, the business speaker, develop your "headline" How do you determine that "basic" message You begin by taking the lessons from Chapter 1 (know your subject, believe in it, and practice) and combine it with the lesson of the first part of this chapter: Be sure to answer Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How. Now ask yourself: "What is the 'headline' for my presen tation What phrase, thought, or conclusion do I want my audience to hear, to absorb, and to take away with them" Let's use that example again from Chapter 1 where you must address all your employees to urge them to donate blood when the community bloodmobile visits your office. In this DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 36 case, your headline might be along these lines: "I want my audience to clearly understand that giving blood is quick, easy, virtually painless, and a wonderful humanitarian act. Marketing counselor David L. Weiner puts it this way: "You have a message. It is important. You want every member of your audience to leave the room with that message clearly in his or her head. Now, ask yourself—what is my message, stated in the shortest possible sentence or paragraph" Brevity is important: If you cannot synthesize or boil down your message into a single, elementary statement . . . how can you expect your audience to leave the room with it firmly fixed in mind Charles Osgood, TV anchor on CBS, confesses that he often writes the last line of a speech first. Since the last thing you say is what your audience is most likely to remember, that should be your basic message. The CEO for a giant Midwestern firm prefers to think in terms of a "magic pill." He says, "When I want to communi cate something to my audience, I think how nice it would be if I could simply encapsulate my message into a small pill. Then I think of having my audiences swallow the pill and instantly absorb and comprehend my message. But then—and here's the challenge—I ask myself, 'Exactly what is the message I want crammed inside that particular tiny pill'" Still another trick is to imagine your business audience streaming out of the room after your speech. Suddenly, a few of these people are confronted by a researcher who says, "Quickly, in as few words as possible, what message did you receive from the presentation you just heard" Then, imagine the respondents saying, "Well, what I heard in that presenta tion is . . ." Ideally, you would hear the message in your "headline" or the ingredients of the magic pill. The headline is important not only because it ensures your audience's comprehension but also because it then be comes the spinal column for organizing the body of your ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 37 speech. Almost every other part of the speech should comple ment and support that single message. Now let's turn to those other basic parts: the opening; the middle; the closer. The Opening Roger Ailes, the top media and speech advisor to President George Bush, has advised, "In the first seven seconds (that you meet people), you shower your audience with subtle cues." Try it yourself next time you are in an audience. We all tend to size up a speaker in less time than it takes a sprinter to run once around a track. How does the speaker appear Strong Nervous Confident Eyes averted Smiling Frown ing Tall and straight Apologetic Brighteyed Slumping Clearvoiced Formal Relaxed Take consolation, though. Audiences want a speaker to succeed. They don't want you to fail, or stumble, or to be embarrassed, because audiences empathize with speakers. Audiences don't like embarrassment any more than you do. They are hoping that you will be confident, smooth, clear, and concise. The first few moments of any speech provide your op portunity to signal all those positive attributes. Just like an Olympic sprinter who gets a powerful start "out of the blocks," the opening of your presentation sets the pace for the rest of the speech. It is for this reason that it is wise to pay special attention and preparation to the opening. The standard, universal opening is "Good Day, ladies and gentlemen," usually followed by "I am glad to be here today." In highly formal situations, protocol often requires that you address each dignitary in order of importance: "Senator Johnson, Mayor, Madam President, Reverend Tompkins, ladies and gentlemen." Avoid both these openings. They are trite and boring. Instead, jump right in and surprise your audience. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Here are specific tips for your opening: • Step to the front, pause, look around at your audience, and smile. A smile is universally understood. • Then, wait a few beats, until you have the audience's attention. There is no faster way to get an audience to turn their attention to a speaker than 5 or 10 seconds of silence. This is also a good time to take a few easy, rhythmic breaths. • You should have rehearsed your first words well in advance. Use the standard "Good Morning" if neces sary, but avoid the cliches: "I'm glad to be here" or, worse yet, "A funny thing happened to me on the way here." • Another old chestnut is to begin with apologetic re marks about being "not qualified" or "not prepared." Speech writer Robert Orben writes that he always cringes when he hears those phrases. Orben says he is inclined to think, "Well, if you're not qualified or pre pared, why are you wasting my time" • American business speakers often begin a presentation with a joke or anecdote. Chapter 5 in this book deals with humor, so if you plan to open with a touch of humor, be certain to review that chapter. The opening need only take one minute, or three, or up to if necessary, but it should accomplish the following: 1. Establish you as a relaxed, likable person who sounds knowledgeable and competent. 2. Intrigue or amuse the audience. 3. Present a summar y of your message, or headline. "Tell 'em what you're gonna tell 'em." Explain the purpose of the meeting, or the purpose of your presence. ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 39 First Example One polished CEO speaker opened his presentation with this true story: I have a friend who gives speeches in Japan. He uses an inter preter. So my friend speaks a sentence or two and the in terpreter translates—back and forth. We found out later that this is wha t the Japanes e interpreter actually said: "American is beginning speech with thing called joke. (Pause) I don't know why bu t all American businesspeople apparently think it is necessary to begin speech with joke. (Pause) I won't tell you joke because you won't understand it. (Pause) He thinks I'm telling you jok e now. (Pause) Polite thing to do when he finishes is to laugh. (Pause) I'll tell you when he finishes. (Pause) He's getting close. (Pause) Now" Well, the Japanese, being such a gracious people not only laughed, but they stood up and gave my friend a standing round of applause. After the presentation, my friend approached the interpreter and said, "I have been giving speeches in this country for 10 years . . . and you ar e the first interpreter that knows how to tell a good joke" Well, this morning I a m not going to open with the stand ard business joke. Instead, my purpose here this morning is . . ." Second Example Former Governor Lee Sherman Dreyfus of Wisconsin would never travel to a city in his state for a speech without first having a member of his staff phone, several days ahead, to collect information for his opener. The staffer would spend several hours collecting tidbits of information: recent events in that city, who would be present at the event, who would be seated at the head table, problems existing in that city, who should be honored or congratulated, and so on. From this information, Dreyfus would be better prepared to craft his opening to include numerous local touches. Also, his opening 40 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING would show his audience that he knew what was happening in their community and that this was not just another canned speech. Third Example Public relations counselor Robert Williams gets his audi ence involved right from the starting gun with a "snap quiz." When he speaks to executives on the subject of political power sources, he produces a list of specialinterest groups: Bankers, big business, prolife, prochoice, teachers, physi cians, union members, and so on. Then he asks: "Which is the most powerful political force on this list" After a well timed pause, his answer is invariably a surprise to his busi ness audience. "In our state, the most powerful political force is the 27yearold, energetic teacher of your children at your local school. The reason Because he or she is part of a 48,000member teachers' union who all volunteer to stuff envelopes, knock on doors, and become educated on the is sues." It is, first, the involvement of his audience and, sec ond, the surprise answer that provide Williams with his unique opener. Work hard on the opener. Don't read it from a prepared text. Try it out first on friends and family. Say it aloud pri vately over and over again until you can repeat it smoothly, only glancing at a note or two if necessary. Make certain it achieves the preceding objectives. The Middle Probably the greatest orator of this century was Sir Winston Churchill. In his biographies, we are told that Churchill's rule of thum b was one hour of work and preparation for every one minute of a speech. Churchill's messages rank with the most important in this century. He knew that the "Middle" of any spoken ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 41 presentation is the true heart of the message. This is the very reason you are standing in front of the audience: to deliver information or inspiration or to seek a decision. Thomas Russo manages a successful investment firm in New York City, and each week he finds himself addressing audiences of highly placed business executives. "My formula," Russo says, "is to have four basic points—no more than that. My Harvard Business School professor taught me that, and over the years I've found that he was absolutely right. An audi ence can usually only assimilate four points, not many more. So they become the allimportant middle part of my talks. I have an opener, a closer and in the middle I have my four points." If your mission is to inform, the middle is where you impart the answers to the Six Magic Questions. To prepare for the middle, do the following: • List the key points you have assembled for your message. • Arrange the points in logical order. Remember in school when you learned how to make a written out line You had major headings designated by Roman nu merals, and subpoints under each heading. Do the same thing here. Or, try drafting a table of contents for your speech. • Check your notes to make absolutely certain your out line conveys your headline. • Go back over your outline and begin to expand me thodically and explain each key point. Use examples, stories, and images to fortify each point. Don't be afraid to repeat a point by using different examples or anecdotes. Now begin thinking about another important element in the middle: transitions—statements that help you carry the DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 42 audience smoothly from one major point in your outline to the next. Transition statements, as in the following example, are also extremely useful in reminding the audience where you are in your outline. Now that we have learned what blood plasma is and how it is used to save lives, let us turn to this matter of actually giving the blood. I want to describe now exactly what happens when you enter the bloodmobile so that you will understand that this wonderful act of giving can be virtually painless . . . actually enjoyable. Did you spot the good preacher's advice to "Tell 'em what you told 'em" Transition statements are extremely important in spo ken presentations. In a written text, the eye can quickly jump backward to remind the reader of earlier points, but an audi ence cannot do that as easily with the spoken word. There fore, you, the speaker, must constantly remind the audience where you are in your outline. If the headline is the spinal column of your presentation, then the middle is flesh and bone. The audience now begins to see the body of your message. The Closing You have now reached the last few moments of your presenta tion: the finale. In the theater, you always save your best for last. In musi cals, for example, this means saving the most outstanding mu sic or dance number for the finale. In dramas, the last act deliv ers the climax or the memorable concluding lines or messages. The reason for finales and climaxes is so that the audi ence leaves the theater with strong, positive memories. Play wrights and producers want playgoers turning to one another ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 43 as they file out the doors murmuring, "Wasn't that wonder ful" So it is with a speech. In the closing, it is always wise to summarize. Quickly summarize the key points of your whole presentation using a few memorable words or phrases. Try to close your speech with a "doozie." That's the same as having an ace in your hip pocket (Figure 6). It's your best Figure 6 Keep an "ace" in your hip pocket for the closer. DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 44 line, your most dramatic point, your most profound thought, your most memorable bit of information, or your best anec dote—but only if it supports and strengthens your headline. Playing that ace at the right moment will make you a winner. As with the opening, work hard on the closing. Practice it aloud, over and over again. Be able to repeat it smoothly, without stumbling. Never mind that you may not say it pre cisely the same way each time—you don't want it to sound stilted. Instead, just make sure that the message, the empha sis, and your sincerity are all present. Many speakers make the mistake of "swallowing" the last few words of a speech: Be absolutely certain that your last few words are delivered slowly, clearly, and with conviction. After you've delivered your "doozie," look at the audi ence, smile again . . . and sit down. TIMING A SPEECH "There is no such thing as a 5minute speech," many profes sional meeting planners and managers frequently lament, frustrated with speakers who are asked to make a 5, 10, 15, or even 30minute presentation, and who invariably take longer. The reason for this common complaint is that many busi ness speakers don't organize and practice their speeches and just don't take the effort to time their remarks in advance, thus losing track of time. If you wish to stand above the crowd, you will, while practicing and rehearsing, glance at a clock or watch and observe how many minutes it takes you to complete the presentation. Some experienced speakers actually consider it a blessing if, while rehearsing, they find their speeches slightly longer than the allotted time. "That forces me to cut out weak and superfluous parts," one of them confided. "It also boosts my confidence, because when the time comes to deliver my ORGANIZATION OF BUSINESS SPEECHES 45 talk, I realize I am delivering the best parts of my research and preparation." Here is another trick concerning timing: Luxury cruise ships often engage what they call "enrichment lecturers" to provide programs for passengers. During a cruise, one of these speakers, a retired businessman, became acquainted with a professional comedian who was part of the ship's entertainment staff. The businessman asked the come dian to observe his lecture and offer constructive comments on how to improve style, delivery, posture, and so on. After the first lecture, the professional said: "You were fine, but I have one suggestion for you. I noticed that you frequently looked at your watch. Now, I realize you probably did that because you did not want to go beyond your allotted time. However, it's a proven piece of crowd psychology that when a speaker glances at his watch, many in the audience do likewise. This becomes both an interruption and a distrac tion. The audience becomes aware of the time elapsed when they should be concentrating fully on the speaker's remarks." The lesson here is to avoid looking at your watch. In stead, place your wristwatch on the lectern in advance. Or, better yet, observe a clock in the back of the room. If you're very lucky, the lectern will be equipped with a digital clock. If you have been assigned 20 minutes for your talk, note the exact time as you arrive at the lectern and tell yourself "OK It is 1:15 PM now. I must finish when the clock says 1:35." In this way, when the clock reads "1:30" you will say to your self, "I've got 5 minutes. I should be nearing my conclusion about now." Being sensitive and conscientious about timing is a boon to everyone: The meeting organizers will love you, the audi ence will stay interested and not become restless, and because you have taken the time and effort to organize, practice, and time your talk, you will be more confident and effective. 3 To Read, or Not to Read ". . . the written word and the spoken word are by no means the same . . ." Norman Thomas 47 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 48 .Leggy Noonan is a professional speech writer who has writ ten speeches for both former President Reagan and President Bush. She is credited with providing the phrases "Read my lips" and "A kinder, gentler nation," which became synony mous with President Bush in the first two years of his admin istration. The very existence of speech writers like Noonan causes many businesspeople to think that if they just hire a good speech writer, they will become memorable speechmakers overnight. Unfortunately, that assumption is dead wrong. Speech writers are valuable both in politics and in busi ness. They can capture abstract ideas and put them into prac tical language. But they cannot make their clients great, or even good, business speakers. In fact, many speech consultants suggest that if at all possible, avoid reading a speech. "What" you exclaim. "What about the President of the United States What about all those people you see on TV at the United Nations What about the Annual Stockholders' Meeting My CEO always has a prepared text that she care fully reads word for word. If there is that corps of hotshot speech writers who do nothing but write speeches, a lot of important people must read them. Why isn't this a good idea" WRITING FOR THE EAR The answer is that there is a distinct difference between writing for the eye and writing for the ear. Professionals who write for the print media—authors, journalists, poets, speech writers—know that writing for radio or television requires a completely different style. TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 49 Here's why: • Printed words allow the eye and mind to do the work. Readers can refer back to an earlier sentence, skim ahead for key points, and retreat to read a complex passage. • But the ear hears only one word at a time. The listener is at the mercy of the speaker, who doles out words like puffs of smoke (Figure 7). • Information we obtain through reading and listening is stored in our memories differently. In printed ma terial, the eye and mind can jump from passage to Figure 7 An audience only hears one word at a time—then the words disappear into the air. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 50 passage, and then circle back and review. With the spo ken word, the memory can retain only bits and pieces of information, moving forward without an opportu nity to review, and therefore the listener often has trouble recalling what was said a few moments earlier. • As a result, writers who write for the ear quickly learn to use shorter sentences, active verbs, and simple grammar and syntax. They also learn to repeat basic thoughts, cloaking them in analogies or anecdotes to make a more memorable impression. They avoid words that are difficult to pronounce, obscure words, or phrases that do not flow easily off the tongue. • Another difference is that we can read with the eye considerably faster than we speak. The average speaker talks at a rate of 100 to 120 words a minute. We can read and think at a rate of about 800 words a minute, while we can listen at a top rate of 400 words a minute. So, as speakers talk, a listener's mind is racing up, down, and around, and occasionally coming back to absorb the speech. Even the most exciting speaker won't hold everyone's complete attention: It is estimated that people listen intently for only 3 seconds out of each 10 second segment while their minds wander for the other seven seconds (Figure 8). • Truly accomplished speech writers provide a rhythm and pace and lilt to their language. They can employ special word devices such as "parallelisms," a favorite technique of the late President John F. Kennedy, who offered one of the most legendary parallelisms in his inaugural speech: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask, instead, what you can do for your country." Ms. Noonan was a skilled speech writer because she knew and practiced these principles. In her book, What I Saw TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 51 Figure 8 People listen for only 3 of every 10 seconds, while the mind wanders for the remaining 7. at the Revolution: A Political Life in the Reagan Era, (Random House, New York, 1990), Noonan said: "I began my career writing for the ear. I learned how to write for broadcast, how to be conversational and catch the listener's attention, how to try to sum up a situation with a good, true line." Such speech writers try to enter the persona of the per son they're writing for. Speech writers are first and foremost DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 52 professional listeners. Then they translate their client's speak ing style into written words. Most businesspeople are not experienced in writing for the ear; in their daily letters, memos, and reports, they are accustomed to writing only for the eye. As a result, they are inexperienced and illequipped to write for the ear, as professional speech writers can do. This is the first reason people in business should not write out a speech and then read it verbatim to an audience. THE ART OF READING ALOUD The second argument for not reading a speech is that most business executives have never had training in how to read aloud. • When reading to an audience, eye contact is limited. (We'll learn more about the importance of eye contact in Chapter 4.) • When reading aloud, it's easy to stumble over words and run the risk of getting lost in the text. Pages can also get mixed up, and you can become easily flustered trying to get back on track. • Reading aloud often sounds monotonous unless the speaker has practiced pacing, rhythm, modulation, and emphasizing the nouns and active verbs in a sentence. • Good, experienced readers sound as if they are talking to the audience, not reading. You can see this skill in action every evening: Watch the national news anchors deliver the evening news, and remind yourself that they are reading from a teleprompter. Peter Jennings, news anchor on ABC, is reputed to be the best of these pro fessionals. Watch him to observe how natural he is, even though he is reading every word. TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 53 I learned this lesson firsthand when I worked at a local radio station in high school and college, and also as a writer and announcer for a weekly national network radio show in Chicago. I learned there is an art to reading words aloud and making them sound natural, interesting, and convincing. Famed sportscaster Red Barber confessed he always pre tended he was in the hallway talking to just one person rather than reading sporting news to hundreds of thousands of peo ple across the United States. Radio announcers also learn certain disciplines early in their careers that businesspeople rarely consider. For in stance, announcers must never go back and repeat a muffed phrase. The reason is that it just calls more attention to the mistake. I learned that the hard way when reading a commer cial for swim trunks: "Be sure to get your smart fighter trunks at Anderson's clothing store." But I got the words "smart fighter" mixed up, transposing the sounds of the first letters. I said "fart smighter" and then realized frantically "That didn't sound right" In my inexperience I then committed the cardi nal sin: I repeated the mistake. Finally realizing what I had said—twice—I blurted out "Oh, I mean 'smart fighter' trunks," which caused our listeners to realize exactly what I had said the first two times around. The telephone complaints, and the laughs that followed, quickly proved to me that there is an art to reading a prepared text aloud that most people lack. IS IT FAIR TO YOUR AUDIENCE The third argument for not reading a speech is probably the most compelling of all. It goes back to the two keys to making successful speeches: Know your subject, and believe in your subject. Reading a speech can imply to your audience that you don't truly know your subject. Clarence B. Randall, the late chairman of Inland Steel Corp., a powerful and popular business public speaker, DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 54 argued that reading a speech verbatim was tantamount to insulting your audience. He claimed that if you didn't know your subject well enough to stand up and "give it to 'em right from the shoulder," then you shouldn't be up on a platform in the first place. Others argue that the speaker who feels he or she must read an entire speech might be better advised to simply hand out the written text and let the audience read it quietly and at their leisure. Can you imagine a professional salesperson sitting down in front of a customer and reading his or her sales pitch The salesperson might say, "Oh, you interrupted me. Now I've lost my place." Next time you attend a meeting with multiple speakers, compare the effectiveness of one speaker who reads a pre pared text with another speaker who stands up and talks to you, the audience. Which speaker is most enjoyable to listen to Which is more believable Who is more motivating and inspirational Sometimes, with highly complex subjects, it is neces sary to arm the audience with charts or tables of figures. In ordinary presentations, however, it is deadly to distribute materials or the text of a speech in advance. When that is done, the average person in the audience naturally starts scanning the text, flipping pages, and sprints well ahead of the speaker's slower, spoken words. These are all the arguments for not reading a speech. But there are exceptions. WHEN TO READ A SPEECH There are, obviously, occasions that justify reading a speech verbatim. Here are some of them. • When your words must be absolutely correct or ac curate, and you cannot possibly risk an accidental TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 55 misstatement. Such occasions might be when you are responding to lawsuits, commenting on potentially ex plosive subjects, or making a statement to the media and don't want to risk being misquoted. Melvin R. Laird was a Republican congressman from Wisconsin, majority leader, and later Secretary of De fense. When he campaigned for office, he never read a speech—his style was friendly, direct, and conversa tional. As Secretary of Defense, he was required to read his speeches; but during the question and answer ses sions, he came alive again and, because of his earlier training, spoke extemporaneously handling questions su perbly. In fact, when Laird retired, the press corps pre sented him with a gold football standing on a wooden platform. The inscription read: "Mel Laird 239—Capital Press Corps 0." The significance was that in 239 press briefings, the reporters had never once caught him un prepared, lying, or fudging. He knew his subject, was prepared, and years of practice paid off. • Another occasion that often requires reading from a prepared script is the presentation of slides, transpar encies, or other visual aids when another person is con trolling the projection equipment. Then, obviously, both the speaker and the aide must operate from a writ ten script. Even this can be circumvented, however, by the use of a "clicker" or some other signal to indicate the operator should move to the next slide. • Finally, a third situation that may dictate the use of a written text is when time and pressure simply do not allow for rehearsals or advanced preparation; or when you must present several different speeches in one day to different audiences. Since 1986,1 have had the privilege of serving as a part time, dollarayear advisor to the governor of Wisconsin. As part of my duties, I contribute ideas or phrases or com plete texts for speeches. Our governor usually works from a DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 56 prepared written text, for several reasons: (1) He may speak several times each day on different subjects to different audi ences, (2) he cannot afford to be misquoted, and (3) he wants the media to have a written record of his comments. In his case, through years of accumulated experience, he has be come an accomplished reader. But he admits he feels more comfortable and more effective when he can depart from reading a text and speak directly from his mind and heart. If you absolutely must read your speech, here are some tips to help you be more effective. 1. Always practice reading the speech aloud. Try to prac tice in a setting similar to the actual setting of your proposed speech. For example, if you will be using a podium and lectern, then practice standing and read ing from a podium. (This is an especially important tip if you wear bifocal glasses because some lecterns are positioned at a height just out of focus of your lens.) If you will be appearing in a large room, prac tice in a large room. If you will be using a micro phone, practice speaking into a microphone so you can become acquainted with the amplified sound of your voice. 2. Keep as much eye contact with your audience as possi ble. When you look up from the text, don't look just straight ahead; make eye contact with the people on the left, on the right, and in the center. If you have read the text aloud over and over again, looking up will be come much easier. Maintaining eye contact is also eas ier if you use short sentences and paragraphs. Also, as you read, practice jumping ahead with your eyes to read the end of a sentence, which is usually the most important part of the thought. Then, while looking up at your audience, say those words. 3. Listen to radio and TV announcers, especially news casters. They are professional readers. Listen to how TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 57 they use inflections, pauses, and modulation. Note that they sound as if they are talking, even chatting, with you. Newscasters use pauses as a form of punctuation to add emphasis. They also have excellent enunciation and articulation. The untrained reader/speaker usu ally lacks many of these traits. We also tend to read every word instead of using contractions, as we do when we talk. For example, the script might read "they are"; but when talking, we'd say "they're." As a result, when reading aloud, most of us tend to sound stilted instead of relaxed. Novice radio announcers learn to read effectively by pretending they're having a conver sation with just one person instead of reading into a microphone to hundreds or even thousands of people. 4. Prepare your written text in the following format: • Use large type and double or triplespaced lines. • Use short sentences and short paragraphs. • Repeat important thoughts often. • Use a threering binder instead of loose pages that can become shuffled and mixed. An alternative is to use cards: The 5inch by 7inch cards are a popular size. The advantage of cards is that they are firmer than paper and make less noise when shifted around. • Leave plenty of white space at the bottom of each page or card to help you keep your head and eyes up, looking out toward the audience as much as possible. • Leave extra white space on the lefthand margin of the page as well. That way, if you are not using a threering binder, you can slide the top page to the left and quickly move your eyes to the top of the next page. • Use a wide lefthand margin to write short re minders to yourself such as "Slow down here" or "Smile" or "Strong emphasis here." DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 58 5. Allow your voice to rise and fall to provide variety, and slow down when you want to emphasize a point. 6. Don't forget to smile. 7. When drafting a written speech, follow the same rules for organization as for any other speech: the Six Magic Questions plus the Four Basic Parts. 8. Finally, don't forget the key lessons in Chapter 1: • Know your subject. • Believe in it. • Practice, practice, practice. • Turn to your friend the video camera to practice your delivery and especially to assure good eye con tact with your audience. An alternative to reading a speech would be to memorize it. I would suggest you avoid trying this unless you have an absolute failsafe memory. With memorization, you run the risk of forgetting part of your speech and finding yourself staring at a room of confused people. If reading a speech is at one end of the spectrum and memorization is at the other, and both are to be avoided, what lies in the middle TIPS ON USING NOTES The obvious and preferred middle ground between memoriz ing and reading is to prepare notes (Figure 9). Why are notes preferred over a full, written text or over memorization There are several reasons: • You want to be able to step before an audience with confidence and present a well prepared, well prac ticed, memorable speech. The skilled speaker should be able to talk than read his or her speech. Keeping a TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 59 Figure 9 Take only a few, wellprepared notes to the lectern. short set of notes can be like buying an insurance pol icy to help you succeed. • Notes help you remember all the parts of the speech you spent so much time preparing. Even the most pol ished speakers can have memory lapses. I once at tended a "Speaker's Showcase" sponsored by a state association of speakers. The purpose of the showcase was to allow a parade of professional speakers to "audition" or demonstrate their services before an au dience of meeting and program managers. One of the speakers was sailing along smoothly when she sud denly stopped smack in the middle of her presentation. She went "blank": that most dreaded of all speakers' nightmares. The poor woman almost dissolved into a puddle. If she had discreetly placed a short outline or a small set of cards somewhere nearby as a refuge, she might have avoided this calamity. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 60 • Written notes are memory joggers, confidence builders, and a "security blanket" all in one. They help you display the relaxed confidence and competence that is vital to a skilled speaker. They allow you to maintain good eye contact with your audience, and in crease your sincerity and believability. How should notes be organized I have surveyed dozens of speakers with this question and the conclusion is this: It depends entirely on the personal preferences and whims of the speaker; there is no single pre ferred format. Here are some ideas you may want to adapt to suit your own speaking style. Former Wisconsin Governor Lee Sherman Dreyfus, who is now a fulltime professional speaker, prefers 3inch by 5inch cards on which he writes or types short phrases or thoughts. One card may represent two to five minutes of speaking. In his case, his notes are memory keys that unlock the door to a familiar and wellpracticed anecdote or to a series of ideas. The cards might contain a quotation or an abbreviated paragraph, or even a single word. These short bites of information can keep you from sounding stilted or unnatural, as reading complete sentences often does. This technique also forces you to look up and out at the audience. Another advantage to Dreyfus's system is that he can shuffle the cards around, changing the order or inserting new ones, depending on the audience and the message he wishes to convey at that time. Another speaker I interviewed prepares a broad outline of his talk in largesize type. "I keep the headings short— sometimes just a word or two—so that all I have to do is glance at them and they'll unleash the longer passage of words I want to present," he explained. "An outline like that does two things for me. First, it assures I'll move logically from point to point; in other words, that my presentation is organized. And second, I know that I'll avoid 'going blank' TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 61 right in the middle because if I should become temporarily lost, all I do is glance down and quickly find my place." Herbert J. Grover, State Superintendent of Public In struction for Wisconsin, prefers a less formal format. He sim ply carries a handful of news clippings, notes, cards, and other assorted records to the podium with him. By following the sequence of his assorted collection of notes, he is able to move smoothly from point to point in his presentation. He needs no other reminders. For my own speeches, I use handwritten outlines, with the "key word" technique. I also use different colored inks to help me differentiate one point from the next. I always write my outlines by hand because, first, taking the time to care fully write down each key word and phrase also helps further implant the message in my mind. Second, the different col ored inks allow my eye to quickly locate the major blocks in my outline. I also use key phrases and never write out com plete sentences. For example, one afterdinner speech I present around the country is based on a guide to international behavior I wrote called Do's and Taboos Around the World (John Wiley Sons, New York, 1990). The following is my message, or head line: To succeed in international business, American business people must be more sensitive and aware of the different behav ior and protocol around the world. Here are my actual notes for the opening of that speech: • Dais • Savoirfaire • "Very American" • Japanese interpreter • Our topic today In actual presentation, these nine written words repre sent about four minutes of verbalization. They also represent 62 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING hour s of preparation and practice so the speech can be pre sented in a relaxed manner. For me these few notes are also sufficient to instill confidence that I won't stumble or falter or forget exactly what I wan t to say. Wha t do those words represent Here's how those few notes translate into spoken words: "Thank you, Let me say at the outset that I am very leery of this arrangement up here. I don't like these platforms that many hotels provide . . . you know, they're called a dais. I spoke in Buffalo, New York, two months ago where we were seated on a raised dais like this. The presenter gave me a very nice introduction, turned to me, and said, "And now here is our speaker, Roger Axtell." I buttoned my coat, pushed my chair back and fell backward right off the dais. I looked like Greg Louganis doing a complete backward oneandahalf somersault. Well . . . the others on the dais rushed to my aid and I could hear the audience gasping—and laughing—but I'll be honest with you. All I could think was "My gosh, now I've got to get up and talk to this bunch." (This is a true story, incidentally. Because it's true, it's easy for me to remember and relate it. More on that subject in the chapter on Humor.) (I then explain that if I'd been a polished speaker, I would have quickly recovered, brushed myself off, and simply said to the audience, "Well . . . how do you like me so far" But, I add, I didn't have that savoirfaire so prized in business around the world.) (This transition allows me to tell another true story about the definition of the term savoirfaire, a story that I have prac ticed and know audiences enjoy.) (After that story, I then explain:) What I have just done here in the past few moments is something peculiar to American business . . . very Ameri can. (I then tell the story about the Japanese interpreter for an American speaker in Japan. We American businesspeople have our own set of customs and behavior, such as always beginning a speech with a joke, and we forget that our cus toms are not shared by other business groups around the world. See page 39 for the full version of this story.) TO READ, OR NOT TO READ 63 (That consists of my opening. I have told three, true, amusing stories and also explained to the audience what the topic of the speech is about.) (The next "block" of notes in my outline is written in an other ink color. In my case, the new color tells me that I've finished the opening and now am moving to the middle.) Remember that this is just one way of preparing notes. You'll develop your own style—the one that works best for you—as you make more and more speeches. Getting Physical Delivery is more mportant than content." Arch Lustberg, speech trainer. 65 66 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Oixt y percent of our communication is nonverbal, according to wellknown social anthropologist Edward T. Hall. That means whenever we stand before an audience, our stance, our posture, our facial expressions, our hand gestures, our whole body dynamic communicate more than our actual spoken words. Teacher and coach John Davies always counseled his students to remember three specific actions when speaking: "Stand up so you'll be seen. Speak up so you'll be heard. And then sit down so you'll be appreciated." A stiff, immobile speaker is often a boring and usually ineffective speaker as well. It is therefore essential to know how to be physically relaxed, which will allow your actions to complement your words. In this chapter, we will start at the top of the body with the eyes and move down: voice, gestures of hands and arms, and posture. We will also examine other aspects of this physi cal side to speaking: how to make the microphone and lectern your allies, and how to turn the entire physical arrangement of the room into an asset instead of a liability. First, two important definitions: A podium is the raised platform at the front of the room where speakers stand to deliver presentations; it is also called the dais (pronounced dayus). The stand used to hold notes is called the lectern. A lectern can be a short stand placed atop a table, or it can be a freestanding unit with a light, microphone, and sometimes a clock attached. The terms podium and lectern are often interchanged and misused, and for that reason, the skilled speechmaker should know this distinction. GETTING PHYSICAL 67 THE EYES Within many cultures around the world, it is believed that the eyes are the windows to the soul. In public speaking, since we usually want to arouse both spirit and soul, the eyes become the most important physical equipment of all. Start by thinking about oneonone conversations. Have you ever conversed with someone who kept looking away con stantly, avoiding eye contact This behavior often illustrates discomfort or dishonesty. Conversely, the person who main tains good eye contact is displaying sincerity, attention, and respect. The single most important physical action in public speaking is to have direct eye contact with your audience (Fig ure 10). Some instruction booklets on public speaking suggest you can avoid nervousness by looking out over the heads of your audience. That may relieve nervousness, but how would you feel if you were conversing with your boss or a subordinate or a customer and they kept staring at some spot just above your head This behavior becomes not only disre spectful but irritating to your audience. How can you practice and learn good eye contact To answer that question, let's refer back to the analogy used earlier in this text about learning to play the flute. You can read everything there is to know about the flute, but the only way to learn to play it is to actually do it. There fore, the only way to cultivate good eye contact is to practice doing it each time you speak. Here are some helpful tricks: • Be aggressive. When speaking, pick out a specific pair of eyes in the audience and bore right into them, for just a few seconds. Then move over to another set; do the same, and on and on. 68 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Figure 10 Good eye contact is the single most important physical action when speaking. • Don't allow your eyes to jump around helterskelter. Do it with purpose. Look left. Make a statement. Look center. Make a statement. Look right. Make a state ment. Look at eyes in the back of the room. Make a statement. • Each time your eyes move, pretend to yourself that you are talking only to that individual. I have interviewed a number of skillful business speak ers who told me that with these techniques they have been able to recapture the attention of a temporarily disinterested listener. When experienced speakers spot one person in the audience whose eyes are looking down or off at another part GETTING PHYSICAL 69 of the room, they issue a concentrated dose of words and look directly at that person. This can actually coerce the distracted listener to reestablish eyetoeye contact with the speaker. A business manager whose job is to conduct frequent tours of his factory explains his technique of gaining eye con tact (and attention): "As I look from person to person, trying to gain direct eye contact, I often spot someone—usually in the back of the group—who is not looking back at me. I find that by singling out and directing my remarks directly at that person, I often get him or her to refocus on what I a m saying." Here's another experiment to measure the level of inter est of any given audience. Position yourself at the back of a room during a series of presentations and simply watch the heads of the audiences: If they are all tilted up, looking to ward the speaker, it is usually indicates the speaker is being effective. On the other hand, if a good assortment of heads are looking downward or sideways, the speaker is losing his or her audience. (The only exception to this rule is if people in the audience are diligently taking notes.) This trick even works within a speech. When presenting dry, complex facts or statistics, odds are that the eyes and heads will stray. But, if you raise your voice, pound the lectern, or tell a story about real people and real events, the odds are that you'll turn heads back in your direction again. A good speaker communi cates with the audience with his or her eyes. THE VOICE The first person to discover he didn't like the sound of his own voice was probably Thomas Edison. When he invented the first phonograph, he heard his own historic words, "Mary had a little lamb." Like most of us, Edison was probably disap pointed because our voices sound different on a recording and we usually don't like the result. The reason is that our voices 70 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING sound better inside our heads than they do when played back on recording machines. The two important lessons here are (1) Your voice proba bly doesn't sound as bad as you think it does, and (2) if you are troubled by the sound of your voice, there are simple ways to improve its quality. Nervousness is usually the culprit affecting the quality of our voices. Voice consultant William Rush offers three easy ways to relax and thus upgrade your voice: 1. Slow Down. As with driving a car, control is easier at slower speeds. 2. Release the Upper Body. "Take a breath, rotate your shoulders, relax your neck," Rush says. All these ac tions will create more relaxed vocal chords and make your voice sound deeper and more pleasant. 3. Take Breaths from Your Stomach, Not Your Chest. Short breaths reduce vocal quality. Breathing deeply from the diaphragm allows a richer, more relaxed sound. In addition, for effective speechmaking, avoid the monotone voice. The worst vocal outpouring is a monotone. By every measurement, a flat and unvaried ribbon of sound is uninter esting and grating. It is no accident that "monotone" is the strippeddown version of "monotonous." Therefore, another way to improve your vocal delivery is to vary the pitch. Here are some hints about pitch and modulation to remember: • When we want to convey something very important and serious, we all tend to talk in a lower tone (and, inciden tally, at a slower pace.) • In ordinary conversation, we speak in the midrange between bass and treble. • And when we are excited or a little silly, our voices creep up to the higher range. GETTING PHYSICAL 71 Use these natural conversational habits in your speeches. The main goal is to vary the sound of your voice, and to have the pitch and modulation complement your delivery. Accents Do Southerners or "New Yorkers" have an advantage or disad vantage Rush's rule for answering that question is as follows: ".. . I don't mess with it unless the accent will hurt a per son's credibility or render him unintelligible. For example, when someone with a downhome accent tries to sell stocks in a metropolitan area, the accent might not help." Laughter This may surprise you, but as a speaker don't be afraid to laugh, where and when appropriate. Laughter is a wonderful sound. And it's contagious. Have you ever noticed how profes sional comedians such as Johnny Carson occasionally join in the laughter following their own jokes When a speaker laughs at the right moment it can make the audience feel good. Dry Mouth Syndrome A dry mouth obviously hinders good voice quality and is a direct result of nervousness. Here are three ways to minimize the dry mouth syndrome. First, instead of sipping cold water, which tends to tighten the vocal chords, take a hot drink in stead. Warm liquids tend to relax the throat and vocal chords. Second, try to force a yawn. Strange as it seems, yawning tends to stimulate salivary glands and relieve that terrible dryness. Third, if neither of these works, as sometimes hap pens if you are taking a medication that causes dry mouth, ask your pharmacist to supply an overthecounter liquid spray solution that creates an artificial saliva, providing tem porary relief. DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 72 GESTURES Many decades ago, in the old schools of oratory, speakers were actually drilled on how to make six or seven basic hand and arm gestures. For example, accompanying the statement "The accused sits . . . there" you envision an orator direct ing a dramatic accusatory finger at the defendant. Or, in scratchy blackandwhite films from the past, politicians may be seen smacking a fist into their palm as a means of pound ing home a point. Finally, picture a speaker with hand raised head high, index finger pointing stiffly upward and you can almost hear the words, "There is one, and only one issue at stake here." Happily, today we don't have to learn such gestures by rote. There is a much easier way. Listen, again, to the words of speech coach John Davies: If you know your subject thoroughly, and believe in it with your heart, I have good news for you. Gestures will become automatic, almost instinctive. Then, the only selftutoring you need to do is study yourself on videotape to sort out the weak gestures from the strong ones. You'll see them, don't worry. What are examples of "weak gestures" • Fiddling with your spectacles. • Playing with a pen or paper clip. • Reaching in your pocket and unconsciously jiggling the change there. • Repeatedly patting your hair, scratching your head, pulling on an ear, buttoning and unbuttoning a coat. • Frequently clearing your throat. • Using any single gesture over and over and over again. Why are these bad In a single word, they are distracting. They distract the audience's attention from your message. GETTING PHYSICAL 73 On the other hand, strong, forceful, and complementary gestures strengthen your presentation. When Lee Iacocca pounds the desk with his fist, his words take on special mean ing. When the Reverend Billy Graham points his finger at the TV camera, we get the clear message that he is speaking directly to us. Gestures should be physical actions that fit and support the words. If you harbor any doubts about the role of gestures and body language as we communicate, read the book Man watching, by Desmond Morris (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1987). Morris shows, with a variety of illustrations and ex cellent observations, how every body motion is also a signal. He also demonstrates how famous historical personalities used hand gestures just as a symphony conductor uses a ba ton to communicate to an orchestra. In short, if you speak with conviction and take the time to watch yourself on videotape, you'll be able to sort out and discard weak gestures and replace them with stronger ones. POSTURE A company CEO approaches the lectern to speak at his com pany's annual shareholders meeting. He is a tall man, so he towers over the lectern. He then places his hands and arms stiffly on either side of the lectern, hunches over his notes, and begins reading his remarks. His strong voice issues one message but although the CEO doesn't realize it, his body language strongly suggests he is hanging on to the lectern for support. Further, he hovers over his speech like a huge bird of prey covering its kill with outstretched wings. With his head down, he rarely looks up at his audience, suggesting he is not really interested in them. Advisors to this CEO will confess privately that he dreads the ritual of the annual meeting. He cannot wait to finish his DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 74 speech. To perceptive people in the audience, his posture clearly reveals all his discomfort. In contrast, observe a wellprepared CEO who is confi dent of her remarks and is anxious to tell her story. She walks to the front of the room, smiles at her audience, and with a relaxed manner begins her comments. Her posture will usu ally reflect all these attributes. The video camera will reveal if you are guilty of any of the following postural taboos: • Slouching or hunching over the lectern. • Repeatedly bouncing on your toes or rocking back on your heels. • Keeping head and eyes down, rarely looking up. • Clenching hands tightly together. Some speakers employ a special walking technique. Try walking a few feet away from the lectern to address one side of the audience; then walk to the other side to make another point. This walking movement brings you closer to the audi ence, provides visual variety for them, and is also a physical way to signal a relaxed transition from one point to the next. Here's how it might work: (You are delivering a speech on the merits of donating blood, standing in the middle of the stage, with or without a lectern, and you say) "Giving blood can be a very satisfying and re warding act that is really simple and painless at the same time." (Now, turn to the right, walk a few paces in that direction, and say) "Knowing that you've perhaps saved the life of an other human can warm your own heart over and over again. It's probably one of the most humanitarian acts you can do in your daily lives." (Then, turn back to the left, take a few steps, and address these remarks to the people on your left) "And the time it takes is only minutes—less than an hour. Furthermore, your friends GETTING PHYSICAL 75 and colleagues who have donated blood before will be the first to tell you that it is really quite simple and painless . . . actually enjoyable." This walking technique helps insert your whole body into your presentation and can be developed with a little practice. It requires good timing and must be practiced carefully so that it looks natural, but it can be an effective way to use your body to punctuate and underscore your remarks. THE LECTERN AND MICROPHONE The average speaker ascends a dais, moves to the lectern, taps or adjusts the microphone, clears the throat, and then re mains rooted there for the rest of his or her presentation. In contrast, the person who wishes to be above average will do the following: • Before the audience arrives, inspect the room to assure everything is in place: lectern, microphone, and any other audiovisual equipment that you'll need. • Check the height of the lectern; many are adjustable. The lectern should not be so tall that only your head shows, nor should it be so low that it is difficult to read your notes. • Check the audiovisual equipment to assure that every thing is operating properly and that you know how to turn lights on and off, change slides or transparencies, and even change a light bulb quickly if the one you are using happens to burn out just before or during your presentation. Most important, if you are using a remote control unit for a slide projector, get thoroughly ac quainted and rehearse with each button. I have seen speakers in the middle of their presentation acciden tally begin pushing the "reverse" control instead of the DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 76 "forward" control, continue reading from a script, and create total confusion between words and images on the screen. • Pay special attention to the microphone. So many speakers step up to the microphone, adjust the "goose neck" holder (which always creates an ugly, grating sound), and then begin to speak not knowing if the voice is booming or barely being heard. Another tipof f to the skill and experience of speakers is to note if they clear the throat or, worse yet, if their first words are "Can you hear me" It is far wiser to check out the microphone well in advance, assuring that the volume level is set so that people in the back of the room can hear you comfortably. Remember, too, that a room with an audience absorbs sound, so if you test the mi crophone in an empty room, boost the volume slightly to compensate for the audience. In such cases, the sound technician responsible for the audio system can become your best friend; ask him or her to check out the system with you before your presentation. • If you are suspicious that people in the back of the room may not be hearing you, here's a smooth, profes sional way to handle it. Just say: "Please help me with a speaker check. If you can hear me in the back of the room, raise your hands." That enlists the help of the audience and tells you quickly and efficiently exactly what you need to know. • Inquire if someone is available to monitor the volume control for the microphone and be prepared to make adjustments while you are speaking. This is especially helpful if "feedback"—that loud screeching noise— should occur. Feedback can happen almost every where, no matter how advanced or professional the sound system or the setting might be. It develops when the sound reaches a volume that actually "feeds back" GETTING PHYSICAL 77 the speaker's voice through the microphone. The only way to stop the resulting assault on the eardrums is to lower the volume level. • Be careful of standing too close to the microphone. The result, in radio lingo, is called "popping your P's." Every time you use a word beginning with the letter "p," the microphone picks up that little explosion of air from your lips and it comes through the system sound ing like a pistol shot. • Observe where the microphone cord is located, espe cially if it snakes along the floor to the side or behind the lectern. More than one speaker has tripped over that cord on the walk across the podium. • Try moving out and around from the lectern. Skilled speakers know that the lectern can represent a barrier between a speaker and the audience (Figure 11). That's why many novice speakers stand rooted behind it, of ten leaning on it for support. The lectern becomes both a prop and defense barrier. But, if you observe experi enced speakers, you'll notice they will move from one side of the lectern to the other as if signaling that they are anxious to make better contact with the audience. Some will also stand at the side and casually put one elbow on the side of the lectern, presenting a friendly, relaxed pose to the audience. When using this tech nique, here are some tips: • Be careful not to step out of range of the micro phone. • You may want to arrange in advance to be equipped with either a handheld microphone, or a "lavalier" mike, which hangs around the neck or clips on to the lapel. The latter offers extra freedom to move out from behind the lectern and also frees up the arms and hands for more gestures. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 78 Figure 11 Don't let the lectern become an obstacle between you and your audience. GETTING PHYSICAL 79 • Another type of microphone is a "remote" mike. There are two styles: A cordless batteryoperated mi crophone, and a miniature microphone that clips to the tie, blouse, or coat lapel with a wire leading to a portable power pack that clips to the waist. If you are still dubious about how the lectern represents a shield and obstruction between you and the audience, start observing the altars of modern churches, stages for TV award programs, and the podium arrangements used by profes sional seminar leaders. In each case, the speaker either oper ates without a lectern, or the lectern is a transparent stand. The reason, as we have learned here, is to avoid having the speaker partially blocked from the audience and to allow the speaker to use the full body. THE ROOM Many veteran speakers I have interviewed say that they al ways check out the room where they will be speaking well in advance of their presentations, to get familiar with the setting and to anticipate any potential problems. For example, one of the most difficult room arrange ments for a speaker is when the audience is spread out a full 180 degrees from left to right. In this situation, the tendency is to look straight ahead, virtually ignoring the two thirds of the audience to the left and right. In such cases, it is better to make the extra effort to include the whole audience in your eye contact, addressing some statements to the left, other comments in the middle, and still more remarks to the people on the far right even though you'll have the feeling that you are turning the back of your head to part of the audience. Here are some other factors to look for when examining the room where you'll be speaking: DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING • How far is the lectern positioned from the audience Sometimes it is thoughtlessly placed 10 or even 20 feet away, leaving a physical gulf between you and the audi ence. In that case, ask for the lectern to be moved for ward so that you will be physically closer. • Where will you be seated prior to your introduction What path will you take to walk to the podium and then to the lectern Must you walk from the back of the room, or through people seated on chairs Must you ascend a podium (If so, check the height. There is no worse overture to a speech than falling flat on your nose just seconds before you are supposed to speak.) • If possible, place your notes on top or on a shelf of the lectern in advance, rather than carrying them with you. Having your notes already in place on the lectern is a small touch that avoids having to carry them up, lay them on the stand, and play with or shuffle them. This technique, however, is not foolproof. I did that once and the speaker before me inadvertently carried my notes away with him. I arrived to find . . . nothing (One solution is to place your notes underneath, on the small shelf usually located within the lectern.) • The worst of all room settings is a small audience seated in a large room. Speaking to a small group in the ballroom of a hotel is intimidating to everyone: The speaker is distracted by all the empty space and the audience is reluctant to relax or become involved with the speaker. The only ways to counteract this are (1) try to encourage the audience to come and sit closer together down in front, and (2) try to position yourself as close to the audience as possible. The objective is to reduce, as much as possible, the potential barriers be tween you and your audience. Conversely, when an au dience completely fills a room, the speaker is buoyed because so many have come to hear his or her message, GETTING PHYSICAL 81 and the audience's response is often better: Laughter and applause seem to be freer, almost contagious. • Here's something most speakers ignore: Where are you supposed to go when you finish your remarks Do you sit down on the dais Do you return to the audience Are you supposed to retreat to the back of the room Determine the answer in advance by checking with the program organizer. 4 Humor "We are all here for a spell; get all the good laughs you can." Will Rogers errac 83 84 DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Lhe phone call usually comes in the late afternoon. It's from a friend who says "I'm giving a speech tomorrow. Do you have any good jokes for me" It's a natural thing to do. I've done it myself. In businessspeaking situations, we almost always want to be entertaining as well as informative, and that trans lates into opening with something humorous. But waiting until the day before your speech for a guaranteed, surefire funny line is as dangerous as diving in the dark. To determine how best to use humor, I've done a great deal of research on the subject. Here are the results of this research: 1. Being a humorous speaker is not easy. Like anything else, it takes work and practice. 2. What may be funny depends on two factors (1) the nature of your audience, and (2) how the joke is told (i.e., timing). 3. Anecdotes and funny stories rarely come along at the very last moment. They require disciplined research and then practice. 4. It is helpful, in spite of all these obstacles, to incorpo rate humor into your different presentations. The rea son is simple: People like to laugh. As babies, we learn to laugh before we learn to talk. As adults, we know that laughter releases curative endorphins into the body. Furthermore, audiences tend to like people who can make them laugh, and if audiences like you, they will listen more carefully to what you say. Humor plays an important role in business. Forbes magazine found in a 1987 survey that 98 percent of 737 chief HUMOR 85 executives interviewed would hire a candidate with a good sense of humor over a humorless type. Further, a researcher at California State University at Long Beach, David Abramis, studied 341 workers and found that those who had most fun at their jobs were more likely also to be the most productive. Why Because having fun reduces mental tensions, discour ages conflicts and boredom, and increases creativity. Even the Talmud teaches that a lesson taught with humor is a les son retained. "Humor does more than release tensions and evaporate hostility. It also opens up channels to others, shows us how to communicate clearly and reminds us when we aren't commu nicating," claims psychologist Herb True, in his book Humor Power (Doubleday, Garden City, NY, 1980). Media researchers at Indiana University discovered that children learn and retain better when entertaining material is interspersed with serious content. Business trainers use hu mor to build rapport with attendees in their classes and to underline key learning points. This chapter will examine the role of humor when making business presentations, as well as how to use humor effectively. WHEN NOT TO USE HUMOR In 1978,1 was scheduled for a formal appearance before our corporate board of directors. My assignment was to present a summary of our operations and prospects for the region I was managing at that time, Central and South America. I care fully prepared and organized my presentation: I had my head liner. I had my middle and a good closer. All I lacked was a good opener. For the opener, I decided I needed a bit of levity. I wanted the board to laugh. When I mentioned this to a vet eran executive and experienced presenter in our company, he DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 86 said quickly, "No Forget it This is a formal presentation." He reminded me, "You don't know the board members that well, and they don't know much about you. If your attempt at hu mor falls flat, you may do the same. Play it straight. Be totally businesslike. Be factual, be confident, be knowledgeable, be comfortable. That's what they want to see in an executive with your level of responsibility." It was good advice, and I fol lowed it. The second lesson for using humor is to be sure your material is truly funny. You may have noticed during TV talk show interviews that professional standup comics frequently say "I'm always trying out bits of new material. I'll slip them in and try them on different audiences before I finally put them into my act." Try out your humor in advance, with different groups of friends, in different settings and circumstances. Make certain people laugh before using it in some important situation. Don't take the risk of using material you haven't given several test runs. There is nothing worse than jokes that fall flat. Other "don'ts" when using humor: • Don't embarrass other people (unless it is a formal roast). • Don't use ethnic or racial jokes. • Don't use dialects. • Don't make jokes about religion. • Avoid any scatological or profane language. Choose your speaking situations and your use of humor carefully. Know the situation and the audience. There are many occasions in business speaking where humor is totally inappropriate. Don't take risks. Try out your material in ad vance to assure it tickles the funny bone of the type of people who will be in your audience. HUMOR 87 WHAT MAKES HUMOR HUMOROUS Humor stems from a few basic roots: the surprise end ing, word play, physical actions (a la the pratfall), and topi cal humor such as current events or newsworthy people (Figure 12). osly/ Figure 12 Humor usually stems from five categories. 88 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING A fifth technique is selfeffacing humor. Here's an exam ple of selfeffacing humor: In 1989, football coach Lindy Infante of the Green Bay Pack ers was named the National Football League's "Coach of the Year." Shortly after, he told one audience that a news story about this honor appeared in his hometown newspaper with a misprint—instead of "NFL Coach of the Year," it said "NHL," which stands for "National Hockey League." Soon after the article appeared Infante received a letter from his high school football coach congratulating him on the honor. His coach wrote, "I'm glad to read you succeeded in hockey because I knew sure as hell you'd never succeed in football." Some women in business, however, recommend avoid ing the use of selfeffacing humor because they contend busi nesswomen have enough difficulty gaining respect in the business world without tearing themselves down, even through humor. True stories are another way to make speeches humor ous. As I scanned hundreds of jokes supplied by comedy newsletters, I found that perhaps 98 percent of the entries just didn't sound or fit right for me. But among the remaining 2 percent, some special chord was struck and I was reminded of an incident in my life—or someone else's—that caused me to laugh. And that's another tip: don't be afraid to "adapt" some one else's funny event to yourself. Stealing funny stories is an occupational entitlement used by even prominent, national speakers. The trouble with borrowing, however, is that no one enjoys hearing the same joke told over and over again. True stories, or true sounding stories, are fresher and more believable than canned or welltraveled jokes. Dig deep into your memory and search for those true incidents that made you—or your friends, or family—laugh. Update those stories from the past, revise them. Try them on friends and listen carefully to what "works" and what doesn't. HUMOR 89 Figure 13 Your daily newspaper can be a wonderful source of humor for speeches. A thir d source of good, fresh and effective humor comes from daily newspapers or magazines (Figure 13). Here's a suggestion: Whenever you read something that makes you laugh out loud, clip it or write it down. Then, start relating it at cocktail parties or over coffee with friends. If it consistently gets a good laugh, put it in your file. Then, as you are preparing for some presentation, scan that collection to see if you can adapt and apply the story, even in loose fashion, to points you are making in your speaking situation. Avoid prefacing your hu mor with the trite phrase "I heard this joke . . ." Instead, weave your story into your presentation so the audience is almost unaware you are building up to a punch line . . . until you punch it. 90 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Another good habit to assure that you use appropriate and appealing humor is, after your presentations, to keep written records on the stories that succeeded in particular situations. For example, certain humorous stories that are successful with business audiences sometimes fall flat with, say, groups of teenagers and, of course, vice versa. A warnin g note. If you do manage to build something of a reputation as an entertaining and humorous speaker, make certain that the person who introduces you avoids saying, something like this, "This fellow is really very funny. I know you'll enjoy hearing him because he always gets his audiences rocking with laughter." Such testimonials raise the audience's expectations and usually result in disappointment that you are not equal to Jay Leno or Eddie Murphy or some other professional standup comedian. How do you avoid such an introduction Sometimes it is not easy, since the presenter thinks of it as paying a compliment. However, you can politely ask the presenter what he or she intends saying, and even request the omission of any such wellintended comments. "Timing is usually what separates professionals from the amateur," says Ron Dale, a professional comedian. "Some people never develop a sense of timing and therefore have difficulty telling a joke. Others—and this is a characteristic of many professional comedians—have literally been telling jokes all their lives. They were the class cutups in school, the practical jokers, the punsters, and the clowns. In essence, they have been practicing their timing all their lives." Practice is the key. Dale says he knows one professional comic who even "rehearses his ad libs." And that's not a joke. That comic, according to Dale, has developed a repertoire of something like 120 ad libs that he has stored in memory. In this way the comedian can react quickly to hecklers or noises or other surprises that can and do occur when facing an audi ence night after night. As a business speaker, you need not reach this level of professionalism, but you can learn valuable lessons from HUMOR 91 these more experienced experts. In essence, to develop good timing and good delivery of humor, just practice. That's all. If you want to delve more deeply into the anatomy of humor in business situations, I recommend the book A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Boardroom: Using Humor in Business Speaking, by Michael Iapoce (John Wiley Sons, New York, 1988). SPECIFIC EXAMPLES James C. Haney heads a 3,000member association of manu facturers and commercial businesses. He tells about the time he spoke at a local retirement home. "When I finished," Haney relates, "I felt pretty good. I thought I'd done a pretty good job." After the program, a small, perky resident ap proached him and said: "Mr. Haney, my 8yearold grandchild could have delivered a better speech than that" And she turned and walked away. Haney was stunned. Soon after, some other residents came up to him and said "We just saw you talking with Clara. We thought we should tell you not to listen to anything she says. Clara just goes around repeating what she hears other people saying." This is a true story, and when Haney relates it to audi ences, it almost guarantees a good laugh. "It's an excellent example of a good 'opener,'" Haney explains, "because it is believable, it has that surprise ending that is so important, and it demonstrates that the speaker is unafraid to make fun of himself." In 1990, I was booked to appear on ABCTV's "Good Morning America" show to talk about a recently released book of mine. Pleased and excited, I phoned my 94yearold father in Colorado. "Dad," I said, "I've been booked on 'Good Morning America'" He paused for a few seconds and then said "What's that" After I appeared on the show, I called him and said "Well, how did I do" Again, the pause. Then, with a DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 92 hint of surprise in his voice, he said, "Better than I expected." I tried again. "Other than that, Dad, how did I look" This time he quickly replied: "Oh You looked old." This true incident—an example of selfeffacing, truelife humor—serves well as an opener. All you need do is follow with a transition line such as, "So, today I hope I can do better with you (the audience) than I did with my own father." Then, launch into your topic. Another effective trick used by experienced humorous speechmakers is to string a series of punch lines together into a chain. And, here the trick is to save the best line for last. For example: The speaker's subject is the importance of clear communica tions. To inject some levity into the topic of communications, the speaker reads certain excerpts from essays written by high school students that are decidedly not examples of good, clear communications. In these cases, the students muddled their history and syntax , resulting in mangled communication. The first student wrote about the Magna Carta. "What was the Magna Carta" he wrote. "Well, it assured that no free man should be hanged twice for the same offense." The second student wrote about Queen Elizabeth I. "Who was Queen Elizabeth I Well, she was known as 'The Virgin Queen.' When she exposed herself before her troops, they all shouted 'Hurrah'" And, finally, this student was writing about the famous world explorer, Sir Francis Drake. "Who was Sir Francis Drake Well, he circumcised the world. And he did it with a 100foot clipper." I've heard these lines delivered to different audiences a dozen times and the reaction has always been the same: a mild laugh after the first line about "being hanged twice for the same offense." Then, a louder laugh over Queen Eliza beth's exposure and the resulting "Hurrah" And, finally, an even louder laugh over the malaprop "circumcised." But the HUMOR 93 best laugh of all always comes after the tag line "And he did it with a 100foot clipper." Why is this The answer is that the audience is pleasantly surprised at one successive punch line after another . . . and also that each line is slightly funnier than the preceding one. Proof is that whenever these three items were delivered in reverse order, the laughter did not build in the same way. The lesson here is to string punch lines together, and then be certain to save the best for last. Also, we discussed earlier the importance of timing in humor. In the preceding example, it became important to pause for several beats between the line "Sir Francis Drake circumcised the world" and the final punchline:". . . and he did it with a 100foot clipper." Always let the chuckling or laughter subside before proceeding with the tag line. Otherwise, some people in the audience never hear the final words because they are still thinking and laugh ing about the play on the words "circumcised" and the in tended word, "circumnavigated." What should you do when a story or punch line falls flat This happens even to the most experienced speaker. Minutes of silence seem to pass, but in reality it is usually only a matter of seconds. When this happens to you, move rapidly along and try to forget it. TV sports commentators tell us that one of Jack Nicklaus's many skills as a golfer is that after he has experienced a disastrous hole, he can quickly put it be hind him and simply move on to the next hole. So it should be with speakers when expected reactions don't arrive. Just keep moving on. Robert Orben, professional joke writer for several recent White House Presidents, advises that one way to "stack the deck" toward receiving that first hearty laugh is to observe the audience in advance and "spot someone who seems to be a good listener and an easy smiler and laugher." Then, establish good eye contact with that person as you relate your opening jokes. Having that person laugh not only stimulates others to DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 94 laugh, but it serves as a wonderful confidencebuilder for you, the speaker. Quotations are another good device for producing smiles, with Yogi Berra being one of the most popular resources. ("When you come to a fork in the road, take it.") Numerous reference books filled with provocative and memorable quota tions for the past several hundred years are readily available in bookstores and libraries. Refer to them when preparing your material. As indicated earlier, they provide the added benefit of provoking some forgotten statement or idea stored in the back of your mind. Most of us enjoy hearing examples of double entendres, malapropisms, and mangled misstatements. Much humor is based on such misadventures with language. Author Richard Lederer has produced two wonderfully lighthearted books crammed with examples like these (including the earlier ones about the Magna Carta, Queen Elizabeth, and Sir Francis Drake). His first book was titled Anguished English (Laurel Press, Mill Valley, CA, 1987). This was followed by Crazy Eng lish (Pocket Books, New York, 1989). Both these books would be good investments for the resource shelf of any aspiring humorous speechmaker. Another good resource book is Malcolm Kushner's The Light Touch—How to Use Humor for Business Success (Simon Schuster, New York, 1990). Kushner provides the following five rules for successful delivery of humor: 1. Learn Your Lines. Practice the story and figure out which words to emphasize. 2. Be Confident and Comfortable. Don't tell an anecdote you are uncomfortable with. Enjoy the story yourself. 3. Don't Announce That You're Going to Tell a Joke. Sneak up on the audience. Surprise them with your funny line. HUMOR 95 4. Pause Just before the Punch Line, and Then Wait for the Laugh. A onebeat pause just before the punch line adds emphasis to the key words. If you continue talk ing immediately after delivering the line, the audience will miss the impact. 5. Keep It Brief. An overly long anecdote or joke tends to bore an audience. HUMOR TO BEND, BORROW, OR STEAL The following collection of stories, quips, and anecdotes will jump start your own humor generator. As I discussed earlier, lists of jokes rarely seem to provide exactly the right humor ous stories for you or your particular speaking situation. However, they are often useful to jog your memory, or you may be able to bend them to fit your speaking occasion. Of course, if you do find one or two here that tickle your sense of humor—take them. (Ian Kerr, Public Relations counselor for Rolls Royce sup plied this one.) "When I finished speaking at a large luncheon meeting, the emcee said that I had provided a 'Rolls Royce of a speech.' At first I was delighted, but then I realized that the two main characteristics of a Rolls Royce are that they are, first, inaudible, and second, they last forever." When it comes to optimism, perhaps the best example I've ever seen comes from the surviving members of my fa ther's high school graduation class. They still hold annual reunions, and each one has a special theme and slogan. For one reunion the slogan was "Help Me Make It Through the Night"; for another, it was "The Last Supper"; and the most recent one was "Stay Alive 'Til '95." DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 96 mm Just prior to delivering a speech, a division manager of a large corporation was nervously pacing in a room adjacent to the auditorium when a woman walked in. "Oh," she said, "You're our speaker today, aren't you" When he nodded, she asked, "Do you ever get nervous before a speech" "No," he said, "I never get nervous." "Then," inquired the woman, "what are you doing in the ladies room" mm (A wedding toast) This may shock some of you, but hear me out. I'm going to toast the bride and groom to lie, cheat, and steal May they lie in each other's arms and comfort one an other in times of anxiety and stress. May they cheat Father Time and live long and happy lives. And, finally, may they occasionally steal away to renew the love and affection they feel for one another on this very special day. mm Rabbi Aaron Ilson offers this secret to assure that a speaker respects time limits. "Just before speaking, I put a lozenge in my mouth. I know it takes about 20 minutes to dissolve. When the lozenge is gone, I know it's time for me to finish my speaking. However, on one occasion I used this trick and when I looked at my watch I found I had been speaking for over 40 minutes. I then realized that when I reached in my pocket for the lozenge, I had mistakenly grabbed a loose button." My wife and I were in the car listening to the radio. The guest on the talk show described a "Type A" person as one who is usually "successful, compulsive, aboveaverage intelli gence, high achiever, and neat." I commented that "I tend to HUMOR 97 be Type A, but I'm not compulsive." Wanting to agree with me, my wife said, "That's true. And you aren't aboveaverage intelligence, either." mm (This one actually happened to me.) After I finished speaking, the emcee thanked me and, motioning to the audi ence, said: "This is the largest crowd we have ever had. And to all of you out there, thank you for coming. In fact, next time I hope you will bring a friend because our treasury could use the additional revenue. That way in the future we can bring you some really good programs." mm A friend of mine stepped up to the microphone, looked at the audience, and instead of saying, "It's nice to see so many old friends and familiar faces," said: "It's nice to see so many old faces and familiar friends." mm My first grader's teacher was telling Christmas stories when one of the children asked her to "tell that story about the guy who saw Santa Claus and got sick." At first the teacher was puzzled, but it turned out the child was referring to '"Twas the Night Before Christmas," where the father "flew to the window and threw up the sash." An American woman traveling in Southeast Asia was served bird's nest soup, a delicacy in that region. "Do you mean to say this actually is a bird's nest" she protested. The chef assured her it was, explaining that the bird constructed the nest using its own saliva as glue. "Are you saying I'm supposed to eat saliva from a bird" she said, aghast. When the chef asked what she would prefer instead, she replied, "I can't imagine anyone eating bird's saliva. Just fix me an omelette instead." DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 98 mm Whenever I fly on airplanes, I think about that famous "blackbox" that is so vital to find after a plane crash. I keep thinking why don't they make the whole airplane as inde structible as that black box . . . and secondly, when they ask what seat I prefer, I am always tempted to say "I'll sit wherever that black box is sitting." •lm I took my Latin American sales manager to Japan for his first visit there. When I introduced him to the Japanese deli cacy of raw fish, called sushi, he poked at it and said, "What's this" I explained what it was and that it was called sushi. He said, "In my country we call this bait." mm Our language can be tricky. A college professor of mine wrote this phrase on the board: "Woman without her man is a savage." Then he asked the class to punctuate it correctly. The males wrote: "Woman, without her man, is a savage." But the females wrote it this way: "Woman Without her, man is a savage." •mm When it comes to delivering the invocation at dinners, I'm not a good person to call upon. The last time I did it, I managed to screw up the silent prayer. mm My wife always tried to teach our children good man ners. One thing that bothered her was when our son would come home with friends and fail to introduce them to her. She always kept after him about proper introductions. Well, one day she was lounging in the bathtub when he burst through the bathroom door to introduce some of his new friends. I never had the nerve to ask her if she stood up to greet them. HUMOR 99 Our local reference librarian reports that someone called and asked what the prefix "Dr." meant when a person was neither a medical doctor or dentist. "That probably means he is a PhD," the librarian explained. "It also means that person probably has a BS and a MS as well," the librar ian added. "I know what BS is," the caller said, "so I suppose MS means more of the same and PhD means piled higher and deeper." mm I was sitting at a conference one day when the speaker said rather emphatically, "The root of all mankind's problem is man, who is ignorant and apathetic." I turned to the fellow next to me and said "What do you think of that" He replied "I don't know, and I really don't give a damn." Working hard does pay certain dividends. We had a fel low in our office who took a briefcase full of work home every night. Later we found out he was stealing briefcases. When I was in college, I was struggling to decide what profession to follow. So I took some aptitude tests. After they were evaluated, I received this letter: "We have examined all of your test results, your ACTs and SATs, your psychological profile analysis, and your vocational preference matrix. We have concluded that your best career and vocational opportunity lies in a field where your father holds an influ ential position." mm (When receiving an award) I really don't deserve this . . . but then, again, I have arthritis and I don't de serve that either. •It DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 100 Most of the rest of the world uses the metric system. I suppose we in the United States will have to follow, but some how it doesn't make sense to say "Give them 2.5 centimeters and they'll take 1.6 kilometers." mm Here are some mangled metaphors uttered by politi cians and taken directly from the public records of state legislatures: • If it weren't for the Rural Electric Associations, we farmers would still be watching television by candle light. • I smell a rat and intend to nip it in the bud. • This body is becoming entirely too laxative about some matters. • These are not my figures I'm quoting. They're the fig ures of someone who knows what he's talking about. • It's time to grab the bull by its tail and look it squarely in the eye. Newspaperman Dan Satran reported recently that he sat through such a long introduction for a speaker he was tempted to whisper to the fellows at the table: "We have just listened to an introduction that needs no speaker." •11 While seated on the dais at a dinner one evening, the rather somberlooking man next to me said, "I notice you don't eat much before you speak. Why is that" "Because," I replied, "a speech coach once told me, 'Full stomach means an empty head,' and so I don't eat." After I finished speaking and sat down, the man turned to me and said sourly, "You could have eaten the whole meal." HUMOR 101 ROASTS At least once in every business person's career there seems to be an assignment to help "roast" some honoree, whether it be for a milestone birthday or anniversary, a fundraiser, or a retirement dinner. Here are some ideas for zingers that you can adapt to your own special situation. mm When I was asked to offer a few comments about our guest of honor, I decided this occasion called for some re search. So I invited a couple of Tom's closest friends to go out for dinner so that we could compile a list of his accomplish ments, his achievements, and his attributes. And here (take two large folded pieces of paper from your pocket) are the results. (Pause.) Two completely blank sheets of paper It cost me 95 to find out this guy has had an absolutely colorless and uneventful life. "mm (It helps to find jibes that actually fit the character of the person being roasted. For example, if the person tends to be habitually late or slow moving . . . ) "As you all know, time is not a top priority for Tom. He tends to be laidback and unruf fled. For example, he's the only person I know who takes an hour and a half to watch the TV progra m 60 Minutes." He tried to be a chicken farmer once, but it didn't work .. . he planted them too deep. mm He stepped in some cow manure one day and got terribly worried. He thought he was melting. 102 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING He wasn't too smart as a youngster in school. At his grade school spelling bee, he spelled "farm" EIEIO. The IRS called him in for an income tax audit. They told him to bring his records, so he brought them two Frank Sina tras and a Barbara Streisand album. Wits He was asked to join the fight against malaria and he asked "Why What have the malarians done now" Senator Robert Dole once opened a "roast" honoring White House political adviser Lyn Nofziger in this fashion: "I came here tonight prepared to talk about a man who has done a great deal for his country and his President. But since that meeting was canceled, let's talk about Lyn Nofziger." Later Dole added, "The President would have been here tonight, but he had a conflict. He didn't want to come." INTRODUCTIONS Finally, when it comes to introductions, for an unconventional and lighthearted introduction, here is one that I have used repeatedly with good results. The objective is to depart from the standard and often boring introduction where a long list of biographical creden tials and achievements are read, including college degrees and the names and ages of children. What follows rather im modestly provides my own biographical information, but it is provided to demonstrate how and where to substitute your own personal data. Here is what I hand over to the person who has the as signment to introduce me: HUMOR 103 Now it is my pleasure to introduce our speaker, Roger Axtell. On occasions like this, I find it helpful to do some research. Therefore, when I learned that Roger's 94yearold father lived in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, I decided to write him asking for information about his son. Here is the reply I re ceived: Dear (Insert introducer's name), You wrote asking for information about my son, Roger. Well, how would you like to be: • An advisor to three Wisconsin governors, • A speake r in demand throughout the country, • And, a tournamentranked tennis player. Well, so would Roger. Instead, Roger worked 30 years for The Parker Pen Com pany until his retirement in 1986 as Vice President, World wide Marketing. He lived and traveled overseas for Parker for 25 years. This caused him to write four books: Do's and Ta boos of International Trade is a "how to" book for business managers and is also used as a college textbook. Do's and Taboos of Hosting International Visitors ex plains how to meet, greet, host, and entertain visitors to the United States. A third book titled GESTURES: The Do's and Taboos of Body Language describes over 200 gestures for 82 countries. And finally, Do's and Taboos Around the World, a general guide to international behavior, has sold over 150,000 copies in six languages. All this has caused Roger to be interviewed on NBC's "Today" Show, the Merv Griffin Show, three times on ABC TV's "Good Morning America Show," and dozens of other syn dicated and regional TV shows. He was also once booked on the David Letterman Show but was bumped at the last mo ment by a dancing dog act. He has, indeed, worked for three Wisconsin governors and currently serves Governor Tommy G. Thompson as his Special Assistant for Business. He does this for a dollar a year, which makes me wonder about his business sense and ex plains why I have his older brother handle all of my financial affairs. 104 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING I hope he does a good job at your meeting. He needs the experience. The first time he appeared before an audience was in the fourth grade when he portrayed Davy Crockett, and he wet his pants right on stage. Signed: Albert E. Axtell With that introduction from his own father, here is our speaker. You, the reader, can easily adapt this introduction by changing the author of the letter to your own father, mother, husband, or wife, and by merely changing the biographical information. You can also insert your own true or slightly manufactured anecdotes. An introduction like this not only provides the audience with information about your back ground, but also cause the audience to greet you with smiles . . . always a delightful sight as you step up to the microphone. 6 Using AudioVisual Equipment We learn more by seeing than by hearing. Turn the page to learn how you can use this fact to your advantage. 105 106 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING /ictua l Case Study: The president of an international ship ping company is invited to one of the great American ports, Savannah, Georgia, to speak before a large conference on ex porting. He views this as a wonderful opportunity to show case his company and possibly win new customers: The room lights dim, and the executive begins reading from his profes sionally prepared script while using a remote control to flash a series of attractive slides on a large screen. Unfortunately, after the first dozen slides, the executive accidentally presses the "reverse" button instead of the "advance" button. The au dience realizes his mistake, but he is completely unaware and continues reading and punching the wrong button. Finally .. . he looks up and realizes the picture on the screen has no relationship to his text. He fumbles with the remote control. Nervously, he presses the "focus" button, which just creates more confusion. He becomes flustered, tries to continue without the slides, but now cannot find his place in the script. Within seconds, his wonderful showcase opportunity disinte grates into confusion and embarrassment. The audience's un spoken conclusion is "How can you trust a shipping company that can't even operate a slide projector" This chapter will help you avoid just that type of night mare in your business presentations. The effectiveness of using audiovisual aids is well known: • We learn 7 via hearing. • We learn 87 by seeing. • The remaining 6 is learned via taste, touch, and smell. Audiovisual materials increase retention of information. People generally remember 20 of what they hear, 30 of what they see, and 50 of what they both hear and see. And if USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 107 graphics increase comprehension and retention, they can also reduce meeting times. Seeing is also believing. Graphics add credibility to pre sentations. Any time you put up a pie, bar, or line chart, or even a strong, declarative word slide, your message is visually reinforced. Bear in mind that your audience has been nurtured on television, with all its clever graphics for advertising, sports, and news coverage. Contemporary audiences are visually ori ented and accustomed to the best. Another reason graphics are important is that more and more business gatherings have some members for whom Eng lish is a second language. For them, one picture is worth a thousand words, especially when those words may be glib American idioms, jargon, and buzz words. The use of wellprepared visual materials also reflects on your image as a presenter. If your sales presentation, for ex ample, follows one given by a competitor and your visuals are a cut above his or hers, the difference can only work in your favor. In this chapter, you will learn how to select the right audiovisual medium for your purpose, plus the pros and cons for each type of visual aid. You will also learn something about how to design visual materials and how they are produced. A general briefing on equipment is also offered. Finally, I con clude with some general tricks and tips that will make you an audiovisual victor instead of a victim, like that poor fellow described in the case study that opened this chapter. This chapter will not, however, turn you into a visual graphics technician or professional. It will, instead, equip you to work more closely and more smoothly with that increas ingly important cadre of valuable technicians who, using the latest computeraided devices, can produce dazzling slides, videotapes, and other soundandlight shows. This new breed of specialists deserves your respect, and this chapter will help you learn how to work side by side with them in making your presentations shine. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 108 Locating a topnotch but fairly priced production house takes a little research but the time and effort is definitely worth it—quality and cost can vary a great deal. A trad e asso ciation, such as the Association for MultiImage (AMI), would be a good place to start looking for a quality production house in your area. AMI is located at 8019 North Himes Avenue Suite 104, Tampa, FL 33614; the telephone number is 8139321692. In the larger metropolitan areas," let your fingers do the walking" under such headings as "Slides," "Video," "Audio Visual," "Photography," and "Computer Graphics." You don't have to be a technowizard to talk with these people—just explain the nature of your talk, your audience, and so on. They will make suggestions and try to work within your budget. Each agency may charge slightly differently, but most will detail the charge for each visual. Some houses bill ac cording to the amount of time it takes to do the job. As in any business, you're usually better off getting a firm quote for the whole job than to leave it open for future interpretation by the agency. WHICH MEDIUM FOR WHICH MEETING Once you understand that visuals can enhance your presen tation in terms of interest, credibility, and image, your next step is to determine which medium is appropriate for your audience. Here are some important considerations in choosing your medium: • The Purpose of Your Presentation. You probably wouldn't want to have a videotape made for showing budget figures to your boss, any more than you would use a chalkboard to unveil a major new project before a large group of your peers in a convention hall. Nei ther fits the situation. (In the next section you will USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 109 find a list of all the common methods for presenting visuals and the pros and cons for each.) • Audience Size. The number of people in your audience will often influence what type of graphics to use. For example, the maximum size for a presentation using an overhead projector is somewhere around 100 people. A bigger audience requires a larger image, which gener ally cannot be provided with an overhead projector. Slides, or a canned video presentation, where appro priate, are the preferred mediums for larger groups. • Location of Audience. What type of room will be used: A small conference room, or a huge ballroom at some hotel Also, will you have to transport all your equip ment and materials to some distant location Or, must you rely on rented or borrowed equipment Each of these factors may dictate the type of visual to be used. • Customs in Your Company or Industry. What types of visuals are normally used by your peers and competi tors For small sales presentations, for example, flip charts are often de rigueur. Consulting firms seem to favor highquality slide shows, and advertising agencies often opt for multimedia presentations. There are, of course, exceptions to the rule, but be careful. If your organization encourages formal, documented presen tations and you show up with handwritten overheads, your image and probably your effectiveness will suffer. • Capabilities. The size of your budget, the length of time before your presentation, the availability of inhouse equipment and expertise, and the need to repeat the presentation are vital factors in choosing the correct medium. How volatile is the information you need to present For example, if the numbers are going to change at the last minute and you don't have a dedi cated staff to produce slides quickly, then overhead 110 DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING transparencies might be the answer because they can be pro duced in minutes. The best rule of thumb is to choose the medium that can provide you with the most professional looking visuals possible and still allow you adequate time to prepare. WHICH AUDIOVISUAL MEDIUM TO USE Following is a list of the customary choices among audio visual methods, along with the pros and cons for each: Chalkboard (or Whiteboard) Pros Cons Best for casual Slow, because you must presentations. produce words and graphs Good when audience by hand. participation desired. Little or no "glamour." Inexpensive materials. Presenter must work harder No problems with equipment to keep audience breakdowns. interested. Mistakes can be instantly Your handwriting may be erased. difficult to read. Ink markers can be messy and unreliable. Difficult to preserve and store results. Flipcharts Pros Cons Easy to produce. Poor for large audiences. Reusable. Flipping pages can be slow Easily transportable. and cumbersome, and pages tear easily. Inexpensive. Good audience participation. Requires some artistic skill to produce each page. USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 111 Overhead Projection Pros Cons Easy to use. Poor for large audiences Transparencies made quickly (over 100 people). Changing transparencies and cheaply. Colors and overlays can be becomes distracting. The speaker and projector used. Room lights need not be can block view of the dimmed. screen. Audience can see to take Light bulb can burn out in notes. midpresentation. Allows onscreen editing and audience participation. Computergenerated visuals produce stunning slides. Other new technology allows display of 3D figures and "live" computer data. (More on this later.) 35mm Slides Pros Cons Better for larger, more Slides can be expensive to produce. formal presentations. Room must be darkened. Visuals advance smoothly. Inhibits notetaking and Photographic clarity and a quality image. audience participation. Slides are small, Operator can punch wrong transportable, and activation buttons. durable. Slides can be inserted Projectors readily available upsidedown or become in distant locations. stuck. Professionalism enhanced by using two or more projectors. 112 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Videotapes Cons Pros Color, motion, and sound Most expensive (e.g., 1,000 per minute to produce). combine for top professionalism. Shifts focus from presenter. Best for explaining Projection equipment complicated subjects or cumbersome and processes. expensive. Best for glamor and impact. Best for extralarge audiences (via largescreen projection or multiple TV sets.) Electronic Presentations Cons Pros Visuals produced on a Cost of projection equipment computer are sent is high. Trained technician usually electronically to a special projection required to advance unit for largescreen visuals. viewing. Therefore: Clarity of visual not as good • Slides/transparencies/ as 35mm slides. overheads need not be produced. • Projectors won't jam, bulbs won't burn out. Easily produced fades, wipes, dissolves, and other effects. USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 113 DESIGNING VISUAL AIDS Choosing exactly the right medium for your presentation is important, and equally significant is the design of your visual materials. Here are some general rules for designing effective visuals: 1. Write the Words First. Develop your message, your headline, and your outline with its key points. Then consider which points in your outline need special emphasis. Graphics are to a speech what music is to lyrics; they enhance, complement, and reinforce one another. 2. Use the KISS Method. That is the acronym for Keep It Short and Simple. In other words, if possible, design no more than one main idea per visual. 3. Use the KILL Method. This comes from author and seminar leader Terry Smith, who recommends Keep It Large and Legible. These two acronyms work well together because if you keep it simple, you'll usually have room on the visual to make your words and other graphics large, which is important. 4. Use Descriptive Titles. Titles on your visuals summa rize whatever point you're trying to make. For exam ple, the title "Sales Will Rise Sharply in 1993" is more memorable and meaningful than "1993 Sales." A good title can also help bring temporarily distracted audi ence members back into the presentation quickly. 5. Decide on a Basic Design. This means using the same colors throughout, the same type styles, the same car toon character, or whatever it takes to show a continu ing relationship between slides. Keep the design clean and standardize it. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 114 6. Proof, Proof, Proof Have someone else look over your work if necessary, but don't let incorrect data or a misspelling make you appear sloppy or ignorant. When you err, you r audience gets the impression that you didn't care enough about your visuals to get them right, so why should they care enough to look at them 7. Allow Enough Time. Give yourself ample time to pre pare your visuals and to rehearse with them thor oughly. 8. Use Visuals Sparingly. If something can be stated simply, say it, don't show it. Flipping through a lot of miscellaneous visuals dilutes the impact of those that are important. Even though you'll probably have someone else produce your graphics, it doesn't hurt to be acquainted with the vari ous types of visuals commonly used in overhead and slide presentations. Word slides or charts often flow very naturally from the script outline and can be incorporated into a presentation to "lead" the speaker through his or her talk. One method for organizing a presentation is to begin with a title chart with your name, the topic of your talk, and perhaps your company logo. The second visual could then list three or four main objectives or areas you plan to cover in your speech. Then, as you get to each area, bring up a slide similar to slide two, with the next topic highlighted. Word slides are most effective as phrases, not complete sentences. (Warning: Don't ever get caught reading your visuals verbatim or your audience will wonder why they need you up there at all.) The words printed on each visual should be lim ited to five or six terse spoken phrases that complement the words on the screen. One way of effectively using color involves what is called "progressive disclosure," or "build" slides. As you move down USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 115 through a list of items in your presentation, each is highlighted on a new slide in white or optic yellow (against a dark back ground) and the previous items on the list are subdued in gray. When using overhead projection, overlays can replace builds. Each piece of information is produced on a separate transparency and then laid on top of the previous one. Overlays can also be helpful when disclosing progressive data on charts and graphs. They are most effective when pro duced on a computer so the alignment is correct. Graphics are most effective when presenting complex ideas or data. But, a common question is "Which type of chart is best, or correct, for my information" Here are some answers: • Line charts show change of one or more variables over a period of time. • Bar charts show the relationship between variables during specific time periods. They can also be used to compare parts of a whole with other, similar, examples such as profits versus sales from total revenues for par ticular years. • Pie charts show the relationship between parts of a whole at one particular time. • Diagrams, such as flow or organization charts, help the audience visualize certain relationships or processes. • Tables show relational data in a precise form. They should only be used when the content can be limited to a very few cells, or blocks of information. HOW VISUALS ARE PRODUCED In recent years, advancements in the production of visuals for speaker support have been astonishing. For example, five years ago, the conventional method for creating graph DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 116 and line charts for 35mm slides involved physically cutting and pasting color panels, tape, and typewritten copy to gether on an artboard and then photographing it. It took hours of intensive hand labor. Today, the graphic artist is much more likely to work with a computer linked to a variety of color output devices. These computerized programs can produce colored slides, overhead transparencies, handouts, and even electronic presentations. So that you are familiar with the terminology and meth ods, let's now examine each of those visuals. Overheads When designed properly, handmade overheads can still look very professional. Try to avoid typewriter copy; instead, use text produced on a laser printer or by typesetting. (Either method will produce a variety of different type styles and sizes and is available at almost any print shop. Typesetters produce bookquality copy, eliminating the "jaggies" found in lower quality output.) Paste the copy on plain, white paper and, using a standard copying machine, convert the pages into 8'/2inch by 11inch transparencies. If the edges of your pastedon paper create black lines on your transparencies, make a second paper copy of the original and use whiteout to remove the lines. Then run it through as a transparency. If you don't have access to a computer or a typesetter, there are lettering machines (Kroy makes a good one) that you can use to set type in thin strips for transfer onto paper. Most of these machines run less than 500. Making the copy big and bold is allimportant. Using all capital letters is normally a good idea. A good rule of thumb for testing readability is to stand 10 feet away from the trans parency (when not projected). Use cardboard frames for overhead transparencies. They provide the following advantages: USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 117 1. They keep your films from getting stuck together. 2. You can write notes to yourself on the borders. 3. They block spillover light from the projector. 4. You can number your transparencies in an upper cor ner for easy ordering. 5. You can tape overlays onto them easily. Projection of Overhead Transparencies Although many aspects of overhead projection have changed little over the years, there are a few new twists you might want to discuss with your audiovisual technician. One of the technologies currently sweeping the overhead presentation market involves the use of a narrow, flat, box shaped unit called a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel. This electronic device is placed on the viewing stage of an over head projector where you would normally put a transparency. When a personal computer is plugged into the LCD, visu als created on the computer (most commonly spreadsheets and other financial data) are projected in the same manner as a transparency. The presenter is saved the trouble of produc ing the physical film and the visuals can be generated just prior to, or even during the presentation. Some of the other features now being incorporated into the newer, more portable overhead projectors include swing down arms, lighter weight, and retractable cords. But if you're looking for one standard feature on an overhead projector that you simply cannot do without, the automatic lamp changer stands alone in terms of practicality. Anyone who has had to adlib in front of an audience while waiting for a white hot bulb to cool can appreciate the value of automatic lamp changers. Remember the old opaque projectors Now they're mak ing them so you can put color photos, circuit boards, blister pack merchandise, or virtually any small object in place of a DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 118 transparency, project it on a screen, and discuss it at length while your audience views it on the big screen. Quality overhead projectors start at around 300 and can run up to 15,000. Buhl Industries and Dukane Corpora tion make good workhorses for under 600. The 3M 2100 series represents a solid line, especially the 2150, which is remarkably quiet and, features a versatile lens system as well as an automatic lamp changer. It lists for around 900. (All prices are 1991 prices.) Introduced in 1986 in monochrome (i.e., singlecolor) versions and priced at about 2,000, the newest LCD panels now boast more than 5,000 colors and can carry price tags of up to 6,000. You'll still pay between 1,200 and 2,000 for a quality black and white model. Sharp is a major player for either monochrome or color models, with Sayett providing one of many options for black and white. 35mm Slides The color slides you take during your vacation can now be produced by computers, complete with words and all kinds of other artwork. As a result, the old artboard method men tioned earlier has become obsolete. Not only do these new computergenerated visuals look and communicate better, but the price for producing them, even through an outside agency, is reasonable. Word slides can be purchased for about 10, while graphs and charts may run 20 to 50 each. The key to getting what you want out of computer pro grams is to know what kind of visuals you plan to create before you go shopping. All the popular presentation software programs will create word, bar, line, and pie charts, along with spreadsheets and a host of other visuals. Some are just better at certain applications than others. Aldus Persuasion, for example, is one of the easiest programs to use for creating USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 119 word slides, organization charts, and other textoriented visu als. If, on the other hand, you are an IBM PC user and most of the talks you give require the use of charts and graphs, you might consider Harvard Graphics a good choice. Users of Lo tus 123 probably know that Lotus Freelance Plus does an excellent job of electronically converting spreadsheet data into visuals. In general, it's becoming easier and easier to produce good 35mm slides. Programs are becoming easier to use, doc umentation is improving, classes are offered at computer cen ters and technical schools just about everywhere, and more powerful hardware and software are now available at very competitive prices. The notsogood news is that the initial cost of getting into electronically produced visuals can be prohibitive for many presenters. The software programs usually average be tween 400 and 700, but the hardware (computers, moni tors, etc.) can easily run 2,000 to 3,000. For those interested in creating their own visuals on a computer, I'd highly recommend Making Successful Presenta tions, A SelfTeaching Guide, by Terry C. Smith (Second Edi tion, John Wiley Sons, New York, 1991). Smith includes an entire chapter on tips for purchasing a computer, the top soft ware products currently available, and a host of other very useful information. How are the visuals transformed from images on a com puter screen to the actual, usable form, such as slides, over heads, and color charts Creating these materials requires equipment known as "output devices," and as you may have suspected, this is where you can spend some real money. The same devices are used for outputting both overhead transparencies and color hardcopy. The machines of choice are inkjet printers, color plotters, thermal transfer printers, and color laser printers. Here are explanations for each method: 120 DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING • Inkjet printers produce usable color pages but fall short on quality when it comes to transparencies. It takes about 90 seconds to run a copy. HewlettPackard offers a popular model (the PaintJet XL), as do Canon, Sharp, and Tektronix. • Pen plotters use up to eight different pens that move back and forth across the paper or transparency. Al though they're slower than inkjet (up to 20 minutes per complicated plot) and the colors are limited, the output is generally very sharp. They also retail in the 2,000 to 3,000 range. • Thermal transfer printing involves heating a plastic film that transfers wax onto a specially coated paper. The technology is improving, but the price still ranges from 5,000 to 18,000, depending on features. Popular manufacturers are QMS, CalComp, and Seiko. The future of color printing, as with general office blackandwhite printing, seems to be focused on laser tech nology. There are no truly affordable models out yet—a good color laser printer will run close to 30,000—but the quality is there. In the next few years, we'll undoubtedly see prices come down, as is currently the case with blackandwhite printers. Getting 35mm slides produced involves electronically transferring computergenerated images to a film recorder, which exposes them onto photographic film (210 minutes per slide) for processing at a standard photo laboratory. Film recorders come in a wide variety of prices and capabilities, with the lower cost versions running from 5,000 to 10,000. Polaroid and AgfaMatrix produce quality models in respec tive price ranges. If the price and complexity of your output options have you a little deflated, never fear. There is an excellent alter native to investing thousands of dollars, and that is to use USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 121 service agencies. For as little as 10 per slide or 6 per over head, you can have the files you created converted to presen tation format by these agencies. This is especially handy for slide making because even if you bite the bullet and pur chase a recorder, the film must still be processed, cut, and mounted. If the thought of purchasing a graphics software pack age or even a computer and associated output devices sounds appealing to you, perhaps it is time to ask yourself an important question: "Who should be producing my presenta tion materials" To answer this, there are several factors to consider: 1. How much time do you have to devote to it, and what is your time worth Creating the visual is only part of the job. It has to be saved on a floppy or hard drive in an easily retrievable manner. If you're outputting in house, your computer could be tied up for the entire 20 minutes it takes for each overhead to run through the color plotter. 2. If you need complicated diagrams, charts, and graphs made, do you have the graphics talent it takes to do the job properly Within the industry, it's often said that you should hire graphics artists and teach them computer skills, not the other way around. For those interested in seeing what computergenerated mate rial is all about before taking the financial plunge, service agencies are a good alternative. Prices can vary significantly—as can turnaround time—so it pays to shop around. If, however, you're planning a simple operation and the costs are justified, creating your own graphics can be extremely rewarding, and you'll get exactly what you asked for every time. 122 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Here is the minimum pricing (at 1992 prices): • Personal computer, 2,000. • Software, 500 to 700. • Laser printer for black and white, 1,500. • Film recorder for slides, 5,000. • Color printer for overheads, 2,000. Projection of Slides For the past 20 years, the public speaker's best friend has probably been a 35mm slide projector. The Kodak Ektagraphic III line of projectors remains the industry standard, with prices ranging from about 300 to 600, depending on the options you choose. Some of those features are automatic focusing, highintensity lamps, and wireless remote controls. If you plan to use just one multipur pose lens, the autozoom lens covers most requirements. The traditional single projector at the back of the room with the screen at the front is no longer a presenter's only (or best) option. If you are not acquainted with rearscreen projec tion, the following explains how it works, along with the pros and cons of conventional versus rearscreen: • A translucent screen is built into one wall, and the projection equipment, operator, and slides are posi tioned behind that wall, out of sight of the audience. In this manner, all the visuals are projected against that screen from the rear and the audience views the result from the other side of the screen. • Rearscreen projection eliminates having a projector in the audience, with the noise of its cooling fan possibly disturbing members of the audience in that vicinity. • Rearscreen projection also allows two or even more projectors to be used, which is difficult when those USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 123 projectors are in the back of a room, positioned amid the audience. • Also, a conventional slide projector positioned at the back of a room casts a beam of light forward, and shad ows from the heads of people sitting in the front center often interfere with the image. All this is eliminated with rearscreen projection. • It allows you, the presenter, the freedom to move about in front of the visual image on the screen without cast ing a shadow. Also, pointers may be used more effec tively, without casting shadows on the screen. • Because of the highintensity bulbs used with rear screen projection, the room where the audience is seated need not be darkened as much as when the pro jector is actually in the room. • The absence of projection equipment, operators, dimmed lights, and a strong beam of light all produce a classier setting. • Finally, when two or more projectors are added to rearscreen projection, along with the technique of "dissolving" slides into one another, the result is a truly professionallevel presentation. Videotapes With the explosion of home video cameras and VCRs, the current generation has become thoroughly familiar with the ease and joy and effectiveness of this form of audio visual presentation. Even an amateur to videotaping can grab a camera, go to a building site and return with a reasonably good visual re port for all the people back at the office. However, when it comes to sales and training videotapes, or more sophisticated presentations, it's probably best to turn to professionals, and DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 124 the best place to locate them is through the Yellow Pages of your phone directory. Meanwhile, it might help for you to become acquainted with the most appropriate video projection equipment. • TV Monitor. This is simply a standard television set (Figure 14). It is best for audiences of 15 or fewer people. A TV unit with a builtin video cassette recorder (VCR) is especially handy. Panasonic, NEC, and Sony manufacture a wide variety of reliable indus trial monitors, ranging in size from 19 to 37 inches and in price from 300 to 3,000. • Portable LCD LargeScreen Projectors. These price out at 3,000 to 5,000, but pictures are not yet top quality. • Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). Provides excellent resolution but requires continuous finetuning by qualified tech nicians. They are priced between 5,000 and 50,000; two reliable manufacturers of data/video projection are Sony and Barco. Figure 14 Single TV sets are best for small audiences. USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 125 A CHECKLIST FOR YOUR NEXT AUDIOVISUAL PRESENTATION Now that your script is written, your visuals are ready, and you have rehearsed, here are some of the finer tips and tricks that will make your presentation look like a pro's: • Prepare to deal with bulbs burning out. When using an overhead projector, check both the main lamp and your spare. For slides, get a spare projector. Then, if a bulb goes, it's much easier simply to replace the entire lamp assembly from the spare projector. Even though it only takes about five seconds, practice it to make certain you know how. • Avoid cardboard slide mounts on 35mm slides. They warp and get jammed in projectors easily. Plastic mounts are better, but the image may distort because the slides are not supported in the center. Glass mounts are best, but fully enclosing the film between two pieces of glass can allow moisture to create strange looking whorls on the screen. Thus, singleside glass mounts are preferred. • Write the carousel slot number for each slide on the corresponding mount. Don't use paper stickon tickets because they could cause the slide to jam in the gate. Write the numbers in pencil in case you must change them. Once slides are marked, if you drop your full carousel of slides, you can at least reload them in order fairly quickly. • Always personally carry your slides or overhead trans parencies onto the plane, train, or bus. Luggage can be replaced if lost, rerouted, or stolen. Your visuals are more difficult to replace. • Practice removing jammed slides before your presen tation. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 126 1. Check the slot number of the jammed slide. 2. Pinch the metal tabs (or turn the slot with a coin, depending on your carousel) in the center of the tray, and lift it from the projector. 3. Remove the jammed slide from the projector by pushing the SELECT lever next to the gate. 4. Make certain the slide ring is attached to the top of the carousel by turning firmly in a clockwise man ner until a click is heard. 5. Turn the tray upside down and rotate the metal ring until the tabs fasten to the slot. Turn the tray right side up. 6. Remove the top ring and replace the slide, if desired. 7. Set the carousel back on the projector, depress the SELECT switch and hold, while turning the carousel to the desired slot number. 8. Check the slide drop to make sure it doesn't jam again. • When using a videotape, check with your projectionist well in advance to make certain the tape you have is the same format as the projector you plan to use. • // you will be projecting before a large audience, view your tape well in advance before you decide to use it. If the quality is not excellent, largescreen projection will only accentuate shortcomings. • Use a laser pointer whenever possible, certainly before a large audience. These pointers are small (some are about the size of a pen), can throw a small red dot of light over long distances (i.e., 50 to 100 feet), work in any lighting situation, and are easy to use. Laserex, Kodak, and Applied Laser Systems all sell consumer models for between 200 and 500. USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 127 Note: One caution about laser pointers. Use them sparingly during your presentation to prevent having the red dot begin to "bounce" on the screen because your hand or arm is not rocksolid steady. Rest your arm on the lectern to help keep the dot steady. When laser pointers were first introduced, technicians called them "nervometers" because the nervous ness of the speaker could be gauged by how much the laser dot jumped around on the screen. ROOM PREPARATION The best way to determine if your facilities will be adequate for audiovisual presentations is to visit the room well in ad vance and ask yourself these questions: • Who is my main contact for facilities support Find one person responsible, and direct all questions and requests to that individual. This eliminates a lot of shouldershrugging and buckpassing. Also, meet the projectionist and sound technician to review every detail. • Will the proper equipment he available If not, bring your own. • Can I get the room dark enough to show my visuals effectively This is a job for your coordinator. • Where will the projectors be located Will they block my audience's view of the screen Are they going to be positioned within the audience Is there a possibility that equipment could accidentally get unpluged Note: If your electrical cord must trail along a carpet, tape it down with duct tape. If it must go under a sliding partition into another room, be sure you clearly mark the cord "Do Not 128 DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Unplug" I know of two instances where hotel personnel un plugged projection equipment; in one case, they rolled up the extension cord and took it away. • Where will the screen be located For front projection, if at all possible, the screen should be positioned at an angle off to one side at the front. • What else could possibly go wrong Might background music unintentionally be piped into your meeting room Are exit signs clearly marked in case of a power failure Try to imagine what other mishaps might oc cur, and then prepare for or attempt to prevent them. GENERAL TIPS Once you've prepared the room by familiarizing yourself with the projection equipment and by checking the bulbs, extension cords, and remote controls, you're now ready to practice your talk. Here are a few basic rules for using visual aids in any presentation: 1. Face the audience. When using a pointer, hold it in the hand closest to the screen so you can face them and maintain eye contact. Talk to the audience, not to the visual. 2. Avoid reading the writing on your visuals. Paraphrase them and then expand on the message the words convey. 3. When using transparencies, shut off the projector occa sionally. This helps emphasize important points, and also gives the audience a bit of variety. One trick to avoid turning the projector light on and off is simply to tape a flap of paper over the projection lens and USING AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT 129 flop it down over the lens when you want to darken the screen and direct the audience's attention back to you. Then, when you want to use the projection again, merely lift the paper flap up and rest it back on top of the lens. 4. If you must point to something on a transparency, use a pencil and not your finger. SUMMARY There you are—a new AV specialist is born. With the proper preparation, proper equipment, and proper assistance, you'll have your audience giving you a standing ovation. Here is a quick review of the major points in this chapter: • Determine which visuals are right for your audience. • Use the most professionallooking materials you can for any given situation. • For best audience comprehension, keep the message simple. • Proofread everything thoroughly. • Let your visuals guide you through your talk. • Finally, make sure you maintain that allimportant eye contact so they remember you, and not just your graphics. Appearing on Television "You ought to be in pictures . . . and you probably will." 131 DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 132 Xrediction: The majority of businesspersons under the age of 50 reading this book will soon be appearing on television. Why How When I told this to one young business exec utive, he smiled and said, "How can that happen I'm an ac countant. I can't imagine ever appearing on television." The answer is found in one word: videoconferencing. Regardless of your profession—accounting, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, or selfemployed entrepreneur— the chances that you will appear on television during any business career over the next 20 years are close to 100 percent At this very moment, larger companies in the United States are installing and using inhouse television studios for live videoconferences. They know it can be just as effec tive and less costly than fullscale meetings involving time consuming crosscountry travel with expensive air fares and overnight accommodations. The phenomenon making this possible is the rapid expan sion of a spiderweb of wires called fiber optic transmission lines across the United States. These tiny strands of micro scopic light beams will make videoconferencing more feasible and economical. There is also discussion of creating fran chised videoconferencing outlets across the country (a la pho tomats and convenience stores) to allow smaller businesses to buy videoconferencing transmission time. It won't just stop there, however. The second generation of videoconferencing is already well past the experimental stage. It is called 3dimensional imaging. We first saw it popu larized in the TV and motion picture series "Star Trek." So, by the year 2010, it's entirely possible that you, the business speaker (or at least your image), will be "beamed up" to a boardroom or convention hall in some distant city, in the same manner as Captain Kirk and his crew. APPEARING ON TELEVISION 133 In essence, videoconferencing could become the facsim ile machine of tomorrow as a standard means of business communications. Even today, there is a thriving industry in videotape pro duction for education and training, for marketing products, and for general communications from management. Another challenge for businesspeople in this TV age is occurring daily as local and regional TV news teams increas ingly turn to the business community for news and commen tary. As a result, more and more of today's business managers find themselves standing before that electronic cyclops and appearing on the 5 or 6 o'clock news. Case Study: Media trainer Frederick Knapp tells of a senior officer from a topranked international company who agreed to appear on a Chicago TV talk show. He received some brief coaching on what color shirt to wear and what type of ques tions he might be asked. After one minute into the interview, the host started asking certain unexpected, penetrating ques tions. The executive first became ill at ease, then perspired heavily, and finally completely fumbled a critical question. Two actions resulted: First, after the president of the firm saw the tape, he immediately ordered media training for the entire top echelon of the company. And second, the senior officer was released a week after his TV appearance. For the upcoming business executive of today, looking squarely into the eye of a TV camera and communicating smoothly and effectively will become a new and perhaps ev eryday challenge. The good news is that you can learn special techniques for appearing on TV so that you'll come across as a Tom Brokaw and not a Bart Simpson. WHERE AND HOW TO START Within the TV industry, the waiting room used by guests scheduled to appear on a TV show is called "The Green 134 DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Room." When I asked a TV producer how and why the sobri quet "Green Room" was adopted, he replied with a devilish grin: "Because so many people get sick there." There are only two ways to prepare yourself for the stom achtesting experience of the "Green Room" and all the other unnerving surprises of TV appearances: first, through books like this one, and second, through professional training schools and seminars. There is no middle ground. You could practice in front of a home video camera, but nothing you do at home can duplicate suddenly walking into a blindingly lit TV studio or having a TV reporter push a camera and micro phone into your face and start asking tough questions. If you believe an appearance on TV is anywhere in your future, you will be well advised to read this chapter. But white reading about it is helpful, a more thorough approach would be also to seek help and training through some type of professional workshop, seminar, or individual tutor. With TV, it is impor tant to replicate actually standing or sitting before a live cam era being asked questions by a professional interviewer. How do you find these specialized trainers and consult ants In large metropolitan cities, you can begin with the Yellow Pages of the telephone book. Look under the heading "Public Speaking Instruction" to find agencies and individu als who specialize in all types of public speaking. But, if it's TV interviews that interest you, look closer for those who offer special instruction in "media appearances." If the Yellow Pages don't help, your contacts with adver tising or public relations agencies can be another source of information. They probably know what type of training is available in your city or region; some may even provide classes on being "mediagenic." Also, local TV stations may know what training programs are available; some local TV personalities may moonlight by offering private tutoring. The Chamber of Commerce of the United States (1615 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006, phone 2024635921) offers a variety of "Communicator Workshops" designed to "train business to meet today's communication challenge." APPEARING ON TELEVISION 135 While these programs cover the full range of communication skills, several of the courses specialize in training and preparing businesspeople for both friendly and hostile TV interviews. "Communicator Workshops" tailor instruction to the needs of the individual or organization and are offered either at the Chamber headquarters in Washington, DC, or at the company site. While there are many consultants and trainers across the country, here are profiles of just two services that specialize in television; they are representative of the types of training offered, fee schedules, and length of time required. (Chapter 10, "Resources for Help," provides more names and addresses of additional organizations that offer training in the full range of public speaking.) MediaPrompt Inc. is located in Stamford, CT (phone 203 3590728), and was formed by David Horwitz, former pro ducer of "The CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite." This firm specializes in training corporate executives to communi cate more effectively on TV and radio, and in print interviews. As an integral part of training, Horwitz sets up scenarios for his clients that simulate actual television situations includ ing the physical and emotional elements involved. He tailors training to prepare executives for the following situations: TV appearances, public events, hearings, testimony, media crises, political campaigns, and videoconferences. He offers either private or small group classes and works extensively with videotapes so that the trainee can see how he or she appears on camera. The time requirement is a half to a full day. Fees run 2,500 to 4,000. Frederick Knapp Associates, New York City (phone 1800 3212299) offers as many as 40 twoday seminars across the United States. These courses are intended to improve skills in business speaking, presentations, and image and style. They also teach participants how to do a better job with print, TV, or telephone interviews. Knapp offers four types of seminars: "ExecuSpeak" is a twoday seminar designed to develop and sharpen manageDO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 136 ment speaking skills; "ExecuStyle" is intended to increase a speaker's persuasiveness and ability to tailor presentations to different audiences; "MediaSpeak" is a oneday program de signed to polish skills in dealing with print, radio, telephone, and TV interviews; and "ExecuImage" is a twoday seminar on improving spoken communication, personal image, etiquette, and behavior, and choosing appropriate business attire. Fees for the 19911992 period run from 595 to 895 per seminar. Here are some of the TV problems and solutions you will experience in these workshops. Much of the advice presented here is excerpted, with permission, from a comprehensive instruction manual published by Horwitz/Mediaprompt for its clients. NERVOUSNESS Nervousness is natural. For most, appearing on TV is a to tally new experience. The bright lights, the microphone, the unexpected quiet of the studio, the cool professional inter viewers—it's like stepping on to a movie set. Suddenly, you realize "I'm on stage" Your mind becomes numbed at the thought of the thousands of unseen people "out there" who are watching you. Remember, the ways to reduce nervousness are to know your subject, believe in your subject, and practice. While it is difficult to practice for appearances on TV, you can anticipate, and the following sections describe some things you should know in advance that will definitely help reduce nervousness. CLOTHING If you feel comfortable about your attire and overall appear ance, that will boost confidence and make you more at ease. APPEARING ON TELEVISION 137 However, your choice of clothing should not detract the viewer's attention from your face and what you are saying. Horwitz counsels that men should stick with grays, mid dle blues, and browns for suits and jackets. Women have more latitude but should stay with the middle tones. Watch out for reds. The TV camera often gives bright red a neon glow. Also, both men and women should avoid plaids, herring bones, and checks. They tend to "vibrate and ripple on the TV screen," Horwitz explains. Shirts and blouses should be lighter than surrounding jackets; pastels appear as offwhite, which is fine. Stark white is usually avoided because it appears brighter than the face and eyes. That is why so many TV stations recommend that their guests wear pastels, and especially light blue. Also, avoid shiny jewelry, such as earrings for women and tie clips for men. The lights cause distracting reflections. MAKEUP For onthespot TV news interviews, the time and situation factors usually prevent any opportunity for makeup. How ever, for instudio interviews or for videotapes being pro duced for replay to business audiences, you should definitely consider makeup. The application of makeup is almost auto matic if you are appearing on syndicated or national TV shows. For men, the purpose is to eliminate the shine from oil and perspiration around the upper lip, nose, and forehead. It is also useful in hiding the shadow of a beard. For women, your normal makeup base should be just fine, says Horwitz. Pay particular attention to your eyes. It is to your advantage to draw the viewer's attention to them. Eye shadows should be in the gray and brown shades; greens and blues tend to make a person look ghostly. 138 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING BODY LANGUAGE Standing Posture If you're standing at a lectern, make sure your shoulders are square to it. Avoid leaning on the lectern or putting your hands on it. Avoid shifting your weight from foot to foot be cause the camera operator will have to follow your weaving. To avoid such weaving, Horwitz says, place one foot slightly in front of the other. Sitting Posture This is the most common position for guest interviews and there are definite tricks to projecting a confident but relaxed image: • Just before sitting down, men should reach around and tug their coattails downward and then try to sit on them. This eliminates any unsightly gap where the coat collar and neck meet, and gives a smooth, tailored look. • Men should unbutton suit coats, lest the collars bulge upward when seated. • Sit back into your seat, but lean forward enough so your feet are supporting a portion of the body weight. Keep your spine straight and forward, slightly away from the backrest, by leaning slightly forward from the hips toward the interviewer. "The result is a straight back, which makes you look vibrant, alert, concerned, and confident," Horwitz says. "Your clothes will hang better, you will appear to have lost a few pounds, and your body language says T care.'" • Keep your chin up. Don't tuck it into the neck. When we tuck our chins inward, we tend to appear defensive. • Plant your feet squarely on the floor with perhaps one foot slightly ahead of the other. That helps energize APPEARING ON TELEVISION 139 your performance. For men, crossing the legs at the knees can signal defensiveness, and an ankle over the knee suggests overconf idence. • For women, a natural crossing of the legs at the knees looks fine. Better yet, cross the legs at the ankles. EYE CONTACT A TV interview is basically a conversation. Everyone knows that eyetoeye contact during conversations signals attentive ness, interest, and alertness. Therefore, focus your eyes on the interviewer's eyes in a friendly, considerate manner. But don't stare intently. Horwitz counsels: "Break eye contact when you are gath ering your thoughts, but go back to the interviewer's eyes right away. When gathering your thoughts, pick a spot other than the camera lens to look at. Also, try to avoid looking upward, lest you appear to be appealing to God for help" Some other don'ts about eye contact: Don't sneak a look at the studio monitor or the camera or lens, and don't let other people or movement in the studio distract your atten tion. The best and perhaps only time to direct your eyes at the camera is when you are actually directing a comment to the viewing audience. There is an exception to each of these rules. It is when you are located in a remote studio being interviewed by a host at the main studio, as with Ted Koppel on "Nightline." In this case, there may be no other people in sight. You will be given an earplug to hear the program director and the interviewer. The camera will be pointed directly at you. In this case you should look and talk directly into the camera just as though it were a person. Again, it is often difficult to maintain a natural position. When the average person listens through an ear phone, his or her eyes tend to look downward or to the side. Another temptation is to sneak a look at a monitor to see how DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 140 you look on TV. Finally, it is a new experience to carry on a friendly, animated conversation with just a solitary, cold, round piece of glass staring at you. GESTURES AND MANNERISMS Horwitz warns that, for some unclear reason, the camera tends to reduce body dynamics by about 30 percent (Figure 15). He calls it "an energy drain." As a result, to avoid looking stiff and stilted while on TV, we must put more emphasis and motion into our faces and bodies. One solution is to use gestures freely, but with these precautions: • Be certain to keep them below the chin and at chest or shoulder height, otherwise the camera may miss them. • Also, take care that your gestures do not cause your hands or arms to brush against the microphone that is usually pinned to a lapel or tie. Figure 15 Television cameras drain 30 of the body's energy. 141 APPEARING ON TELEVISION Try to use gestures that help the viewer visualize what you are talking about: sizes, numbers, directions, and so on. Above all, don't be afraid to smile and laugh when appro priate. The smile is a contagious and universal language. Horwitz schools his clients to avoid the following pos tural problems: • If you are seated in a swivel chair, don't swivel. • Don't cross your hands in front of your crotch. (That's called "The figleaf position.") • Crossing the arms often appears as a defensive posi tion. And putting them behind your back while stand ing suggests a military stance. • Avoid playing with rings, pens, or pencils; rubbing your hands together; or tapping your finger on a table: You may distract the viewer. • Other mannerisms that suggest you are ill at ease are chewing your lip, tugging at your earlobes, patting your hair, or tugging at a mustache. Professional actors can get away with some of these and look natural, but we amateurs usually cannot. SELECTING YOUR WORDS The typical TV news piece or interview with business types on the local 5 or 6 o'clock newscast rarely lasts more than two minutes. They may seem longer, but they aren't, says Virginia Sherwood, a former ABC correspondent who covered the White House and has since counseled businesspeople for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. That means that—allowing for the "setup" time (i.e., the time it takes to introduce the subject to the viewer and to pose the question)—you, the interviewee, only have 15 or 20 seconds to reply. "And," Sherwood says, "you'll probably only have two of those 'bites' in which to DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 142 provide your information and answers. If you ramble on and on, you'll be edited out." This is why the best, most effective TV interviewees can answer a question in a succinct 30 words or less. In a studio interview session, however, more time is al lowed. The typical interview is about four minutes. Once again, it is a virtue to keep replies short and to the point. Incidentally, there is no harm in pausing for a second or two before responding to a question. Such a pause is natural and gives the viewer the impression that you are quite properly taking a few beats to compose your reply. As for additional general advice, Horwitz offers these tips: • Think and speak for the ear. Short words are better than long words. Simple sentences are better than com plex ones. • Avoid jargon. Every business has its own lingo. Avoid using obscure terms or phrases that clutter communi cation and give the viewer the impression you are try ing to parade your special knowledge. ANSWERING HOSTILE QUESTIONS Stereotypes aside, not every TV reporter is aggressive or cru sading or trying to discover hidden secrets. They are simply trying to do a job, and they are trained to ask direct, incisive questions. When confronted by what may seem "hostile" questions, your best reaction is, according to Sherwood, " to try to make a friend of the reporter. Respond patiently in a reasonable and even voice. Smile. Be honest and straightforward. If the reporter appears hostile, the audience will recognize this and quickly sympathize with your situation." APPEARING ON TELEVISION 143 Here are more tips for dealing with TV reporters: • Welcome reporters and their questions. Take the atti tude that they represent the public, and that you want the public to know your side of the story. • Don't ever argue with a reporter. Be positive. Stress the points you wish to make, even if you must repeat them several times. • When a reporter asks several questions at a time, you might respond with "You've asked several questions. Let me try to respond to the main point ... " • Never evade a reporter's question with "No comment." That has become a pejorative phrase that causes the viewer to think "Ohoh. Cover up" It is better to say "I simply can't respond to that now for these rea sons . . ." And then explain the reasons. • Never lie to a reporter. It will surely come back to haunt you. • Don't be afraid to ask a reporter to repeat or rephrase a question that you don't understand. • If a reporter or interviewer asks a negative question (e.g., "Why have your sales dropped so drastically in recent months"), try to avoid repeating the negative statement. Don't start by saying "Sales have dropped because ... " Instead, start right out with the answer: "The recession has caused many of our customers to reduce inventories, but we believe this is only a tempo rary situation." • Finally, never hesitate to say "I don't know the answer to that question" if that, indeed, is the truth. But then, try to explain why (e.g., beyond your area of expertise, all the facts have not been gathered yet, a final decision has not been made yet, etc.). DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 144 Above all, the best advice when preparing for a TV inter view of any kind is as follows: 1. Know the subject. Do your homework. Make certain you know as much about the subject as anyone. 2. Consider one, two, or maybe three basic points that you wish to convey during the interview. Make certain you can relate them in brief, clear sentences. Keep steering the conversation around to those points. Don't be afraid to repeat your message(s) in different ways. Use examples and analogies that provide the viewer with mental images. 3. Try to smile, relax, and consider the experience as a conversation. As Sherwood observes, "The object is to appear natural in a very unnatural situation. You want to be comfortable, in control, confident, open, and friendly. Reporters are short term, instant experts who have simply taken some time to prepare a few direct questions. You are the expert. That is why you are being interviewed." OTHER TYPES OF QUESTIONS In Horwitz's courses, executives are tutored in all kinds of TV appearance situations. For example, he takes the news confer ence setting and breaks it down to its two basic components: the opening statement, and the question and answer session. He has his pupils practice maintaining good eye contact with the reporters, and not looking into the camera. "Deliver your answers to the reporters closest to the cameras," Horwitz advises, "because the viewer wants you looking in his or her general direction and not away at some remote spot." In TV news conferences or interviews, there are four basic types of questions, and Horwitz drills his clients in APPEARING ON TELEVISION 145 identifying them and dealing with them. The four types are (1) informationseeking questions, (2) opinion and speculationseeking questions, (3) offtarget questions, and (4) hostile questions. • "What is the future of your industry" is an informationseeking question with a wideopen door of opportunity for you to respond. • "Do you think your market share will improve this year" is an opinion and speculationseeking question and offers both risk and gain. If you avoid it, you appear timid and uncommunicative. But if you have something solid and positive to say, it is a ripe opportunity to com municate this. • "If you were doing business in South Africa, would you be fighting for a policy of onemanonevote there" is an offtarget type question because it is hypothetical and asks "What if" • "Your company has never had a woman serve on your Board of Directors; isn't that reactionary and dis criminatory" is, obviously, a hostile question. The questioner is trying to stir up controversy by using an accusatory statement. Through coaching and practice, businesspeople can learn to identify and cope with each of these types of questions. Professional tutors and trainers try to prepare their clients for every situation. Horwitz, for example, rehearses executives for everything from the "softball" interview to the "ambush" in terview. Softball interviews deal with few hard or penetrating questions. "Informational" interviews will be friendly but more pointed and tougher. The videotaped interview may take 5, 10, or even 15 minutes; but the interviewer may only intend using 15 or 30 seconds for insertion into a longer story. In an "onthef ly" interview, a reporter and camera person suddenly DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 146 confront you with a question such as "There's been a big explo sion at your factory. What can you tell us about it" Any viewer of CBS's "60 Minutes" TV program has seen what Horwitz calls the "investigative interview" or the "ambush interview." A reporter on such an investigative as signment can represent a potential problem for you and your company. "Don't ever agree to an interview unless you know what it's about," says Horwitz. "And don't lie or bluff your way through such an interview." In the "ambush" situation, the reporter leads you through a series of innocentsounding questions and then pops up with the surprise question, such as "Well, I have here an internal report from November 1991 that says your own people recognized this problem and nothing was being done about it." In this case, your answer depends on whether or not you are familiar with the docu ment, but the proper reaction is to remain unflustered; do not look guilty or express anger. INHOUSE VIDEO PRESENTATIONS On occasion, you may need to videotape a presentation for purposes of training, education, or general communications. In this case, Horwitz tells his pupils, "This is the time to look the camera directly in the eye. That is because you want to deliver a direct, personal message, usually to small groups watching you on a normalsize TV screen." This same advice applies when involved in videoconfer encing. Try to treat the camera as "another person." Bear in mind that the beauty of videotaping is that you can rehearse your presentation, deliver it many times, and then edit out mistakes and retain the best versions. The essential qualities in these situations are energy, confidence, command of your material, sincerity, and friend liness. APPEARING ON TELEVISION 147 Horwitz defines each of these as follows: • Energy means a sparkle in the eye, an electricity in the voice, and a sense of enthusiasm and excitement. It does not mean phony drama or exaggerated gestures. • Confidence comes from knowing your material and also realizing that the camera is especially adept at detecting both confidence or the lack of it. • Command of your material means knowing all the facts, having statistics, citing examples, and using analogies. • Sincerity and friendliness are obviously winning ele ments of public speaking, and the best way to exhibit them is to treat the interviewer and the viewer as friends. SUMMARY If you are invited to appear on television, whether it be for a brief onthespot news interview or for a longer session at a studio, Horwitz and Sherwood offer the following tips on how to prepare and anticipate: • Have associates help you prepare a list of questions the interviewers could ask. Consider even the worst possi ble questions. • Make certain you have all the information available— statistics, references, sources, examples—to answer these questions. • Have your spouse or associates help you with "dry runs." The more you practice your answers, the more confident you will become and therefore more effec tive as well. 148 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING • If time permits, videotape these rehearsal sessions to observe if you are using good eye contact, good pos ture, and not unconsciously using distracting motions. • If it's a studio interview, watch the program in advance so that you are familiar with the setting and the format of the show. • When time permits, carefully consider what clothing you will wear. • Arrive at the studio early, and if possible, meet the people who will be interviewing you. • Above all, try to adopt an attitude that "this is just a friendly conversation" and "the only ingredient I might add is to show a bit more energy in my words, my face, my gestures, and all my reactions." And don't forget to smile g Special Speaking Situations How to Introduce Other Speakers Serving as an Emcee or Moderator The Question and Answer Period Speaking to International Audiences 149 150 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING HOW TO INTRODUCE OTHER SPEAKERS When David Ryan was asked to introduce the seminar speaker, he stepped up to the lectern and the nightmare of all speakers greeted him: His mind went blank—he could not remember the name of the speaker. Thinking quickly, how ever, Ryan said to the audience: "Before we begin, I just want to check out in the hallway to see if any more people are going to join us." He then stepped outside, glanced at the notice board where the speaker's name was printed, and returned to fulfill his assignment. Serving as an "introducer," or "presenter," is a task that seems to befall just about everyone at least once in a business lifetime. On the surface, it appears to be such a simple assign ment: Just give the person's name and recite the standard biographical facts. Next time you're tapped for that job, however, push that personal history handout aside. You can do the audience, yourself and the speaker a big favor by using the following commonsense guidelines. 1. Keep it short. Two minutes, maximum. Shorter if pos sible. (Most people speak at a rate of about 110 words per minute, so you can use that as a measuring stick.) I was once introduced by a senior member of a state wide association who started reminiscing about the association and wound up talking for 30 minutes 2. You'll probably have to read the introduction, so write it out in large type on 5 by 7inch cards. However, here's the secret: Within a reasonably short time be fore you step up to the lectern, find a deserted room SPECIAL SPEAKING SITUATIONS 151 and read the material aloud at least six times. This practice session will make you so familiar with the information that you will be able to look up from the notes frequently to gain that allimportant audience eye contact discussed in Chapter 4. 3. Remember that your job is to aid the audience by providing them with answers to three of the Six Magic Questions presented in Chapter 2. In this case, those questions are: • Why this subject is timely for this particular audience. • Who this speaker is. • What credentials this speaker brings to this subject. 4. To serve the speaker, your role is to get the audience eager to hear him or her. Again, that's why the first point on this checklist—make it short—is so important. 5. To help yourself, and to make a good impression on the audience, you want to appear smooth, friendly, and capable. You achieve this by spending time preparing.and then practicing the introduction, even though it may last only a couple of minutes. Next, here is a sequence of steps to help you accomplish all these guidelines: 1. Several days or even weeks before the event, contact the person you are introducing to discuss your intro duction. This assures accuracy and appropriateness. It also avoids the problem of having to make last second changes on the day of the program. 2. On the day of the event, before the audience assem bles, be certain personally to check the microphone, the lectern, and where you and the main speaker(s) will be seated. DOS AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 152 3. If you have not met the speaker in person before, in troduce yourself to him or her long before stepping up to the dais. 4. Determine with the program managers if there should be a questionandanswer period. If so, follow these rules: • Be certain to mention this in your introduction. • Decide, with the program manager, how much time should be allowed. • After the speaker has finished, rise to lead the ap plause and remind the audience that the speaker has graciously agreed to answer questions. • To prime the question process in the event of that embarrassing and almost inevitable silence, have one or two questions of your own to ask the speaker. • Help the speaker remember to repeat the question so that everyone in the audience knows it. If the speaker forgets, step up to the microphone and do it yourself. • A few moments before the allotted time runs out, advise the audience that there is time for the speaker to answer "just one or two more questions." • At the end of the last answer, thank the speaker and once again lead the applause. If there is no questionandanswer period, it is usually the assignment of the presenter not only to thank the speaker but to offer a few summary comments. These remarks should be brief (about 30 seconds) and should capsulize some of the key points made by the speaker. To do an introduction par excellence, you might con sider telephoning or writing close friends of the speaker to ask for phrases or anecdotes that help describe the unique credentials of the speaker. Only one or two choice phrases or SPECIAL SPEAKING SITUATIONS 153 brief stories are needed. This technique also conveys the message to both the audience and the speaker that you con sidered your assignment conscientiously and put extra work into it. One of the cleverest introductions I've heard was given by the president of a large utility company for the mayor of his city. He simply said: "And now it is my great pleasure to introduce the mayor of our great city, John Norquist." Then, at the conclusion of the mayor's remarks, the presenter of fered this pleasant and surprising closer: Thank you, Mr. Mayor. Now, you may have wondered, sir, about the relatively short introduction I gave you preceding your remarks. The reason for that was that there is an unwrit ten rule of protocol that says the more famous the speaker, the shorter the introduction. For example, if I had the honor of introducing God to this audience, all I would need to say is "Here's God." Therefore, your introduction had to be a little longer than that . . . but not much. SERVING AS AN EMCEE OR MODERATOR This job has been likened to being a gatekeeper at a bullfight. Your responsibility is to open and close the gates to let the bull enter. A "gatekeeper" is a proper analogy. You are not the star or even the featured player. Instead, you are the facilitator, the timekeeper, and bridgemaker all rolled into one. Once again, here is a checklist to consider next time you are tapped to be the master of ceremonies, emcee, moderator, toastmaster, or whatever term you prefer: 1. Meet with the program planners days or even weeks in advance. Develop a clear understanding of the goals of the meeting, the type of program desired, and the specific nature of the audience. 154 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 2. Lay out a specific timetable with the planners. If you plan on several 10minute presentations, allow 12 or even 15 minutes for each. The reason is that very few speakers are disciplined to speak within given time limits. 3. The customary role of the emcee is to offer a wel come and then simply introduce a series of speakers in some prearranged order. Learn from the meeting organizers if more than that is expected of you, such as also giving the invocation, recognizing dignitaries in the audience, or making other special announce ments. When introducing a head table, always ask the audience to refrain from applauding until the last person has been introduced. The only exception to this might be if you have a number of important lumi naries seated at the head table who individually de serve the audience's applause. 4. Prepare notes about the people you are introducing, following the guidelines offered earlier. Above all, check on the proper pronunciation of each speaker's name. If it is an unusual name, be sure to practice saying it aloud because it reflects badly on you, as the emcee, to stumble over the name of a featured speaker. 5. On the day of the event, before the audience assem bles, be sure to do the following: • Check out the room, the podium, the lectern, and the microphone. This is for your own comfort and familiarity but also to assure that everything is in proper working order. • Introduce yourself to each participant. Confirm where each person is expected to sit and the order of appearance (unless the program manager takes this responsibility.) The emcee should sit as close to SPECIAL SPEAKING SITUATIONS 155 the microphone as possible to avoid delays between presentations. • If the microphone must be adjusted according to the different heights of the various speakers, try to an ticipate this in advance. A good emcee will, as a courtesy, raise or lower the microphone to suit the next speaker as he or she approaches the lectern. • Once you've made the introduction, remain stand ing until the speaker is positioned to speak. Then sit down. • Determine with the program planners if there will be a questionandanswer session, and then advise the audience early in the program. • Learn who will be responsible for monitoring the volume of the sound system, the room lights, and any other audiovisual equipment. Review, in advance, any special requirements with them and if and how you will cue them. • Be certain to carry your notes with you and re move them each time you step up to the lectern; or place them on a shelf under the lectern. • Most important, learn from the program organizers how long the program is expected to last. Try to begin on time and then try to finish at the desired time. The mark of a good emcee is to run a program on time. • Finally, keep reminding yourself that your role is to keep the program moving along briskly yet smoothly. It is also useful if you have prepared in advance a final observation or thought or quota tion that captures the essence of the meeting. Your words will be the final words the audience hears. They will be the words the audience remembers best as they file out of the room. 156 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Professional emcees will also have assembled a collec tion of possible but appropriate oneliners or short anecdotes to insert between appearances of the speakers. The more experienced emcees will be able to fashion these from the direct remarks of each speaker, but that is difficult and some times dangerous to attempt. An emcee must never, never acci dentally embarrass any of the speakers on the program. Finally, an anecdote that demonstrates how not to be a smooth, diplomatic emcee: Alan Fredericks, associate publisher of Travel Weekly maga zine, while visiting the People's Republic of China, attended a large banquet given by his Chinese hosts. At the end of the evening, the Englishspeaking Chinese emcee rose, raised his glass of wine and said: "A final toast. Thank you all for com ing. Now, go home." THE QUESTIONANDANSWER PERIOD One of the more difficult assignments for an emcee is manag ing the questionandanswer period. Most of them seem to be gin with these words from the emcee: "And how our guest has agreed to answer some of your questions." Then . . . silence. And more . . . silence. Crowd psychologists attribute this to a simple but under standable phenomenon that "No one in a crowd likes to be first. A crowd longs for a leader." Here are a few tricks to overcome that embarrassing pause. If hands do not shoot up immediately, you can do one or more of the following: • Offer the first question. • If the speaker does not see any hands raised, he or she can then step up and say, "One of the most common questions asked me by audiences is . . ." SPECIAL SPEAKING SITUATIONS 157 • The safest technique of all is for the speaker to "plant" a few questions with members of the audience. This can be done diplomatically if someone poses an inter esting question before the speech, perhaps during in formal conversation. In that case, the speaker or em cee can just say, "That's a very good question. I hope you'll ask it during the questionandanswer period." • Another method is to arrange to have questions writ ten out by the audience in advance. This is especially appropriate if you believe some members of the audi ence would feel awkward asking a question in public. All these techniques have the same objective: to assist people in the audience so that the questions begin to flow. Bear in mind that people usually ask questions for one of three motives: 1. The questioner sincerely seeks more information. 2. The questioner is less interested in the answer but wants to show off his or her own knowledge. These questions are usually long and involved. One way for the speaker to cope with this situation is to say "So, your question is . . ." and then paraphrase and shorten it, answer it, and move on to the next raised hand. 3. The hostile questioner is someone who strongly dis agrees or wishes to embarrass the speaker. In this case, the speaker should be cool, factual, friendly, and brief. After a member of the audience asks a question, unless it is absolutely certain that everyone in the audience heard the question, the speaker (or, if necessary, the emcee) should quickly repeat the question over the microphone. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 158 When, as speaker, you are answering, remember "Less is more." Try to keep from wandering. Try to answer clearly and succinctly. You can even pause for a few beats before answer ing, to collect your thoughts. Audiences will understand. It's very natural to pause and contemplate for a few seconds. Also, when answering, try to steer your comments back to your basic message. If you realize your answer must necessarily be complex or apply only to a small portion of your audience, just say "That's an interesting question but involves a complex answer. I'll be glad to meet with you at the close of this program to discuss it further." If you honestly don't feel qualified or capable of answer ing the question, don't be afraid to say so. As the saying goes, "Better to be silent and be thought a fool than to keep talking and prove it." Do try, however, to explain why you are unable to answer. Try not to become defensive, and never embarrass any one in the audience. If you suspect someone is being hostile or purposely disruptive, try to counter with friendliness and kindness. Either the speaker or the emcee should be assigned the responsibility of watching the clock to determine when the questionandanswer session should end. The designated per son then simply announces, "We have time for just one or two more questions." Try to end on a high note—that means, when you believe you've given a good answer or when the audience interest level is still high. Reason: It's an old show business axiom to "leave your audience wanting more." The skilled speaker will also have a "closer" prepared to wind up the questionandanswer session. Here are two examples: I've noticed our program chairperson looking at his (or her) watch, so I guess we should end this session. Will Rogers was SPECIAL SPEAKING SITUATIONS 159 asked once if it bothered him when people in his audiences looked at their watches. He replied, "No. The only time it bothers me is when they shake their wrists and put the watch up to their ear to see if it's still working." "mm I appreciate and thank you for your questions. In closing, perhaps you read in the papers about the archbishop from Italy who recently visited the United States. It was his very first visit, and so his aides warned about the American media and how they often asked tough, even embarrassing questions. When the archbishop held his press conference at the airport, sure enough, one of the reporters asked, "How do you like the looks of American women" The archbishop, realizing this was one of those dangerous questions, simply said, "Oh I've just arrived. Are there any women in America" And everyone laughed. The next day one newspaper featured a photo of the archbishop with the caption: "Archbishop's first question on arrival at airport is 'Are there any women in America'" SPEAKING TO INTERNATIONAL AUDIENCES In 1991, a record number of international visitors came to the United States—more than 40 million of them. Many came as tourists, of course, but an increasing number of those visitors came to attend business meetings, conventions, and trade shows here. Further, an equally heavy flow of Americans head toward overseas locations each year, many for the same reasons. As a result, more and more of our business audiences have an international flavor so it's important to consider some precautions. Here are some tips to ensure that you, as a speaker before one of these worldly audiences, don't trip over some cultural boundary lines. 1. First, Americans are lucky; English is the language of business throughout the world. Furthermore, English is commonly taught in schools around the world. In DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 160 Russia, for example, there are more teachers of Eng lish than there are people in the United States who speak Russian. And in the People's Republic of China, there are more people studying English than there are people in the whole United States. 2. The key point, however, is that Americans should re member that all those foreigners may not be learning American English. And, if they have, in fact, learned EnglishEnglish there can be hundreds of words and phrases that mean something entirely different from AmericanEnglish. As just one example, England and the United States use different words for no less than 60 components when designating the various parts of an automobile between England and the United States (e.g., our muffler is called a "silencer" there, our windshield is the "windscreen," and the dash board is the "fascia"). 3. As a result, it is essential when speaking to an interna tional audience to do the following: • Avoid colloquialisms, slang, jargon, buzz words, acronyms, and sports and military terminology. • Speak slowly, with a deliberate pace, yet don't be come monotone or lifeless. • Use examples and stories. Repeat major points. And use plenty of graphics. One excellent technique is to make a point, then tell a story that illustrates that point. 4. If you must use technical terms, stop to offer brief definitions. Rudy Wright, a certified meeting planner in Denver, spe cializes in helping clients stage meetings overseas before in ternational audiences. Wright offers this additional advice: SPECIAL SPEAKING SITUATIONS 161 • When giving a technical talk, provide a printed abstract or outline to each member of the audience. • Respect the protocol of the local country. In other words, inquire in advance about the proper local cour tesies (e.g., recognizing dignitaries in the audience, proper use of names and titles). • Since most of the rest of the world uses the metric system, consider if you should either convert all your measurements to metric or supply them in both systems. Humor becomes especially difficult when speaking to international audiences. American humor is usually topical or based on word play. Both of these are difficult to export and translate. Consequently, test your humor in advance with lo cals to make certain it will be considered funny. Finally, there is the totally new experience in public speaking of using a foreign language interpreter. In some rare cases, where the complex facilities are available, you may have the luxury of simultaneous interpretation. More likely, however, you will use a consecutive interpreter. In the latter case, consider these special conditions: 1. When speaking through a consecutive interpreter, it is customary for you, the speaker, to voice a sentence or two constituting a single point or thought, and then the interpreter converts that into the local language. This continues, back and forth, throughout your pre sentation. Two points are critical to remember: Your speech will take twice as long, and you should deliver the message in short, compact phrases and sentences. 2. Spend time in advance with your interpreter so that he or she becomes acquainted with your voice, vocab ulary, pace, and especially your special phraseology. 162 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING If you don't, you could run the risk of suddenly seeing some startled looks. It even happens to U.S. Presidents: When former President Jimmy Carter visited Poland in 1977, his interpreter was new and apparently unaccus tomed to Carter's choice of words. First, when attempt ing to say Carter had "left the United states that day," he said Carter had "abandoned" the United States. Next, he translated Carter's phrase about the Poles' "desires for the future" as their "lusts for the future." And, fi nally, he pulled the biggest whopper of them all by say ing "The President says he is pleased to be here in Poland grasping your secret parts." 3. Arrange for a separate microphone for the interpreter. This saves the problem of the two of you bobbing back and forth, sharing the same mike. 4. Speak to the audience, not to the interpreter. Don't lose that valuable eye contact with your audience. 5. Don't be afraid to show emotion in your language, even though some or all of the audience may not un derstand your words. It is still important to transmit energy, strength, and conviction, and you can do that with your voice and your body language. 6. Take time to rehearse with your interpreter, so that you become comfortable with each other. This helps you smooth out bumpy spots, become acquainted with the backandforth pace, and encourages short but complete sentences. 7. Agree with your interpreter on prearranged signals, so he or she can indicate if you are going too fast or too slow. 8. Memorize at least a few polite phrases in the local language so that you can begin and end your speech on a gracious note. For example, "Thank you for your patience in listening to me," or "You have been a very SPECIAL SPEAKING SITUATIONS 163 gracious audience; thank you." This attempt at speak ing the local language usually ingratiates the speaker to the audience. 9. Find some way to thank your interpreter, either pub licly or privately. Also, after your speech, evaluate the results with the interpreter so you can be even smoother the next time around. Speaking to international audiences can produce memo rable moments. I once entertained a distinguished business visitor from Bogota, Colombia. At the banquet in his honor, he asked me if it would be appropriate if he offered a toast. He said it was an old Spanish toast that he would attempt to translate into English. I assured him it would be fine, and this is what he said in his halting English: Ladies and gentlemen. I am so very pleased to be in attend ance here this evening. Let me propose this special toast from my country. This is absolutely the most enjoyment I have ever had . . . dressed. While there was a momentary silence from the audience, they quickly grasped the situation and not only applauded but gave our guest a standing ovation. 9 How to Turn Professional "To graduate from a wannabe' to a willbe' status, it's important to make the climb carefully, step by step." 165 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 166 JLhis chapter details how to prepare and then get launched as a professional. As you will soon learn, it usually takes consid erable preparation, patience, and perseverance before you can ascend to the professional dais. But the rewards can be worth the climb. Speaking profes sionally can become a fulltime occupation, or complement a bustling career, or serve as a wonderful retirement avocation. Whichever is your objective, it can also be challenging, invigo rating, and ego boosting. HOW TO START The first requirement is to have a specialty. In marketing terms, the word is "positioning." That means you must carve out a position within the marketplace that is unique and ap pealing when compared with other professional speakers around the country. Two good examples of people who in 1991 became immediately "positioned" and appealing as profes sional speakers were U.S. Army General Norman Schwarzkopf of "Desert Storm" fame and Dave Dravecky, the baseball pitcher whose pitching arm was amputated after a coura geous battle with cancer. Schwarzkopf started at the highest rung of the ladder, incidentally, being offered as much as 80,000 for a single speech. Now that's positioning One common mistake wouldbe speakers sometimes make when starting out is to attempt to be all things to all audiences, by claiming they can speak on any number of top ics. That usually fails. You must have a specialty, whether it is as an athlete, educator, successful business entrepreneur, politician, humorist, or expert on some specific topic of wide, general interest. HOW TO TURN PROFESSIONAL 167 One category in high demand is the inspirational/moti vational speaker. Lou Holtz, the Notre Dame football coach, is one of the most successful of these. In Holtz's case he has immediate "positioning" credentials as a successful, nation ally known football coach. But he is also a compelling plat form speaker on leadership, planning, goal setting, teamwork, and perseverance. He even uses his ability as an amateur magician to spice up his talks. Lee Sherman Dreyfus is a former college president, pres ident of an international insurance company, and Governor of the State of Wisconsin. He is now a fulltime professional speaker, delivering about 80 speeches a year. While he tailors each one, depending on the nature of the audience, his basic messages deal with education, the American way of life, and the opportunity for the future. More often than not, Dreyfus receives a standing ovation.This ability to motivate people has been cultivated through decades of experience speaking in lecture halls, corporate board rooms, and on the campaign trail. Is he enjoying this new life Absolutely, and that fact is underscored in his personal slogan: "Have mouth, will travel." The most popular specialties break down into two cate gories: Topics that appeal to individuals, which are usually best presented in seminars and workshops, and topics that appeal to groups, which are best presented at luncheons and banquets. For individual appeal, specialties in constant de mand are such things as how to sell better, how to communi cate more effectively, how to relieve stress and anxiety, how to organize your life more efficiently, how to think and act positively, and how to live a more healthy life. Topics most suitable for groups are future trends for business, overcoming the competition, empowerment, quality management, or cus tomer service. McKenzie offers this advice on how to break into the professional ranks: "Become known. Write a book, seek op portunities to discuss your specialty on television and radio, DOS AND TABOOS OR PUBLIC SPEAKING 168 write articles for business, meeting, and airline periodicals, and send out press releases to the news media whenever you're making a speech. Also, get listed in the Yearbook of Experts, Authorities and Spokespersons." Authors often observe that it is ironic that writing just one book automatically seems to qualify the author as an afterdinner speaker. Program managers often think that anyone who has written a book should also be an interesting speaker. But, of course, that's not always the case. Authors may get a few initial bookings just because they are authors, but to continue in a speaking career, the author must make the jump from an ability to write to the separate ability to speak. They are different skills. Once you've decided on your special niche, there is often a slow, plodding pace to professionalism. You begin by accept ing invitations to speak to any and all audiences and groups seeking programs. Every local service club, alumni or profes sional group, church society, and retirement club is continu ally searching for a new program—especially if the speaker requires no honorarium. And there's the rub. When first starting out on the professional path, the first mile might be labeled "pro bono," or for a less elegant word, "free." By accepting these invitations, however, you will be accomplishing two things: First, every person in those audi ences becomes a potential reference for still another pro gram. If you are good, they will say to others, "I heard this wonderful speaker recently; maybe we can get her or him to speak to our group as well." Second, during each of these engagements, you will be adding a bit more polish to both your delivery and your message. Local Rotary, Lions, Optimists, and other service clubs are nurturing grounds for the aspiring professional. As a gen eral policy, since they meet weekly, they cannot offer fees to their speakers, but they are usually wonderfully receptive audiences when a good program comes their way. Members of these clubs are also business leaders in the community, HOW TO TURN PROFESSIONAL 169 men and women who are often on the lookout for good speak ers to appear before their sales force, professional group, or association. Special Note: At this point, as you are doing these "freebies," whenever you finish delivering a program and you believed you performed well, be certain to ask the program manager: "If the program was satisfactory, would you mind providing a letter to that effect As you know, such endorse ment letters are very useful in reassuring other groups who are considering me." As these endorsement letters accumu late, they will serve that purpose beautifully. This route could take several years, but it is likely that you will expand in everincreasing geographic circles until one day some program manager will phone and say, "We would like you to speak, but we can only afford an honorar ium of 100." Eureka You have stepped up from the ama teur's league to the pro level, albeit still a rookie. Early in this passage to professionalism, you might learn if there is a local or regional professional speakers' association available to you. Twentysix states, plus one chapter for the six New England states, and one each for the District of Columbia and the province of Ontario, Canada, have chartered speakers associations. (See the complete list on pages 189192.) For nominal membership fees, these regional or state organiza tions offer opportunities to people who wish to improve and market their speaking skills. They may also provide advice and training on all aspects of professional speaking. Most meet monthly or bimonthly. Some even arrange for annual "showcases" where, for a fee, you audition before an audience of program chairpersons and meeting professionals. MARKETING YOURSELF As you venture forward into the field of professionalism, it is important to develop and produce certain sales materials that DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 170 quickly and attractively describe you and your special credentials. McKenzie recommends that, if necessary, you enlist the aid of a graphic designer and writer to create a smartlooking leaflet, folio, or package that presents your special attributes. These materials should showcase such at tractions as: • Your experience in your special field. • Copies of articles by or about you and your work. • A short list of titles of your programs. • Selected endorsement comments from program man agers for whom you have spoken. • A photograph. • And, perhaps most important of all, a video "demo" tape that shows you at your platform best. At this point, McKenzie suggests you may be ready to simultaneously approach a few speakers bureaus. Don't be disappointed if you are rejected or receive a cold shoulder, however. "The world is full of wouldbe speakers, both good and bad," she says. "With dozens of calls and letters arriving weekly, it is difficult to find time to review and respond promptly to inquiries." Most bureaus prefer to have heard you in person or receive a glowing recommendation from a client or another professional speaker before agreeing to represent you. Or, they may have read your book or article and are willing to take a risk that you might also be an effective speaker. When a bureau asks to represent you exclusively, you've reached the loftiest speaker's platform position of all. Until then, it is the custom in the bureau profession to have nonex clusivity—meaning you can be listed simultaneously by sev eral different bureaus. Also, as a free agent you can continue to generate and accept bookings directly, without involving any bureau. HOW TO TURN PROFESSIONAL 171 ROLE OF A SPEAKERS BUREAU Speakers bureaus operate this way: First, they serve a large list of clients consisting of associations, corporations, non profit institutions, professional societies, universities, and colleges. Second, the bureau's income is derived mainly from commissions taken from the speaker's fee. Fees are quoted by the bureaus as a "gross" figure, mean ing that a commission is then deducted and the "net" remitted to the speaker. Travel and accommodation expenses are almost always separate from the fee and are customarily paid for by the client. Some clients, especially colleges, want to pay all inclusive fees. The client may also arrange for your air and hotel reservations, or request that you do it, then reimburse you later. Once a speakers bureau has shown interest in you, follow up with a personal visit so that the bureau sales team can enthusiastically convince a client of your value. "A bureau's business is much like that of the oldfashioned matchmaker," McKenzie explains. "We put complementary qualifications to gether on both sides to achieve the perfect fit. And the more we know about the contenders, the better the match." Once a bureau or agent makes a commitment to list you and begins to obtain speaking engagements for you, here are some typical services the bureau provides: • Draw and issue the contractual agreement with the client who is hiring or booking you. • Inform the client of your audiovisual and travel re quirements, plus any other special needs. • Provide you with detailed information about the organ ization, the event, and what is expected of you. • Obtain a partial payment from the client in most cases, and retain that to discourage cancellation. 172 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING • Put you in direct contact with the client well before the date of your appearance so that you can respond more effectively to the client's interests and needs. Of course, the bureau is also responsible for collecting the entire fee and sending you the net amount due within a reasonably short time after the engagement. A representative of the bureau should also be in touch with you before the date of the engagement to obtain your arrival and departure times (for the client) and to assist you with any lastminute details. After your speaking engagement, the bureau will follow up to make sure you were happy with the arrangements and to provide client feedback on your performance. This custom arily consists of a written evaluation from the client. In return, here (according to McKenzie) is what a bureau expects from you: • Keep the bureau informed of changes in your career, such as newly published books or articles, current top ics, or any other uptodate information that will help them sell you. • Don't inundate the bureau with unnecessary paper; the bureau does not want a postcard or letter every time you pack your bags for a speech. • The bureau may even ask you to consider doing an occasional free engagement, perhaps to a group of as sociation executives or professional meeting planners; both these groups represent potential future bookings for the bureau and you; they also usually pay travel and accommodation expenses. • The bureau will expect you to supply your photograph, any marketing materials you can spare, and your tax identification number so that the bureau can file a W2 statement with the Internal Revenue Service for all fees paid to you in the past taxable year. HOW TO TURN PROFESSIONAL 173 FEES FOR PROFESSIONAL SPEAKERS When starting out, fees follow the ageold economic truism of "what the market will bear." For example, a local retirees association may offer a token 50 payment, a small regional professional society might provide 100, and a small cham ber of commerce might customarily pay its annual dinner speakers 500. For an established speaker in, say, his or her home state, fees of 1,000 to 2,000 are not unreasonable. One speakers bureau president reported that "among all the speakers in the United States, from the Henry Kissingers who may demand 30,000 and more, to the newcomer who commands only a couple of hundred dollars, the average fee is 5,000. So, a speaker should not be afraid to move up the scale accordingly." If you are commanding fees at the 2,000 to 3,000 level per engagement, that's when speaker bureaus begin to take interest and should enter the picture. They bring obvious ben efits: They know the marketplace and can give you sound advice on how much to charge. They know each client and what they customarily pay to newcomers, experienced profes sionals, and celebrated names. Speakers bureaus will charge you commissions ranging from 20 to 40 percent and sometimes more. Be wary of the bureau or agent who does not reveal the exact gross amount the client is paying for your services. Some speakers have reported situations where they learned—after the fact—that an agency had charged a client more than double the fee the speaker was actually paid. The value of a bureau is obvious: They have hundreds, sometimes thousands of possible clients, and they can also negotiate a higher price for your talents than you may be able to obtain independently. Most bureaus are also willing to cobroker with other agencies who have clients who want to book you for a program. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 174 Another fee policy among many speakers involves "doubledip" programs. This may occur when you are booked for one engagement for, say, 2,000, and then the client asks if you will "double up" and do a separate presentation on the same date and at the same location. In this case, many speak ers add a 50 percent uplift to their fee to cover the second program. Other speakers will negotiate a lesser amount with the rationalization that they are on the site and the extra time requirement is not troublesome. Once you are along the road to professionalism, you face an important question: What do you say when the phone rings and the program manager asks the inevitable question, "What is your fee schedule" At this juncture, you can either refer the inquirer to one of your speakers bureaus to negotiate the fee, or negotiate it yourself. Newcomers to the profession tend to be flexible about negotiating fees, whereas more estab lished speakers have rigid fee scales. Let's continue this scenario. You quote a figure and the caller responds with "Oh, that's a bit higher than we antici pated." In that case, the speaker can say, "Well, I know we all must operate within budgets. Do you mind if I ask what amount you have budgeted for a speaker" Then, depending on the answer, the speaker must decide if it's worth the time and effort. (The saddest scenario—for the speaker, at least—is when you quote a fee and the program manager says, "Oh, that's great We expected it would be more.") Speakers may possibly offer slightly reduced fees if the organization is nonprofit or educational. Distance and time also may affect a speaker's fees. For example, an engagement within easy driving distance may warrant one fee, but one involving a day or more of travel deserves a higher fee. All these quandaries are eliminated, of course, if you use a speakers bureau to negotiate fees for you. If you do both—that is, negotiate bookings yourself but also receive bookings from agencies—take care to stick to a HOW TO TURN PROFESSIONAL 175 fairly rigid fee scale lest you get caught undercutting fees being quoted by the bureaus. THE NATIONAL SPEAKERS ASSOCIATION (NSA) The NSA, which was formed in 1973, has its own Code of Professional Ethics and now counts some 3,800 members in the United States and other countries. Membership includes experienced professional speakers, developing professional speakers, vendors or suppliers to the speaking profession, and aspiring professional speakers. Headquarters for this Association is located at 3877 North 7th Street No. 350, Phoenix, Arizona, 85014; the tele phone number is 6022651001. A membership directory is published regularly and is supplied to more than 8,000 "decision makers" who have the responsibility to plan and stage meetings. This directory fea tures photos of members along with a description of their speaking subjects and, according to at least one speakers bureau head, is "a great advantage to be listed in." There are three membership categories: • Regular. All or a portion of an applicant's income is from at least 20 separate professional speaking engage ments for fee each year. • Associate. A portion of an applicant's income is derived from less than 20 professional speaking engagements for fee each year. • Vendor. A supplier of services, material, or equipment to professional speakers. Fees (as of 1992) for initiation are 175 (of which 100 is redeemable toward a future NSA workshop/convention within two years), and annual membership dues are 250. DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 176 The NSA also sponsors what it terms "Professional Em phasis Groups" or "PEGs." These groups are tailored to spe cialty subjects to allow professional speakers to share and learn on a focused basis. The PEGs meet regularly, have their own agendas, and are listed separately in the NSA directory. The following PEGs currently exist: Consultants International Educators Sales Trainers Health and Wellness Seminar/Workshop Leaders Humorists Speakers Bureaus Dues are 20 per group. Membership in NSA brings multiple benefits to the pro fessional speaker. It provides training and education, a direc tory to help you gain attention, and an opportunity to meet and mix regularly with others in the field. Under a stiff set of criteria, NSA also awards the designa tion "Certified Speaking Professional" (CSP), which can be listed after your name on business cards, letterheads, and promotional material. The criteria to achieve this designation are as follows: • Membership in NSA for 36 continuous months. • A minimum of five consecutive years of professional speaking experience, during which: • A minimum of 250 presentations were given, with a minimum of 20 given in each 12month period and for which a minimum fee was received. • A minimum of 100 different clients were served. • A minimum of 20 testimonial letters were received from clients served. • A minimum of 30 credit hours of professional educa tion were earned at NSA conventions or workshops. HOW TO TURN PROFESSIONAL 177 NSA also offers the following four insurance programs to members, their spouses, and key employees: major medical, disability income, catastrophe major medical, and term life. OTHER CROUPS Two associations are considered "buyers" of speaking talent, and it is wise to become aware of them. The first is Meeting Planners International (MPI). This is a national association with many local chapters comprising members who have come to specialize in staging meetings. They can be independent agents or they can be employees of corporations—usually a large corporation that stages many meetings each year. In addition to negotiating for hotel rooms and meals, a professional meeting planner also books speak ers and other forms of entertainment. The second group of national importance is the Ameri can Society for Association Executives (ASAE). This also has many local chapters; chapters in New York, Washington, and Chicago are the most prominent because most national asso ciations are based in those cities. The professional association executive bears the designation "Certified Association Execu tive" (CAE) and is constantly on the lookout for informative programs for his or her association. In both of these cases, it is wise for the "wannabe" speaker to devise a way to speak before local chapters of both MPI or ASAE. The audiences of both could represent multiple bookings. 19 Resources for Help Locating reliable speaking help can be easy and inexpensive. 179 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 180 The Wall Street Journal reports that some speaking consult ants may charge 1,000 per person for group counseling. Pri vate assistance can cost even more. For example, a San Fran cisco trainer charges as much as 3,500 for a day of personalized tutoring. And other therapists, according to the Journal, even go so far as to prescribe medications to allow a client to withstand a "must" talk. Locating resources for help need not be that costly nor that drastic. GENERAL SOURCES Probably the single best place to start is with the Yellow Pages of your telephone directory. Look under the heading "Public Speaking Instruction." For example, the 19911992 Yellow Pages directory for Manhattan, New York, contained 18 list ings for individuals or agencies that offered assistance; Greater Los Angeles had 5 listings; Atlanta, 10; San Francisco, 23. If your community offers such publicspeaking instruc tion, sort through the listings and then phone to obtain more information. A good example of one of these private training organi zations is Frederick Knapp Associates, Inc., New York City. He and his staff traverse the United States offering executive seminars in major cities. Knapp offers four types of semi nars: "ExecuSpeak," which is a comprehensive twoday semi nar devoted to all phases of business speaking, including the professional use of visual aids; "ExecuSpeak, " an advanced twoday seminar on "final touches" for management presen tation effectiveness; "ExecuImage," a twoday seminar fo cusing on improving total executive image and style; and "MediaSpeak," a oneday course to prepare businesspeople RESOURCES FOR HELP 181 for print, television, telephone, or crisis interviews. These seminars range in cost from 595 to 895 each. For more information, call 18003212299. The next best source for assistance is probably your local library, where you'll find "how to" books on public speaking. In my local library, for example, there are some five dozen such books. Unfortunately, few were written especially for the businessperson. However, many of these books offer excellent general advice on improving publicspeaking abilities. The next most likely sources to examine are community colleges or vocational schools in your area. Many of these offer "how to" courses in basic public speaking. Moreover, they are offered on evenings and at other convenient times for busy businesspeople. As an example, classes may meet once or twice a week for a few hours over a span of 8 or 10 weeks. Nominal fees are usually charged. Be certain to ask if videotaping equipment is available as part of the training. In these classes, you will be expected to prepare and deliver short presentations to the class and before the camera. In 26 states, the Washington, DC, and the New England areas, speakers' associations offer membership to people interested in improving publicspeaking abilities. They often provide workshops and seminars on speaking and also on marketing yourself if you wish to begin speaking for fees. A list of these statebased organizations appears on page 189. On the national level, two organizations—one nonprofit and the other an 80yearold profitmaking institution— provide excellent training grounds for the businessperson who wishes to gain practical experience. TOASTMASTERS INTERNATIONAL There are more than 7,000 Toastmasters clubs and 160,000 members in the United States, Canada, and 50 other coun tries, including two clubs in Moscow, Russia. Thousands of DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 182 corporations and government agencies sponsor inhouse Toastmasters clubs as training workshops for their em ployes. Clubs have even been established at military bases, colleges and universities, churches and prisons, as well as among senior citizens, professional groups, bilingual groups, singles, and the visually impaired. Toastmasters was organized in 1903 in Santa Ana, Cali fornia, by Ralph C. Smedley, a YMCA director who decided that older boys there would benefit from training in communica tions. This nonprofit organization bills itself as a club that fosters "learnbydoing workshops in which men and women hone their skills in an atmosphere of fellowship and enjoy ment." The typical club has 20 to 40 members who meet once or twice a week to learn and to practice publicspeaking tech niques. The average club meeting lasts about an hour and a half. There is no single instructor in a Toastmasters club. Members evaluate each other's oral presentations. Each meet ing features several members who deliver prepared speeches and are then evaluated by other members. Members also give impromptu talks, develop listening skills, learn how to conduct meetings, and learn parliamen tary procedures. A new member of Toastmasters progresses through a se ries of 10 speaking assignments, each designed to instill a basic foundation in public speaking. Members then select from among 12 advanced programs geared to specific career needs. Those 12 programs are: Public Relations The Professional Speaker Specialty Speeches The Professional Salesperson The Entertaining Speaker Technical Presentations Speaking to Inform Communicating on TV The Discussion Leader Storytelling Speeches by Management Interpretive Reading RESOURCES FOR HELP 183 To obtain more information about Toastmasters Interna tional, write to PO Box 9052, Mission Viejo, CA 926907052, or phone 7148588255. DALE CARNEGIE The name Dale Carnegie has become synonymous with the phrase How to Win Friends and Influence People (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1981). That is the name of Carnegie's bestselling book, first copyrighted in 1936 and still selling after 15 million copies. Dale Carnegie is also a registered trademark for a train ing program that is currently offered throughout the United States and 68 other countries. Unlike Toastmasters, this is a thriving, forprofit business that claims to train more than 170,000 men and women each year. According to the Carnegie organization, at least 9,000 companies use the Carnegie train ing programs every year, including 430 of the Fortune 500 companies. Eight separate programs are offered, but the main ingredients in all of them are such things as how to improve human relationships, how to motivate yourself and others, how to build confidence in yourself and others, and how to become a better communicator. Scattered across the United States and Canada are 88 licensed sponsors staffed by some 4,000 trained instructors. Active participation by each student in each class is an inte gral part of the Carnegie method. Cost, location, and fre quency for the various Carnegie programs is determined lo cally, but tuition ranges from 750 to 1,500 (1991 rates), depending on the community. When inhouse programs are offered, some or all of this cost may be subsidized by the employer. —It Parting Advice from Successful Speakers ibr this concluding chapter, I decided to turn to a dozen or more accomplished business speakers—people who were re garded as highly effective speakers by their peers. The pur pose was to research answers to this question: "What is the best, single piece of advice for someone in business who wants to improve his or her speaking skills" Here are some answers to that question: I never spend time on the good parts of a performance; but I spend hours on the weak parts. Cornelia Otis Skinner, Actress (On how to deal with the number one enemy, nervous ness.) I've noticed that a great (golfer) like Lee Trevino yawns when he gets into a pressure situation on the course. It's a deliber ate yawn that gives him extra oxygen and relieves tension. Under pressure your breathing becomes shallow. Yawning forces air into your lungs and to your brain. It's like taking deep breaths when you're nervous, only better. Tom Watson, Golfing Star 185 186 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Be yourself. Be honest, direct, genuine. Immerse yourself in the facts, the arguments, the emotions. Then present it from yourself. Don't try to be something you're not. Russell Spence, Trial Attorney Always keep a record of every speech—what you said to whom and what worked and what didn't work. Donald Field, University Associate Dean Look for somebody in the audience you know or have met, preferably somebody sitting in the first two rows. If you can spot two or three such persons in the audience, all the better. Direct a remark or two to them during your talk. It might be a simple greeting or it might be something related to your talk. For example, "Larry, you've handled a problem similar to this last year." The point is that casual, personal remarks to someone you know in the audience can create a closer relationship between you and the entire audience. It also helps you develop better eye contact with individual persons in your audience. President David L. Weiner, Marketing Agency The best single piece of advice given to me (in my speaking career) was—Slow down While it may have seemed cruel at the time, I was told that I was like a "windup doll" and when the key was turned on, I raced through my performance. I still suffer from that handicap and try to remind myself to change the pace occasionally. Harry F. Franke, Attorney and Inveterate Emcee Don't read a speech. Prepare an outline, rehearse privately, then wing it Better to look the audience in the eyes and stum ble a bit than to read a speech. Dean R. Axtell, Chairman of the Board Know your audience and know your subject. It's that easy. Then develop good eye contact and try to establish rapport with your audience. Robert Brennan, Chamber of Commerce President Know your subject. Care about your subject. And focus atten tion on your audience. The people who attend meetings are interested in you, your company, and they are customers—or potential customers. As a speaker, you're not only selling PARTING ADVICE FROM SUCCESSFUL SPEAKERS 187 yourself, but the company you represent. Be informational. Describe problems and solutions. Everyone wants to share the solutions to vexing problems. John Stollenwerk, President, Allen Edmonds Shoe Company Know thy speech Don't memorize it, but be so familiar with the content that only an occasional glance at the text or notes is required to keep you moving along the right track smoothly and naturally. In spite of butterflies—which are natural— this breeds confidence, which generates more relaxation, and I find the more relaxed I am the better the speech. Alfred P. Diotte, Corporate Attorney Know your facts . . . and then keep it light. Also, involve the audience by asking lots of questions to get them thinking and to keep them from sliding off their seats from boredom. Robert Geffs, Bank Executive What's the best, single piece of advice in business public speaking The answer is one word: Rehearsing. I try to re hearse so much I can give the speech with confidence and seemingly extemporaneously. Marsha Lindsay, Advertising Agency President My piece of advice is to avoid the common practice of speak ers who enthusiastically and bombastically tell audiences what they already know. It's called "BGO" .. . for the "Blinding Glimpse of the Obvious" syndrome. Robert Milbourne, Business Association President I have two bits of advice for aspiring business speakers. First, if you don't have the ability to open with a joke, don't do it A jok e that falls flat can unnerve the speaker as well as the audience. The second pieadvice is not to underestimate the intelligence of your audience. Simplify, but don't talk down with a haughty attitude of Mr. KnowItAll. Daniel P. Meyers, Corporate Public Relations Executive Know your audience very well. (1) Understand its mood, (2) determine, in advance, how informed its members are about your topic, (3) know its cultural/educational/ intellectual back ground, and (4) then try to stimulate its curiosity. Carl A. Weigell, Company President DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 188 Finally . . . this concluding piece of advice appeared in The Executive Speechwriter Newsletter: If I went back to college again, I'd concentrate on two areas: Learning to write and to speak before an audience. Nothing in life is more important than the ability to communicate effectively. Gerald L. Ford, President of the United States Local Chapters— National Speakers Association State Chapter Contact Alabama Alabama Richard Brown Speakers Association (205) 5784277 Birmingham Arizona Tempe Joanne Winter (602) 2771481 Steve Tyra (602) 2539055 California Los Angeles Ralph DiDonato (714) 6618482 Gayle Stewart (714)8321113 San Francisco Joanne Ryan (415) 9941498 Frederick Gilbert (415) 3683699 Sacramento Bill Cole (916) 6382706 San Diego MaryEllen Drummond (619) 7564284 189 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 190 State Chapter Contact Colorado Denver Suzanne Vaughan (303) 6902300 Voice Mail (303) 5923770 District of Columbia Washington, DC David Alan Yoho, Jr. (703) 6547070 Voice Mail (301) 6306605 Miami/Fort Florida Marlene Naylor Lauderdale (305) 8215866 George Chlamark (407) 6880888 Tampa Sheryl Nicholson (813)6843076 Georgia Atlanta Terry Brock (404) 9232800 Illinois Chicago Sam Lilly (708)2411515 Joe O'Rourke (708) 5414445 Kansas Kansas City Neita Geilker (816)7810973 Louisiana New Orleans Bob Gerold (504) 2888241 Michigan Ann Arbor Julius Cohen (313)4294855 Minnesota Minneapolis Joan Kennedy (612) 7808491 Missouri St. Louis Joe Ancona (314)3942019 LOCAL CHAPTERS—NATIONAL SPEAKERS ASSOCIATION 191 State Chapter Contact New England Marlboro, MA Margo Chevers (508) 6958687 New York New York City Al Parinello (201) 7840059 Elaine Barbakof f (914) 2347205 North and South Carolinas Benjamin Bailey Carolina (704) 3337307 Columbus Ohio Beth Richardson (614) 2211900 Barb Wingfield (513)4682041 Oklahoma Stroud Larry James (800) 7259223 Pennsylvania Philadelphia Carl T. Smith (609) 5892629 Tennessee Nashville Al McCree (615) 3700966 Texas Dallas Laurie Moore (214) 2500633 Houston Sue Pistone (713)4816546 South Texas Ron Birk (512) 3960767 Utah Utah Kathy Loveless (801) 3631807 Washington Nendels, Tukwila Joe and Helen Hesketh (206) 5620302 Wisconsin Milwaukee Chris ClarkeEpstein (715)8422467 Ann Wells (414) 7826788 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING 192 Canada Chapter Contact Ontario Toronto Steve Schklar (416) 8495664 Nova Scotia Denis Cauvier Halifax (902) 8837636 (Note: This list provided by and reprinted with the permis sion of the National Speakers Association, 3877 N. 7th Street, Suite 350, Phoenix, AZ 85014. Telephone (602) 2651001. FAX (602) 2657403.) Additional Reading Books on public speaking are plentiful as well as specialized, dealing with such subjects as persuasion, humor, oratory, speech writing, reducing fear, speaking in politics, general reference, and becoming a professional. If you wish to do more reading, just head for your local library or bookstore. At the library, the general heading is "public speaking." In bookstores, books on public speaking are usually located in the section labeled "Reference" books. The following is a list culled from both of these sources. The books are listed alphabetically by author: Allen, Steve. How to Make a Speech. (New York: McGrawHill, 1986). Alexander, Roy. Power Speech: The Quickest Route to Business and Personal Success. (New York: AMACOM, 1986). Flesch, Rudolf. The Art of Plain Talk. (New York: Harper Brothers, 1946). Hoff, Ron. / Can See You Naked: A Fearless Guide to Making Great Presentations. (Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1988). Iapoce, Michael. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Boardroom: Using Humor in Business Speaking. (New York: Wiley, 1988). 193 194 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Kushner, Malcolm. The Light Touch: How to Use Humor for Business Success. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990). Kenny, Michael. Presenting Yourself. (New York: Wiley, 1982). Lederer, Richard. Anguished English. (New York: Laurel, 1987). Lederer, Richard. Crazy English. (New York: Pocket Books, 1989). Linkletter, Art. Public Speaking for Private People. (Indiana polis: BobbsMerrill, 1981). McMahon, Ed. The Art of Public Speaking. (New York: G.P. Putnams, 1986). McManus, Ed and Bill Nicholas. We're Roasting Harry Tuesday Night: How to Plan, Write, and Conduct the Business/Social Roast. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1984). Osgood, Charles. Osgood on Speaking. (New York: William Morrow, 1988). Quick, John. A Short Book on the Subject of Speaking. (New York: McGrawHill, 1978). Robinson, James W. Better Speeches in Ten Simple Steps. (Rocklin, CA: Prima, 1989). Sarnoff, Dorothy with Gaylen Moore. Never Be Nervous Again. (New York: Crown, 1987). Spinrad, Leonard and Thelma. Speaker's Lifetime Library. (West Nyack, NY: Parker, 1979). Thomsett, Michael C. The Little Black Book of Business Speak ing. (New York: AMACOM, 1989). Valenti, Jack. Speak Up with Confidence. (New York: Morrow, 1982). ADDITIONAL READING 195 Zelko, Harold P. and Marjorie E. Zelko. How to Make Speeches for All Occasions. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971). Zito, Arthur J. "Unaccustomed as I Am . . .", An Executive's Guide to Public Speaking. (Fairfield, NJ: The Economics Press, 1963). Index A Bernhardt, Sarah, 8 Berra, Yogi, 94 Abramis, David, 85 Bifocal glasses, 56 Accents, 71 Body Language, on TV, Ailes, Roger, 37 138139 American Society for Breathing, 9 Association Executives, 177 Brennan, Robert, 186 Appearances: Briefing books, 22 on TV, 131147 on videotape, 146 Aristotle, 17 C Aslett, Don, 14 Association for MultiImage Capital Speakers Incorporated, 10 (AMI), 107108 Association for speakers, 168, Carnegie, Dale, 183 Certified Speaking Professional 175177,181 AudioVisual equipment, 4, (CSP), 176 105129 Chalkboards, 110 Audiovisual media, 110112 Charts, types of, 115 Authors, as speakers, 168 Churchill, Winston, 2324, 4041 Axtell, Dean R., 186 Clocks, 45 Closings, 4244 Clothing, for TV appearances, B 136137 Communicators, great, 3 Computergenerated graphics, Barber, Red, 53 Believing, 1517 117 197 198 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Dais, 66 Geffs, Robert, 187 Dale, Ron, 90 Gehrig, Lou, 10 Davies, John, 15, 33, 66, 72 Gestures, 16, 7273, 140141 Diotte, Alfred P., 187 on TV, 140141 Dravecky, Dave, 166 Graham, Billy, 15,73 Graphics, 106129 Dreyfus, Lee Sherman, 39, Grover, Herbert J., 61 60,167 Dry mouth, problems with, 71 H Haney, James C, 91 Headliner, the, 3337 Holtz, Lou, 167 Electronic presentations, Holznecht, Richard W., 9 112 Horwitz, David, 135147 Emcee, serving as, 153156 Hostile questions, 142144 Execution, 21 Humor, 4, 83103 Eye contact, 52, 6769, books on,94 139140 examples, 95103 importance of timing, 90, 93 international audiences, 161 sources for, 8789 what makes it humorous, 8791 Fears, 8 when not to use, 8586 Feedback, 76 Fees, 171175 Field, Donald, 186 Flipcharts, 110111, 115 Floyd, Robert, 14 Ford, Gerald L., 188 Iacocca, Lee, 15, 73 Fornwald, Mike, 5 Iapoce, Michael, 91 Foster, Arthur W., 1819 Infante, Lindy, 88 Franke, Harry F, 186 Inkjet printers, 120 Fredericks, Alan, 156 International audiences, Fright, stage, 9, 14 159163 INDEX 199 Interpreters, using, 161163 Microphones, 7579 Interviews, on TV, 141146 lavalier, 77 Introductions, 150153 remote, 79 Milbourne, Robert, 187 Mirror, 1820 J K Moderator, serving as, 153156 Monotone, 70 Johnson Wax Co., 13 Morris, Desmond, 73 King, Stephen, 9 Knapp, Frederick, 133, N 135136, 180 Kushner, Malcolm, 94 National Speakers: chapter listing, 189192 L information, 175177 Nervousness, 136 Laird, Melvin R., 55 Newhart, Bob, 2 Laser pointers, 126127 News conferences, 144146 Laughter, 71, 83103 Noonan, Peggy, 48, 5051 Lavalier microphones, 77 Notes, use of, 5863 Lectern, 66, 7579 Lederer, Richard, 94 Lindsay, Marsha, 17, 187 O Logan, Serge E., 13 Olivier, Sir Laurence, 8 Opaque projectors, 117118 M Opening, the, 3742 Orben, Robert, 14, 38, 93 Makeup, for TV appearances, Organizing a speech, 3344 137 Osgood, Charles, 36 Master of ceremonies, serving Overhead projection, 117118 as, 153156 Overhead transparencies, 116117 McKenzie, Phyllis Corbitt, 10, 165177 MediaPrompt Inc., 135 Meeting Planners P International, 177 Memorizing speeches, 58 Pavoratti, Luciano, 9 Meyers, Daniel P., 187 Pen plotters, 120 200 DO'S AND TABOOS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Rehearsing, 17, 23 Peterson, James R., 35 Physical aspects, 4 Remote microphones, 79 Podium, 66 Research,11 Pointers, 127128 Resources for help, 179183 Posture, 21, 7375 Rich, James H., 13 Room, the, 7981, 127128 when sitting on TV, 138139 when standing on TV, 138 Rush, William, 7071 Russo, Thomas, 41 Practice, importance of, 3, Ryan, David, 150 1723,56 Preparation, stepbystep, 19 Presenters, 150153 S Professional: fees for, 171175 Sarnoff, Dorothy, 17 how to become, 165177 Schwarzkopf, Norman, 166 how to turn, 5, 165178 Scott, Willard, 8 marketing yourself, 169170 Sherwood, Virginia, 141144 Projectors, slide, 75, 122123 Skinner, Cornelia Otis, 185 Slides, equipment for projecting, 118119, Q 122123 Questions: Slides: types of, 118119 answering hostile, 142144 using,105129 four types, 144146 Smedley, Ralph, 182 importance of, 2633 Smith, Roger, 26 "Six Magic Questions," 3133 Speakers bureaus, role of, Questionandanswer periods, 156159 171172 Speechwriters, 4853 Spence, Russell, 186 R Stage fright, 9 Stollenwerk, John, 186187 Radio announcers, 5253, Summarizing, 43 5657 Randall, Clarence B., 5354 Reading a speech, 3, 19, 4763 T aloud, 5253 how to, 5658 Tape recorder, 18 Teleconferencing, 132 when to, 5458 INDEX 201 Television, 4 Video projection equipment, announcers, 5657 124 interviews, 141145 Videos, 108 appearing on,131147 Videotape appearances, 146 Tension, 9 Videotapes, 112, 123124 Vinci, Vincent, 12 Thermal transfer printing, 120 Timing a speech, 44 Visual aids, 113125 Visual materials, 105129 Timing, value of, 11, 90 Visuals, production of, 115124 Toastmasters, 181182 Voice, 6971 Tomlin, Lily, 8 Training for TV appearances, 133147 Transition statements, 4142 WY True, Herb, 85 Watson, Tom, 185 Weigell, Carl A., 187 Weiner, David L., 36, 186 UV Williams, Robert, 12, 46 Wright, Rudy, 160161 U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Writing speeches, 4853 134135 Yeager, Chuck, 2 VCRs, 123124 Video cameras, 21
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