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ECOSYSTEM  The term ecosystem is coined from a Greek word meaning study of home.  It is the basic functional unit of ecology.  Ecology means the study of ecosystem.  An ecosystem can be defined as a group of organisms interacting among themselves and with their environment.TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM Ecosystem Artificial/Man Natural ecosystem engineered ecosystem e.g: croplands, Terrestrial dams, etc., Aquatic ecosystem ecosystem Marine ecosystem Fresh water ecosystem Lotic(running water) Lentic (standing water) ecosystem ecosystemNATURAL ECOSYSTEM  Operates themselves under natural conditions.  Based on their habitat types, it can be further classified into two types, 1) Terrestrial ecosystem related to land vegetation – grassland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, desert ecosystem , etc., 2) Aquatic ecosystem related to water and is further sub classified into 2 types based on their salt content as,  Fresh water ecosystem a) Running water ecosystem – rivers, streams. b) Standing water ecosystem – pond, lake.  Marine ecosystem – sea and sea shore.STRUCTURE (OR) COMPONENTS OF AN ECOSYSTEM • An ecosystem has two major components , 1) Abiotic (nonliving) components. 2) Biotic (living) components. Abiotic component Ecosystem Biotic component Fig. 1 Components of an ecosystem and their relationshipABIOTIC COMPONENTS  The nonliving components of an ecosystem  Examples – Climate, soil, water, air, energy, nutrients etc., 1) Physical components include the energy, climate, raw materials and the living space which the biotic components (living organisms) needs. Examples – air, water, soil, sunlight, etc., 2) Chemical components are the sources of essential nutrients. Examples : a) Organic substances – Protein, lipids, carbohydrates, etc., b) Inorganic substances – All micro (Al, Co, Zn, Cu) and macro elements ( C, H, O, P, N, K)BIOTIC COMPONENTS  The living organisms or the living members of an ecosystem.  The living components are made of many different species which are distinguished based on their feeding habit. It includes, 1) Autotrophic components include producers which are autotrops they derive energy from sunlight to make organic compounds. Examples Green plants, algae, bacteria, etc., 2) Heterotrophic components include consumers and decomposers which are heterotrophs i.e. they depend on others especially the producers for food.  The heterotrophs are a) Macro consumers – herbivores, carnivores, omnivores. b) Saprotrophs ( micro consumers) – decomposers ( bacteria, fungi, etc.,)CLASSIFICATION OF BIOTIC COMPONENTS  Biotic components are grouped into 3 groups based on their feeding habit.  Producers ( Autotrophs) synthesize their own food through photosynthesis . hv 6Co + 12 H O C H O + 6O + 6H O 2 2 6 12 6 2 2 chlorophyll  Consumers (Heterotrophs) depends on producers for their food and are of the following types: a) Primary consumers herbivores depends on plants for their food plant eaters insects, rat, goat, horse, cow , etc., b) Secondary consumers primary carnivores depends on 1° consumers for their food meat eaters frog, cat, snakes, etc.,a) Tertiary consumers secondary carnivores depends on 2° consumers for their food meat eaters tiger, lion, etc.,  Decomposers feed on dead organisms, plants animals decompose them into simpler compounds.  During this process inorganic nutrients are released which are then used by the producers along with other organic nutrients for preparing their own food.FUNCTION OF AN ECOSYSTEM  The function of an ecosystem is to allow flow of energy and cycling of nutrients.  Functions of an ecosystem is of 3 types : 1) Primary function of all ecosystem is manufacture of starch (photosynthesis) . 2) Secondary function is distributing energy in the form of food to all consumers. 3) Tertiary function includes decomposing the dead items and initiate the process of “cycling”ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM  Energy is the most essential requirement for all living organisms.  Solar energy is the only source to our planet earth.  Of the solar radiations reached the earth’s surface, some of which is absorbed by producers (plants) to produce organic matter through photosynthesis.  The plants are used by the herbivores and the herbivores are used by the carnivores as their food.  Thus the energy enters the ecosystem through photosynthesis and passes through the different tropic levels (feeding levels).  The conversion of solar energy is governed by the law of thermodynamics. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS o energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. o Solar energy is converted into chemical energy through photosynthesis by plants.  SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS o whenever energy is transformed, there is a loss of energy through the release of heat. o This occurs when energy is transferred between tropic levels. o The loss of energy takes place through respiration, running, hunting, etc., o Respiration equation CH O + O CO + H O 2 2 2 2 Carbohydrate oxygen carbondioxide water NUTRIENT FLOW OR NUTRIENT CYCLING OR BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE IN THE ECOSYSTEM  Nutrients are the elements which are essential for the survival of both plants and animals. o Macronutrients elements needed in large amounts O, N, C, Ca, Mg P. o Micronutrients – elements needed in small amounts Co, Zn, Cu, Boron Strontium.  Nutrient cycles the cyclic flow of nutrients between the biotic abiotic components. biogeochemical cycles.  The major nutrients like C, H, O N are cycled again again between biotic abiotic components of the ecosystem.CARBON CYCLE  Carbon – basic component in all the organic compounds.  It is present in all biotic components in different forms such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats aminoacids.  It is present in the atmosphere as CO 2 .  CO is taken up by green plants for photosynthesis. 2  This food moves through food chain finally the carbon present in the dead matter is returned to the atmosphere as CO 2.  During respiration, plants animals liberates CO in the 2 atmosphere.  Combustion of fuels also release CO 2  Volcanic eruptions also release CO 2NITROGEN CYCLE  Nitrogen is present in the atmosphere as N in large amounts (78). 2  It is present in all biotic components in different forms such as proteins, vitamins ,aminoacids, etc.,  It is taken up by the green plants and these move through the food chain.  After the death of the plants animals, the organic nitrogen in dead tissues is decomposed by several ammonifying nitrifying bacteria into ammonia, nitrites nitrates.  Nitrates again converted into molecular nitrogen (N ) which are 2 again used by the plants.  Nitrification – conversion of ammonia into nitrates by nitrifying bacteria Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas  Denitrification conversion of nitrates into nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria – Pseudomonas fluorescencePHOSPHOROUS CYCLE  Phosphorous is mainly present in the rocks fossils.  It is present in all biotic components in different forms such as bones, teeth, guano deposits.  Phosphate rocks is excavated by man for using it as a fertilizers.  The excess phosphate fertilizers move with the surface runoff, reaches the ocean are lost into the deep sediments.  Sea birds eat sea fishes, which are phosphorous rich the excreta of the birds return the phosphorous to the land.  Animals plants use these dissolved phosphates during the biosynthesis.ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION  The progressive replacement of one community by another till the development of stable community in a particular area  Community – group of plants or animals living in an area.  Stages of ecological succession 1. Pioneer community – first group of organism which establish their community in the area 2. Seres (or) Seral stage – the various developmental stages of a communityTYPES OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION  2 types based on the conditions present at the beginning of the process • Primary succession – gradual establishment of biotic communities on a lifeless ground. 1) Hydrarch (or) Hydrosere – establishment starts in an watery area like pond lake. 2) Xerarch (or) Xerosere establishment starts in a dry area like desert rock. • Secondary succession – establishment of biotic communities in an area, where some type of biotic community is already present.PROCESS OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION  Nudation : development of bare area without any life form.  Invasion : establishment of one or more species on a bare area through migration followed by establishment . a) Migration : migration of seeds brought about by wind, water or birds. b) Establishment : the seeds then germinate grow on the land establishes their pioneer communities.  Competition : as the number of individual species grow there will be competition between them for space, water nutrients  Reaction : living organisms take water, nutrients grow modify the environment is known as reaction. This becomes unsuitable for some favour for some species leads to seral communities  Stabilizations : it leads to stable community, which is in equilibrium with the environment.FOOD CHAINS  The sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is known as food chain.  Transfer of food energy from the plants through a series of organisms is reffered to as food chain.  At each every transfer, nearly 8090 of the potential energy gets lost as heat.  A food chain always starts with plant life ends with animal.FOOD CHAIN IN A GRASSLANDFOOD CHAIN IN A PONDFOOD CHAIN IN A FORESTTYPES OF FOOD CHAIN  Grazing food chain o Found in grassland ecosystems forest ecosystems o Starts with green plants goes to decomposer food chain through herbivores carnivores.  Detritus food chain o Found in grassland ecosystems forest ecosystems o Starts with dead organic matter (plants animals) goes to decomposer food chain through herbivores carnivores.FLOW DIAGRAM OF ENERGY IN GRAZING FOOD CHAIN DETRITUS FOOD CHAIN  In a Grassland ecosystem Heat Heat Heat Producers Herbivores Carnivores Carnivores (grass) (Rat) (Snakes) (Eagle) 50 Dead organic Grazing food chain matter 50 Heat Heat Heat Decomposers Carnivores Carnivores (Bacteria) (Soil animal) (Soil animal) Detritus food chain In a forest ecosystem Heat Heat Producers Herbivores Carnivores (grass) (Deer) (Lion) 10 Dead organic Grazing food chain matter 90 Heat Heat Decomposers Carnivores (Bacteria) (Soil animal) Detritus food chainTROPIC LEVELS (T , T , T , T , T )(OR) 1 2 3 4 5 FEEDING LEVELS  The various steps through which food energy passes in an ecosystem is called as tropic levels.  The tropic levels are arranged in the following way as follows:FOOD WEB  The interlocking pattern of various food chains in an ecosystem is known as food web.  In a food web many food chains are interconnected.  Since different types of organisms are connected at different trophic levels, there will be a number of opportunities of eating being eaten at each trophic level. ENERGY FLOW IN FOOD WEB  The food web shown here, is formed by interconnecting five linear grazing food chains, which in sequence are i. Grass Mouse Snake Hawk ii. Grass Mouse Hawk iii. Grass Rabbit Hawk iv. Grass Grasshopper Hawk v. Grass Grasshopper Lizard Hawk DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOOD CHAIN FOOD WEB Food chain Food web  If one species get If one species get affected (or) becomes affected, it does not extinct, then the affect other tropic species in the levels so seriously. subsequent tropic  There are number of levels are also options available at affected. each tropic level.SIGNIFICANCE OF FOOD CHAIN FOOD WEB  Both play an very important role in the ecosystem as because the energy flow nutrient cycling takes place through them.  They help in maintaining the ecological balance by maintain regulating the population size of different tropic levels.  They have the property of biomagnification . o The non biodegradable materials keep on passing from one tropic level to another. o At each successive tropic level, the concentration keep on increasing. o This process is known as biomagnification. o DDT sprayed for pest control is an example for biomagnification.ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS  Graphical representation of structure function of tropic levels of an ecosystem is called ecological pyramids.  In food chain starting from producers to consumers, there is a regular decrease in the properties (i.e., energy, biomass number of the organisms).  Since some energy is lost as heat in each tropic levels, it becomes progressively smaller near the top.TYPES OF ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS  Ecological pyramids are of three types 1) Pyramid of numbers 2) Pyramid of energy 3) Pyramid of biomassPYRAMID OF NUMBERS It represents the number of individual organisms present in each tropic levels.PYRAMID OF ENERGY  It represents the amount of energy present in each tropic levels.PYRAMID OF BIOMASS  The amount of living (or) organic matter present in a particular environment (or) tropic level is called biomass.FOREST ECOSYSTEM  A forest ecosystem is the one in which tall dense trees grow that support many animals birds.  The forests are found in undisturbed areas receiving moderate to high rainfall.  The forest occupies nearly 40 of the world’s land area.  In India it occupies only 19 of its total land area.TYPES OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM  Depending upon the climate conditions, forests can be classified into the following types, 1) Tropical rain forests 2) Tropical deciduous forests 3) Tropical scrub forests 4) Temperate rain forests 5) Temperate deciduous forestsFEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FORESTS  Tropical rain forests o Found near the equator o Characterized by high temperature o Trees : broad leaf trees like teak sandal o Animals : lion, tiger monkey  Tropical deciduous forests o Found little away from the equator o Characterized by a warm climate rain only during monsoon o Trees : deciduous trees like maple, oak hickary o Animals : deer, fox, rabbit rat Tropical scrub forests o Characterized by a dry climate for longer time o Trees : small deciduous trees shrubs o Animals : deer, fox etc.,  Temperate rain forests o Found in temperate areas with adequate rainfall o Trees : characterized by coniferous trees like pines, firs, red wood etc., o Animals : squirrels, fox, cats, bear etc.,  Temperate deciduous forests o Found in areas with moderate temperatures o Trees : broad leaf deciduous trees like oak, hickory o Animals : deer, fox, bear, etc.,CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM  Forests are characterized by warm temperature adequate rainfall, which makes the generation of number of ponds, lakes etc.,  They maintains climate rainfall  They support many wild animals protect biodiversity  The soil is rich in organic matter nutrients, which support the growth of trees  Since penetration of light is so poor, conversion of organic matter into nutrients is very fastSTRUCTURE FUNCTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM  Abiotic components o Physical components found in the soil atmosphere. o Climatic factors (temperature, light, rainfall) minerals. o In addition to minerals, occurrence of litter is characteristic features of majority of forests.  Biotic components  Producers Trees ,shrubs, ground vegetation  Consumers a) Primary consumers ( herbivores)– ants, flies, insects, mice,deer, squirrels b) Secondary consumers (primary carnivores)– snakes, birds, fox c) Tertiary consumers– tiger, lion etc.,  Decomposers bacteria fungi – rate of decomposition in tropical subtropical forests is more rapid than in the temperate forests.GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM  Grassland occupies about 20 of earth’s surface.  In addition to grass species, some trees shrubs are also present in grasslands.  Limited grazing will help to improve the net primary production of the grasslands.  Overgrazing leads to degradation of these grasslands resulting in desertification.TYPES OF GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM  Grassland can be classified into 3 types based on their climatic conditions. 1) Tropical grasslands 2) Temperate grasslands 3) Polar grasslandsFEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRASSLAND  Tropical grasslands o Found near the borders of tropical rain forests o Characterized by high temperature moderate rainfall (40 to 100 cm) o Also known as Savanna type o Plants : tall grasses with scattered shrubs stunted trees o Animals : zebras, giraffes, etc.,  Temperate grasslands o Found in the centers of continents, on flat, sloped hills o Characterized by very cold winters hot summers o Intense grazing summer fires, do not allow shrubs or trees to grow Polar grasslands o Found in arctic polar regions o Characterized by severe cold strong winds along with ice snow o Plants : in summer several small annual plants will grow o Animals : arctic wolf, weasel, arctic fox etc.,CHARACTERISTICS OF GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM  Grassland ecosystem is a plain land occupied by grasses.  The soil is very rich in nutrients organic matter.  Ideal place for grazing animals , as it has tall grasses.  Characterized by low or uneven rainfall.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF THE GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEMS  Abiotic components o Nutrients , C, H, O, N, P, S, etc., o These abiotic components are supplied by CO nitrates, H O, 2, 2 phosphates sulphates.  Biotic components  Producers– Grasses, forbs shrubs  Consumers a) Primary consumers ( herbivores)– Cows, buffaloes, deer, sheep, etc., they depend on grasses for their food. b) Secondary consumers (carnivores)– snakes, birds, fox, lizards, jackals, etc., c) Tertiary consumers– hawks, eagles, etc.,  Decomposers bacteria fungi.DESERT ECOSYSTEMS  Desert occupies about 35 of our world’s land area.  Characterized by less than 25 cm rainfall.  Atmosphere is dry.  TYPES OF DESERT ECOSYSTEM  Based on the climatic conditions, deserts are classified into 3 types 1) Tropical deserts 2) Temperate deserts 3) Cold desertsFEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DESERTS  Tropical deserts o Found in Africa – Sahara desert, Rajasthan – Thar desert o Characterized by only few species o Wind blown sand dunes are very common  Temperate deserts o Found in South California – Majave o Characterized by very hot summer very cool winter time  Cold deserts o Found in China – Gobi desert o Characterized by cold winters warm summersCHARACTERISTICS FEATURES OF DESERT ECOSYSTEMS  The desert air is dry the climate is hot  Annual rainfall is less than 25 cm  Soil is very poor in nutrients organic matter  Vegetation is poorSTRUCTURE FUNCTIONS OF THE DESERT ECOSYSTEMS  Abiotic components o Temperature, rainfall, sunlight, water, etc., o The temperature is very high o Rainfall the nutrient cycling is very low  Biotic components  Producers • Shrubs, bushes, some grasses few trees • Mostly succulent (e.g., cacti) plants are available which have water inside them to stay alive waxy layer on the outside to protect them from the sun. Consumers • Squirrels, mice, foxes, rabbits, deer reptiles • These animals dig holes in the ground to live in • They come out at night to find food • Most of the animals can extract water from the seeds they eat.  Decomposers • bacteria fungi. • Desert has poor vegetation with a very low amount of dead organic matter which are decomposed by bacteria fungiAQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  The aquatic ecosystem deals with water bodies.  The major types of organisms found in aquatic environments are determined by the water’s salinity.  TYPES OF AQUATIC LIFE ZONE  Aquatic life zones divided into 2 types 1) Fresh water life zones – ponds, streams, lakes, rivers 2) Salt water life zones – oceans, estuariesFRESH WATER ECOSYSTEM POND ECOSYSTEM  A pond is a fresh water aquatic ecosystem, where water is stagnant.  It receives enough water during rainy season.  It contains several types of algae, aquatic plants, insects, fishes birds.  Characteristic features of pond ecosystem  Pond is temporary, only seasonal.  It is a stagnant fresh water body.  Ponds get polluted easily due to limited amount of water.STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS OF POND ECOSYSTEM  Abiotic components o Temperature, light, water and organic inorganic compounds.  Biotic components  Producers o These include green photosynthetic organisms they are of 2 types o Phytoplankton microscopic aquatic plants, which freely float on the water surface – algae, small floating plants like volvox, pandorina, anabaena, cosmarium. o Microphytes large floating plants submerged plants like hydrilla, jussiaea, wolfia, demna. Consumers a) Primary consumers ( Zooplanktons)– microscopic animals which freely float on the water surface protozoa, very small fish, ciliates, flagellates b) Secondary consumers (Carnivores)– insects like water beetles small fish c) Tertiary consumers– large fish like game fish  Decomposers bacteria , fungi flagellates – they decompose the dead plant animal matter their nutrients are released reused by the green plants.LAKE ECOSYSTEM  Lakes are large natural shallow water bodies.  They are used for various purposes.  Lakes are supplied with water from rainfall, melting snow streams.  Types of lakes 1) Oligotrophic lakes low nutrient concentrations 2) Eutrophic lakes over nourished by nutrients like N P 3) Dystrophic lakes low pH, high humic acid content brown waters 4) Volcanic lakes receive water from magma after volcanic eruptions 5) Meromictic lakes – rich in salts 6) Artificial lakes created due to construction of dams ZONES OF LAKE  Depending upon their depth distance from the shore, lakes consists of 4 distinct zones. a) Littoral zones – top layer of the lake – has a shallow water b) Limnetic zones – effective penetration of solar light takes place c) Profundal zone – deep open water, where it is too dark d) Benthic zone – found at the bottom of the lake  Characteristic features of lake ecosystem  Lake is a shallow fresh water body  Permanent water body with large water resources  Helps in irrigation drinkingSTRUCTURE FUNCTION OF LAKE ECOSYSTEM  Abiotic components o Temperature, light, proteins, lipids, turbidity, O and CO . 2 2  Biotic components  Producers o They are green plants, which may be submerged, free floating amphibious plants – Phytoplanktons, algae flagellates  Consumers a) Primary consumers ( Zooplanktons)– protozoans, ciliates etc., b) Secondary consumers (Carnivores)– insects small fishes c) Tertiary consumers– large fishes like game fish  Decomposers bacteria , fungi actinomycetes.RIVER OR STREAM ECOSYSTEM  The running water of a stream or a river is usually well oxygenated, because it absorbs oxygen from the air.  The number of animals are low in river or stream.  Characteristic features of River or Stream  It is a fresh water free flowing water systems.  Due to mixing of water, dissolved oxygen content is more.  River deposits large amount of nutrients.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF RIVER OR STREAM ECOSYSTEM  Abiotic components o Temperature, light, pH, nutrients, organic inorganic compounds  Biotic components  Producers o Phytoplanktons, algae, water grasses, aquatic masses other amphibious plants.  Consumers a) Primary consumers – water insects, snails, fishes b) Secondary consumers – Birds mammals  Decomposers bacteria fungi .SALT WATER ECOSYSTEM OCEAN (OR) MARINE ECOSYSTEMS  Oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth’s surface.  Environment is characterized by its high concentration of salts minerals.  It supplies huge variety of seaproducts drugs.  It also provides us iron, magnesium, phosphorous, natural gas.  Zones of oceans  The oceans have 2 major life zones. a) Coastal zone – relatively warm, nutrient rich shallow water – zone of high primary productivity because of high nutrients sunlight. b) Open sea – deeper part of the ocean . It is vertically divided into 3 regions.i. Euphotic zone it receives abundant light shows high photosynthetic activity. ii. Bathyal zone it receives dim light is usually geologically active. iii. Abyssal zone – it is the dark zone is very deep (2000 to 5000 metres)  Characteristic features of ocean ecosystem  It occupies a large surface area with saline water.  Since ship, submarines can sail in ocean, commercial activities may be carried out.  Rich in biodiversity  It moderates the temperature of the earth.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS  Abiotic components o Temperature, light, NaCl, K, Ca and Mg salts, alkalinity.  Biotic components  Producers o Phytoplanktons ( diatoms, unicellular algae, etc.,) marine plants ( sea weeds, chlorophyceal, phaeophyceae)  Consumers a) Primary consumers ( Herbivores)– Crustaceans, moiluscs, fish. b) Secondary consumers (Carnivores)–Herring sahd, mackerel, etc., c) Tertiary consumers– Cod, Haddock, etc.,  Decomposers bacteria fungiESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM  An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of a river, where river joins the sea.  It is strongly affected by tidal action.  Estuaries are generally abundant of nutrients.  They are useful to the human beings due to their high food potential. It is essential to protect the estuaries from pollution.  Characteristics of estuarine ecosystem  Estuaries are transition zones, which are strongly affected by tides of the sea.  Water characteristics are periodically changed.  The living organisms in this ecosystem have wide tolerance.  Salinity remains highest during the summer lowest during the winter.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM  Abiotic components o Temperature, pH, sodium and potassium salts various nutrients.  Biotic components  Producers o Marsh grasses, seaweeds, seagrasses phytoplankton .  Consumers o Oysters, crabs, seabirds, small fishes  Decomposers o Bacterias , fungi actinomycetesENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIONIntroduction  Environmental pollution may be defined as, “ the unfavorable alteration of our surroundings”.  It changes the quality of air, water land which interferes with the health of humans other life on earth.  Pollutants are of 2 types Biodegradable pollutants – decompose rapidly by natural processes. Nondegradable pollutants – do not decompose or decompose slowly in the environment. The slowly decomposed materials are more dangerous because it is more difficult to remove them.Classification of Pollution  The different kinds of pollution that affects the environment are, 1) Air Pollution 2) Water Pollution 3) Soil Pollution 4) Marine Pollution 5) Noise Pollution 6) Thermal Pollution 7) Nuclear hazardsAir Pollution  Air pollution may be defined as, “ the presence of one or more contaminants like dust, smoke, mist odour in the atmosphere which are injurious to human beings, plants animals”.  Some causes of pollution in general are, Rapid industrialization Fast urbanization Rapid growth in population Drastic increase in vehicles on the roads and Other activities of human beingsSources of Air Pollution  The sources of air pollution are of 2 types, Natural sources Volcanic eruptions Forest fires Pollen grains Radioactive materials etc., Man –made (anthropogenic) activities Thermal power plants Vehicular emissions Fossil fuel burning Agricultural activities etc.,Classification of Air Pollutants  Depending upon the form (origin) of pollutants present in the environment, they are classified as  Primary air pollutants emitted directly in the atmosphere in harmful form – CO, NO, SO2, etc.,  Indoor air pollutants are primary air pollutants. The most important indoor air pollutant is radon gas.  Sources (causes) of indoor air pollutants 1) Radon gas is emitted from the building materials like bricks, concrete, tiles, etc., which are arrived from soil containing radium. 2) It is also present in natural gas ground water and is emitted indoors while using them. 3) Burning of fuels in the kitchen, cigarette smoke, liberates the pollutions like CO, SO2, formaldehyde, BAP (benzoapyrene )  Secondary air pollutants  Some of the primary air pollutants may react with one another or with the basic components of air to form new pollutants. They are called as secondary air pollutants.  NO/NO2 moist (HNO3/NO3) etc.,Common air pollutants sources (causes) their effects  According to WHO, more than 1.1 billion people live in urban areas where outdoor air is unhealthy to breathe.  Some of the common air pollutants are described below. Carbon monoxide (CO)  Description  It is a colorless, odorless gas is poisonous to air breathing animals.  Formed during the incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels.  2C + O 2CO 2  Human sources (causes)  Cigarette smoking, incomplete burning of fossil fuels.  About 77 comes from motor vehicle exhaust.Health effects React with heamoglobin in red blood cells reduce the ability of blood to bring oxygen to body cells tissues, which causes headache anemia. At high levels it causes coma, irreversible brain cell damage death. Environmental effects It increases the global temperature. Nitrogen di oxide (NO2) Description It is a reddishbrown, irritating gas that gives photochemical smog. In the atmosphere it can be converted to nitric acid. NO + moisture HNO 2 3 Human sources (causes)  Fossil fuel burning in motor vehicles (49) and power industrial plants (49).  Health effects  Lung irritation and damage.  Environmental effects  Acid deposition of HNO3 can damage trees, soils aquatic life in lakes.  HNO3 can corrode metals eat away stone on buildings, statues monuments.  NO2 can damage fabrics.  Sulphur dioxide (SO2)  Description  It is a colorless irritating gas and is formed mostly from the combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuels such as coal oil.  In the atmosphere it can be converted to sulphuric acid which is a major component of acid deposition.Human sources (causes) Coal burning in power plants (88) and industrial processes (10). Health effects Breathing problems for healthy people. Environmental effects Reduce visibility Acid deposition of H2SO4 can damage trees, soils aquatic life in lakes. Suspended particulate matter(SPM) Description It includes variety of particles droplets (aerosols). They can be suspended in atmosphere for short periods to long periods. Human sources (causes)  Burning coal in power and industrial plants (40)  Burning diesel other fuels in vehicles (17)  Agriculture , unpaved roads, construction etc.,  Health effects  Nose throat irritation  Lung damage  Bronchitis  Asthma  Reproductive problems cancer  Environmental effects  Reduce visibility  Acid deposition and H2SO4 can damage trees, soils aquatic life in lakes.  Ozone (O3)  Description  Highly reactive irritating gas with an unpleasant odour that forms in the troposphere.  It is a major component of photochemical smog. Human sources (causes)  Chemical reaction with volatile organic compounds (emitted mostly by cars industries) and nitrogen oxides.  Environmental effects  Moderates the climate. Photochemical smog  Description  Brownish smoke like appearance that forms on clear, sunny days over large cities with significant amounts of automobile traffic.  Sources (causes)  It is mainly due to chemical reactions among nitrogen oxides hydrocarbon by sunlight.  Health effects  Breathing problems  Cough, eye, nose throat irritation  Heart diseases  Reduces resistance to colds pneumonia. Environmental effects  Ozone can damage plants trees.  Smog can reduce visibility.  Lead (Pb)  Description  Solid toxic metal its compounds, emitted into the atmosphere as particulate matter.  Human sources (causes)  Paint  Smelters (metal refineries)  Lead manufacture  Storage batteries  Leaded petrol  Health effects  Accumulates in the body, brain nervous system and causes damage.  Mental retardation especially in children  Digestive other health problems  Some lead containing chemicals cause cancer in test animals. Environmental effects  Can harm wild life. Hydrocarbons (aromatic aliphatic)  Description  Hydrocarbons especially lower hydrocarbons get accumulated due to the decay of vegetable matter.  Human sources (causes)  Agriculture  Decay of plants  Burning of wet logs  Health effects  Carcinogenic  Environmental effects  It produces an oily film on the surface do not as such causes a serious problem until they react to form secondary pollutants.  Ethylene causes plant damage even at low concentrations.Chromium (Cr)  Description  It is a solid toxic metal, emitted into the atmosphere as particulate matter.  Human sources (causes)  Paint  Smelters  Chromium manufacture  Chromium plating  Health effects  Perforation of nasal septum  Chrome holes  Gastro intestinal ulcer  Central nervous system disease and  Cancer Control measures of air pollution  The atmosphere has several builtin self cleaning processes such as dispersion, absorption, rain wash out so on, to cleanse the atmosphere.  In terms of long range control of air pollution, control of contaminants at their source is a more desirable effective method.  Source control  Use only unleaded petrol.  Use petroleum products other fuels that have low sulphur ash content.  Reduce the number of private vehicles on the road encourage people to walk or use cycles.  Ensure that houses, schools, restaurants places where children play are not located on busy streets.  Plant trees along busy streets because they remove particulates CO, and absorb noise. Industries waste disposal sites should be situated outside the city centre preferably downwind of the city.  Use catalytic converters to help control the emissions of CO hydrocarbons.  Control measures in industrial centres 1) The emission rates should be restricted to permissible levels by each every industry. 2) Incorporation of air pollution control equipments in the design of the plant layout must be made mandatory. 3) Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere for the pollutants should be carried out to know the emission levels.  Equipments used to control air pollution  To ensure sufficient supply of oxygen to the combustion chamber adequate temperature so that combustion is complete, eliminating much of the smoke consisting of partly burnt ashes dust.  To use mechanical devices such as scrubbers, cyclones, bag houses electrostatic precipitators, reducing particulate pollutants. The four figures are commonly used control methods for removing particulates from the exhaust gases of electric power industrial plants.  All these methods retain hazardous materials that must be disposed off safely.  The wet scrubber can also reduce SO2 emissions.  Chemical treatment to deal with factory fumes.  The disposal of the collected air pollutants is equally important for successful control of air pollution.Water pollution  The alteration in physical, chemical biological characteristics of water which may cause harmful effects on humans aquatic lives.  The pollutants include Sewage Industrial chemicals effluents Oil other wastes  Besides chemicals from the air dissolved in rain water Fertilizers, pesticides herbicides leached form the land also pollute water.Types, effects sources of water pollution  Infectious agents  Bacteria, viruses, protozoa parasitic worms.  Human sources (causes)  Human animals wastes.  Effects  Variety of diseases.  Oxygen demanding wastes (Dissolved oxygen)  Organic wastes such as animal manure plant debris that can be decomposed by aerobic bacteria.  This degradation consumes dissolved oxygen in water.  DO is the amount of oxygen dissolved in a given quantity of water at a particular pressure temperature.  Human sources (causes)  Sewage  Animal feedlots  Paper mills Effects  Large populations of bacteria decomposing these wastes can degrade water quality by depleting water of dissolved oxygen.  This causes fish other forms of O2 consuming aquatic life to die. Inorganic chemicals Water soluble inorganic chemicals. 1) Acids, 2) Compounds of toxic metals such as Pb, arsenic selenium 3) Salts such as Nacl in ocean water fluorides found in some soils. Human sources (causes) Surface runoff industrial effluents Household cleansersEffects 1) Can make fresh water unusable for drinking or irrigation. 2) Causes skin cancers neck damage. 3) Damage the nervous system, liver kidneys. 4) Harm fish other aquatic life. 5) Lower crop yields. 6) Accelerates corrosion of metals exposed to such water. Organic chemicals  Oil, gasoline, plastics, pesticides, cleaning solvents, detergents.  Human sources (causes)  Surface runoff from farms  industrial effluents  Household cleansers Effects 1) Can threaten human health by causing nervous system damage some cancers. 2) Harm fish wild life. Plant nutrients Water soluble compounds containing nitrate, phosphate ammonium ions. Human sources (causes) Sewage Manure Runoff of agricultural urban fertilizers  Effects 1) Can cause excessive growth of algae other aquatic plants, which die, decay, deplete dissolved O2 in H2O kill the fish. 2) Drinking water with excessive levels of nitrates lower the O2 carrying capacity of the blood can kill urban children infants. Sediment  Soil, silt, etc.,  Human sources (causes)  Land erosion  Effects 1) Can reduce photosynthesis cloud water. 2) Disrupt aquatic food webs. 3) Carry pesticides, bacteria other harmful substances. 4) Settle out destroy feeding and spawning rounds of fish. 5) Clog fill lakes, artificial reservoirs, stream channels harbours.  Radioactive materials  Radioactive isotopes of iodine, radon, uranium, cesium thorium.  Human sources (causes)  Nuclear power plants  Mining processing of uranium and other ores  Nuclear weapons production  Natural sources Effects 1) Genetic mutations 2) Birth defects 3) Certain cancers  Heat (Thermal pollution)  Excessive heat.  Human sources (causes)  Water cooling of electric power plants some types of industrial plants.  Effects 1) Lowers dissolved O2 levels makes aquatic organisms more vulnerable to disease, parasites toxic chemicals. 2) When a power plant first opens or shuts down for repair, fish other organisms adapted to a particular temperature range can be killed by the abrupt change in H2O temperature known as thermal shock.  Point Nonpoint sources of Water pollution  Point sources • Discharged pollutants at specific locations through pipes, ditches or sewers into bodies of surface water. • Examples : factories, sewage treatment plants, abandoned underground mines oil tankers. Non point sources • They are usually large land areas or air sheds that pollute water by runoff, subsurface flow or deposition from the atmosphere. • Examples : logged forests, parking lots, livestock feedlots etc., Characteristics (or) Testing of river water Dissolved oxygen o is the amount of oxygen dissolved in a given quantity of water at a particular pressure temperature. Biochemical Oxygen Demand o is the amount of oxygen required for the biological decomposition of organic matter present in the water. Chemical Oxygen Demand o is the amount of oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter using some oxidising agent like K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.Control measures of water pollution  The administration of water pollution control should be in the hands of State or Central Government.  Scientific techniques need to be adopted for the environmental control of catchment areas of rivers, ponds or streams.  The industrial plants should be based on recycling operations.  Plants, trees forests control pollution and they acts as natural air conditioners.  The national goal should be “Conservation of Forests” and campaign should be “Plant more trees”.  It is not advisable to discharge any type of waste into streams, rivers, lakes, ponds reservoirs.  Highly qualified experienced persons should be consulted for effective control of water pollution. Public awareness regarding adverse effects of water pollution is a must.  Suitable laws, standards practices should be framed to regulate the discharge of undesirable flow of water in water bodies.  Basic applied research in public health engineering should be encouraged.  The possible reuse or recycle of treated sewage effluents industrial wastes should be emphasized and encouraged.Waste water (or) Sewage treatment  The main objectives of waste water treatment are, 1) to convert harmful compounds into harmless compounds. 2) to eliminate the offensive smell. 3) to remove the solid content of the sewage. 4) to destroy the disease producing microorganisms.  The sewage (or) waste water treatment process involves the following steps,  Preliminary Treatment  Primary Treatment (or) Settling process  Secondary (or) Biological treatment a) Trickling filter process b) Activated sludge process  Tertiary treatment  Disposal of sludge Preliminary treatment  Coarse solids suspended impurities are removed by passing the waste water through bar and mesh screens.  Primary treatment (or) Settling process  Greater proportion of the suspended inorganic organic solids are removed from the liquid sewage by settling.  To promote quick settling coagulants like alum, ferrous sulphate are added.  These produce large gelatinous precipitates, which entrap finely divided organic matter settle rapidly.  Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2SO4  Secondary (or) Biological treatment  Biodegradable organic impurities are removed by aerobic bacteria.  It removes upto 90 of the O2 demanding wastes.  This is done by trickling filter or activated sludge process. Trickling filter process It is a circular tank is filled with either coarse or crushed rock. Sewage is sprayed over this bed by means of slowly rotating arms. When sewage starts percolating downwards, microorganisms present in the sewage will grow on the surface of the filtering media, using organic material of the sewage as food. After completion of aerobic oxidation, the treated sewage is taken to the settling tank the sludge is removed. This process removes about 8085 of BOD. Activated sludge process  Activated sludge is biologically active sewage it has a large number of aerobic bacterias, which can easily oxidise the organic impurities.  The sewage effluent from primary treatment is mixed with the required amount of activated sludge.  Then the mixture is aerated in the aeration tank.  Under these condition, organic impurities of the sewage get oxidised rapidly by the microorganisms.  After aeration, the sewage is taken to the sedimentation tank.  Sludges settle down in this tank, called activated sludge.  A portion of it was used for seeding fresh batch of the sewage.  This process removes about 9095 of BOD.Air supply Sewage effluent Effluent Sedimentation Aeration tank from for drainage tank Primary treatment Activated Excess Sludge settled sludge sludge at the bottomTertiary treatment The effluent is introduced into a flocculation tank, where lime is added to remove phosphates. From here, the effluent is led to ammonia stripping tower, where pH is maintained to 11 the NH4 ions is converted to gaseous NH3. Then the effluent is allowed to pass through activated charcoal column, where minute organic wastes are adsorbed by charcoal. Finally the effluent water is treated with disinfectant (chlorine).Disposal of sludge This is the last stage in the sewage treatment. Sludge formed from different steps can be disposed by, 1) Dumping into lowlying areas 2) Burning of sludge (incineration) 3) Dumping into the sea 4) Using it as low grade fertilizers. The flow sheet diagram of sewage treatment Raw Coagulant Activated sludge Treated sewage sewage Chlorination Screening Sedimentation Sedimentation Trickling filter Primary treatment Secondary treatmentThermal pollution  Thermal pollution is defined as the addition of excess of undesirable heat to water that makes it harmful to man, animal or aquatic life or otherwise causes significant departures from the normal activities of aquatic communities in water.  Sources (causes) of thermal pollution a) Nuclear power plants b) Coalfired power plants c) Industrial effluents d) Domestic sewage e) Hydroelectric powerNuclear power plants Nuclear power plants including drainage from hospitals, research institutes, nuclear experiments explosions, discharged a lot of unutilized heat traces of toxic radio nuclides into nearby water streams. Emissions from nuclear reactors processing installation are also responsible for increasing the temperature of water bodies. The operations of power reactors nuclear fuel processing units are the major contributor of heat in the aquatic environment. Heated effluents from power plants are discharged at 0 10 C, higher than the receiving water which affect the aquatic flora fauna. Coalfired power plants  They constitute the major source of thermal pollutants.  Their condenser coils are cooled with water from nearby river or lake discharge the hot water back to the stream increasing the 0 temperature of nearby water to about 15 C.  The heated effluents decrease the dissolved oxygen content of water.  It results into killing of fish other marine organisms.  Industrial effluents  Industries generating electricity like coal powered nuclear powered plants, require huge amounts of cooling water for heat removal.  Other industries like textile, paper pulp as well as sugar also release heat in water but to a much lesser extent.  Normally the discharged water from streamelectric power industry using turbo generators, will have a higher temperature ranging from 0 0 6 C to 9 C than the receiving water.  This results in the increase of stream temperature to a level at which natural dissipation of heat will be inefficient. Domestic sewage  Domestic sewage is commonly discharged into rivers, lakes, canals or streams with or without waste treatment.  The municipal sewage normally has a higher temperature than the receiving water.  With the increase in temperature of the receiving water, the dissolved oxygen content decreases the demand of oxygen increases.  Hence the anaerobic condition will set up resulting in the release of foul offensive gases in water.  The marine organisms which depend on the dissolved oxygen will die out.  Hydroelectric power  Generation of hydroelectric power, sometimes, results in negative thermal loading in water systems.Apart from electric power industries, various factories with cooling requirement contribute to thermal loading. It has been reported that about 18 more heat is given to cooling waters in nuclear power plants than any other plant of equivalent size. Introduction of thermal pollution into streams by human activities 1) Industries power plants use water to cool machinery then discharge the warmed water into a stream. 2) Stream (water) temperature rises when trees tall vegetation providing shades are cut down. 3) Soil erosion caused by construction. 4) Removal of stream side vegetation. 5) Poor farming practices.Effects of thermal pollution 1) Reduction in dissolved oxygen 2) Increase in toxicity 3) Interference with biological activities 4) Interference with reproduction 5) Direct mortality 6) Food storage for fish Control measures (or) management of thermal pollution • The following methods can be adopted to control the high temperature caused by thermal dischargers. 1) Cooling towers 2) Cooling ponds 3) Spray ponds 4) Artificial lakes  Cooling towers  The use of water from water systems for cooling purposes, with subsequent return to the water way after passage through the condenser, is termed as cooling process.  Cooling towers transfer some of the heat from hot water to the surrounding atmosphere by the process of evaporation.  It is generally used to dissipate the recovered waste heat to eliminate the problems of thermal pollution.  Cooling towers are of 2 types, wet cooling tower dry cooling tower Wet cooling tower o Hot water, coming out from the condensor (reactor) is allowed to spray over baffles. o Cool air, with high velocity is passed from the sides, which takes away the heat cools the water. Dry cooling tower o Hot water,Nuclear hazards (pollution) or (Radioactive pollution)  The radiation hazard in the environment comes from ultraviolet, visible, cosmic rays microwave radiation which produce genetic mutations in man.  The biggest hazard comes from Xrays which account for 95 of out radiation exposure other than cosmic rays.  Nuclear energy is used to produce clean electric power.  The energy released in the splitting of nuclei in the atoms is used to generate electricity.  There were about 600 nuclear power plants in developed countries up to 1985.  US alone have 100 licensed nuclear plants.  About 53 power plants were cancelled between 1980 1984 due to enormous radiation danger The nuclear power plants are more convenient to run.  Once fueled, they can operate for several months.  The fuel used in nuclear plants, being radioactive, is critically dangerous the waste materials are hazardous.  The nuclear wastes released by the nuclear reactor also emit radiations, if not properly stored. Sources of Nuclear Hazards • Various sources of nuclear hazards are grouped into 2 types, 1) Natural sources 2) Manmade sources  Natural sources a) The very important natural source is space, which emit cosmic rays. b) Soil, rocks, air, water, food, radioactive radon222 etc., also contain one or more radioactive substances.Manmade sources • Manmade sources are  Nuclear power plants  Xrays  Nuclear accidents  Nuclear bombs  Diagnostic kits etc., where radioactive substances are used. Effects of Nuclear Hazards  Radiation pollution of the environment is one of the most horrible ecological crisis to which we are subjected severely.  Radioactive radiation affects the cells in the body the functions of glands organs.  People suffer from blood cancer bone cancer if exposed to doses around 100 to 1000 roentgens.  Unlike the other pollution, radioactive pollution can cause genetic disorders even in the subsequent generation. Studies have shown that the health effects due to radiation are dependent on the level of dose. 1) Exposure of the brain central nervous system to high doses of radiation causes delirium, convulsions death within hours or days. 2) The use of eye is vulnerable to radiation. As its cell die, they become opaque forming cataracts that impair sight. 3) Acute radiation sickness is marked by vomiting, bleeding of the gums in severe cases, mouth ulcers. 4) Internal bleeding blood vessel damage may show up as red spots on the skin. 5) Nausea vomiting often begin a few hours after the gastrointestinal tract is exposed. Infection of the intestinal wall can kill weeks afterwards. 6) Unborn children are vulnerable to brain damage or mental retardation, especially if irradiation occurs during formation of the central nervous system in early pregnancy.Control measures from Nuclear Hazards  Nuclear devices should never be exploded in air. If necessary they can be exploded underground.  In nuclear reactors, closedcycle coolant system with gaseous coolants may be used to prevent extraneous activation products.  Containments may also be employed to decrease the radioactive emissions. It can be achieved by using tightly sealed boxes closed cycle system.  Production of radioisotopes should be minimized, as once produced they cannot be rendered harmless by any means except the passage of time.  Minimum number of nuclear installations should be commissioned.  Fission reactions should be minimized.In nuclear chemical industries, the use of radioisotopes may be carried under a jet of soil or water instead of powder or gaseous forms. In nuclear mines, wet drilling may be employed along with underground drainage. Extreme care should be exercised in the disposal of industrial wastes contaminated with radio nuclides. Nuclear medicines radiation therapy should be applied when absolutely necessary with minimum doses. Use of high chimneys ventilations at the working place where radioactive contamination is high. Disposal methods are the possible ways to distribute the radiopollutants. These methods make the pollutant in a confined place to spread over a large space such that pollution can be weakened its effects can be reduced.Disposal of Radioactive wastes (Nuclear Hazards)  Since nuclear wastes are extremely dangerous the way in which they are disposed is strictly controlled by international agreement.  Classification of radioactive wastes 1) High level wastes (HLW) 2) Medium level wastes (MLW) 3) Low level wastes (LLW)  High level wastes  Examples : spent nuclear fuel  HLW have a very high radioactivity per unit volume.  They have to be cooled stored for several decades by its producer before disposal.  Since they are too dangerous, they must be contained either by converting them into inert solids then buried deep into earth or stored in deep salt mines. Medium level wastes Examples : filters, reactor components, etc., MLW are solidified are mixed with concrete in steel drums before being buried in deep mines or below the sea bed in concrete chambers.  Low level wastes Examples : solids or liquids contaminated with traces of radioactivity. LLW are disposed off in steel drums in concretelined trenches.Solid waste management (or) waste shed management  Rapid population growth urbanization in developing countries have led to the generations of enormous quantities of solid wastes consequential environmental degradation.  An estimated 7.6 million tonnes of municipal solid waste is produced per day in developing countries.  These wastes are disposed in open dumps creating considerable nuisance environmental problems.  These are potential risks to health to the environment from improper management of solid wastes.  Management of solid waste is therefore, become very important in order to minimize the adverse effects of solid wastes.Types and sources of solid wastes • Depending upon the nature, solid wastes can be broadly classified into 3 types, 1) Urban (or) Municipal wastes 2) Industrial wastes 3) Hazardous wastesUrban (or) Municipal wastes  Sources of Urban (Municipal) wastes  Domestic wastes  Variety of materials thrown out from the homes.  Examples : food waste, cloth, waste paper, glass bottles, polythene bags, etc.,  Commercial wastes  Wastes coming out from the shops, markets, hotels, offices, institutions, etc.,  Examples : waste paper, packing material, cans, bottles, polythene bags, etc.,  Construction wastes  Wastes of construction materials.  Examples : wood, concrete, debris, etc.,  Biomedical wastes  Waste organic materials.  Examples :anatomical wastes, infectious wastes, etc.,Types characteristics of urban (municipal) wastes Biodegradable wastes Urban solid waste materials that can be degraded by microorganisms. Examples : food, vegetables, tea leaves, egg shells, dry leaves, etc., NonBiodegradable wastes Urban solid waste materials that cannot be degraded by microorganisms. Examples : polythene bags, scrap metals, glass bottles, etc.,Industrial wastes  The main sources of industrial wastes are chemical industries, metal mineral processing industries.  Examples : a) Nuclear power plants : generates radioactive wastes. b) Thermal power plants : produces fly ash in large quantities. c) Chemical industries : produces large quantities of hazardous toxic materials. d) Other industries : produce packing materials, rubbish, organic wastes, acids, alkalis, scrap metals, rubber, plastic, paper, glass, wood, oils, paints, dyes, etc.,Hazardous wastes  Hazardous wastes are the wastes, that pose a substantial danger immediately or over a period of time to human, plant or animal life.  Sources of hazardous wastes  Chemical manufacturing companies  Petroleum refineries  Paper mills  Smelters  Radioactive substances  Biological wastes other industries.  Types characteristics of hazardous wastes  Toxic wastes : poisonous even in very small or trace amounts. a) Acute toxicity : wastes have immediate effect on humans or animals causing death. b) Chronic toxicity : wastes have long term effect slowly causing irreparable harm to the exposed persons. It is much more difficult to determine.Reactive wastes : wastes react vigorously with air, water, heat generate toxic gases. Gun powder, nitroglycerine etc., Corrosive wastes : wastes destroy materials living tissues by chemical reaction. Acids bases. Radioactive wastes : these are from nuclear power plants persist in the environment for 1000’s of years. Infectious wastes : causes infection to others. Used bandages, human tissue from surgery, etc., Heavy metals : lead, mercury arsenic are hazardous substances.Effects of solid wastes (or) effects of improper solid waste management 1) Due to improper disposal of municipal solid wastes on the road side their immediate surroundings, biodegradable materials undergo decomposition. This produces foul smell breeds various types of insects which spoil the land value. 2) Industrial solid wastes are the sources of toxic metals hazardous wastes, which affect the soil characteristics productivity of soils when they are dumped on the soil. 3) Toxic substances may percolate into the ground contaminate the ground water. 4) Burning of some industrial as well as domestic wastes produce furans, dioxins, which are harmful to human beings.Process of solid waste management (or) process of preventing solid waste generation in urban areas (or) waste shed management  Solid waste management includes, The waste generation Mode of collection Transportation Segregation of wastes Disposal techniques.Solid waste generation Collection of waste from Collection of waste various sources To transfer the collected wastes to Transportation the destination point To store the collected wastes Storage meanwhile time of the disposal Home separation for recycling Segregation of wastes Disposal methods Landfill Incineration CompostingSteps involved in solid waste management (or) waste shed management  2 important steps of solid waste management is,  Reduce, reuse recycle  Discarding safe storage of wastes  Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (3R)  Reduce the usage of raw materials  If the usage of raw materials are reduced, the generation of waste materials also get reduced.  Reuse of waste materials  Refillable containers  Rubber rings can be made from discarded cycle tubes, which reduces the waste generation during rubber bands manufacturing.  Recycling of materials  Old aluminium cans glass bottles are melted recast into new cans bottles.  Preparation of automobiles construction materials from steel cans.  These process saves money, energy, raw materials reduces pollution.Discarding wastes  Landfill  Incineration  Composting  Landfill • Solid wastes are placed in sanitary landfill system in alternate layers of 80 cm thick refuse . • It is covered with selected earth fill of 20 cm thickness. • After 2 or 3 years, solid waste volume shrinks by 2530 the land is used for parks, roads small buildings. • The most common cheapest method of waste disposal is dumping in sanitary landfills which is invariably employed in Indian cities. • Landfill structure is built either into the ground or on the ground into which the waste is dumped.• This method involves spreading the solid waste on the ground, compacting it then covering it with soil at suitable intervals. • Advantages 1) It is simple economical. 2) Segregation not required. 3) Land filled areas can be reclaimed used for other purposes. 4) Converts lowlying, marshy wasteland into useful areas. 5) Natural resources are returned to soil recycled. • Disadvantages 1) Large area is required. 2) Since land is available away from the town, transportation cost is heavy. 3) Bad odors, if landfills are not properly managed. 4) The land filled areas will be the sources of mosquitoes flies hence insecticides pesticides are to be applied at regular intervals. 5) Causes fire hazards due to the formation of methane in wet weather.Incineration (or) Thermal process • It is a hygienic way of disposing solid waste. • It is more suitable if the waste contains more hazardous material organic content. • It is a thermal process is very effective for detoxification of all combustible pathogens. • It is an expensive technology compared to landfill composting because incinerators are costly. • In this method the municipal solid wastes are burnt in a furnace called incinerator. • The combustible substances the noncombustible matter are separated before feeding to incinerators. • The noncombustible materials can be left out for recycling reuse. The left out ashes clinkers from the incinerators may be accounted for only about 10 to 20 which need further disposal either by sanatory landfill or by some other means.  The heat produced in the incinerator during the burning of refuse is used in the form of steam power for generation of electricity throughout turbines.  The municipal solid waste is generally wet but has a very high calorific value so it has to be dried up first before burning.  The waste is dried in preheater from where it is taken into large incinerating furnace called destructors which can incinerate about 100 to 150 tonnes per hour.  The temperature normally maintained in a combustion 0 0 chamber is about700 C may be increased to about 1000 C when electricity is to be generated.Marine Pollution Spilled oil, breakdown the natural insulating oils and waxes,which shield the birds from water. Ultimately they loose their insulation,start shivering and freeze to death in winter. About 30,000 birds died in torry canyon incident.Nearly 150 rare species of bladeagles also become victims when they ingested oil during Exxn valdez accident. Gulf War (marine pollution) The gulf war took place in kuwait from jan 16 to feb 26,1991 between Iraq and USA. Effects • 1 million birds have been killed due to the oil slick. • The oil slicks in the sea made desalination plants ineffective The Miniamatta Epidemic (1953) Miniamatta is a small coastal village in japan.The Chisso Chemical Company which produce vinyl polymer plastics…. Effects  It damages the central nervous system,which causes various disorders such as 1. Loss of vision and hearing 2. Loss of muscular coordination and severe headache. 3. Nervous disorders. Chernobyl Nulear disaster(Nuclear pollution) In april 26,1986, the melt down of the chernobyl nuclear reactor, in Russia, has leaked out the radioactive rays and radioactive materials. Effects: 200 people killed, Animals,Plants also affected Cause of severe bleeding,anaemia,skin cancer.DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster or calamities is a geological process and is defined as an event, concentrated in time and space,in which a society, or subdivision of a society under goes severe danger and cause loss of its members and physical property. Types of disaster Natural disaster: generater by natural phenomena Eg: Cyclone, floods,earthquqkes, landslides etc. Manmade disaster: Resulting from manmade hazards Eg: Accidents, Pollution, Fire.. IMPORTANT DISASTERS 1. Floods 4. Earthquakes 2. Cyclones 5. Tsunami 3. LandslidesNATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are the sources which are useful to man or can be transformed into a useful product.  Natural resources are classified into 2 types, 1) Renewable resources – soil, water, air 2) Nonrenewable resources – minerals, coal, oil Forests are one of the most important renewable natural resources on this earth.  About onethird of the world’s land surface is covered with forest.  TYPES OF FORESTS 1) Evergreen forests 2) Deciduous forests 3) Coniferous forests Evergreen forests • Found in the equatorial regions, where the temperature rainfall is very high. • Due to heavy rainfall throughout the year these forests are evergreen. • Example : The silent valley in Kerala. • Important trees : Teak, rosewood.  Deciduous forests • These forests are of 2 types, 1) Tropical deciduous forests 2) Temperate deciduous forests • Tropical deciduous forests  Found in the tropical monsoon.  They receive only seasonal rainfall hence they shed their leaves during the summer season.  Important trees : Teak, sandalwood• Temperate deciduous forests  Due to severe winter with heavy snowfall the trees shed their leaves just before the winter season.  Coniferous forests • The snow slides down the sloping sides of the trees. • The needle typed leaves preserve the moisture. • Important trees : Pine tree, spruce tree.  FUNCTIONS OF FORESTS  Forests are habitats to millions of plants, animals wildlife.  They recycle rainwater remove pollutants from air.  They control water quality quantity.  They moderate temperature weather and help to maintain humidity.  They prevent soil erosion perform watershed functions.  They promote tourism contribute aesthetic beauty. Commercial uses Name of the products Uses 1. Forests supply wood Used as fuel. 2. Forests supply wood for various industries Raw materials as pulp, paper, timber etc., 3. Forests supply minor forest products Like gums, resins, dyes, etc., 4. Many plants Are utilized in preparing medicines drugs. 5. Forest produces variety of animal products Honey, ivory, etc., 6. Many forest lands are used for Mining, grazing, recreation for dams. Ecological uses • Production of oxygen • Reducing global warming • Soil conservation • Regulation of hydrological cycle • Pollution moderators • Wildlife habitat  Aesthetic value • Tribals utilize bamboo wild grass for erecting the huts to reside for making other product like mats, basket, cots, etc., • Some of the forest plants are used as food by the tribal people.  Touristic value • Ecotourism provides a growing income for those who have facilitated it. • Several countries are now attracting the tourists. Due to over population the materials supplied by the forest are not sufficient to meet the people’s demand.  Hence exploitation of forest materials is going on increasing day by day.  It has been estimated that in India the minimum area of forests required to maintain good ecological balance is about 33 of total area.  But at present, it is only about 22. So over exploitation of forest materials occur.  Causes of over exploitation 1) Increasing agricultural production 2) Increasing industrial activities 3) Increase in demand of wood resources Effects (or) consequences of over exploitation 1) Over exploitation of forest resources led to migration of the farmers. 2) Environmental damage caused by over exploitation is heavy. 3) The tropical forests are destroyed at very fast rate. 4) Countless plant species animals are endangered. 5) Marine populations will go into extinction. 6) The dumping of waters into land, water air has become a severe problem. Deforestation is the process of removal of (or) elimination of forest resources due to many natural or manmade activities. In general deforestation means destruction of forests.  In India about 1.3 hectares of forest land has been lost.  The presence of wasteland is a sign of deforestation of India. Causes of deforestation 1) Developmental projects 2) Mining operations 3) Raw materials for industries 4) Fuel requirements 5) Shifting cultivation 6) Forest fires  Consequences (or) ill effects (or) impact of deforestation on the environment  Global warming  Loss of genetic diversity  Soil erosion  Loss of biodiversity  Loss of food grains Unemployment problems  Flood landslides  Preventive measures (or) avoid of deforestation (or) methods of conservation of forests  New plants should be planted to replace the trees cut down for timber.  Use of wood for fuel should be discouraged.  Forest pests can be controlled by spraying pesticides by using aeroplanes.  Forest fire must be controlled by modern techniques.  Over grazing by cattle must be controlled.  Education awareness programmes must be conducted.  Strict implementation of law of Forest Conservation Act.  Case studies  Deforestation in the Himalaya region  Disappearing Tea gardens in Chhota Nagpur Due to population growth lack of alternative fuels, people living near by forest area are mostly using wood as fuel.  Uses of timber 1) Raw materials for various wood based industries like paper, furniture, etc., 2) For various developmental activities like railways, boats, road construction etc.,  Consequences (or) effects of timber extraction 1) Large scale timber extraction causes deforestation. 2) Soil erosion, loss of fertility, landslides loss of biodiversity. 3) Loss of tribal culture extinction of tribal people. 4) Reduces the thickness of the forest.  Indian scenario • In India, industries consume about 28 million cu.mts/year of wood. • But, annual forest growth is only about 12 million cu.mts/year. Mining is the process of extracting mineral resources fossil fuels like coal from the earth.  These deposits are found in the forest region any operation of mining will naturally affect the forest.  Mining operation requires removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle.  Types of mining a) Surface mining b) Underground mining  Steps involved in mining a) Exploration (investigation searching of minerals) b) Development c) Exploitation (extraction of minerals) d) Ore processing (separation of ore) e) Extraction purification of minerals  Effects of mining  Mining activity not only destroys trees, it also pollutes • Soil • Water • Air with heavy metal toxins that are almost impossible to remove. Destruction of natural habitat at the mine waste disposal sites.  Due to continuous removal of minerals, forest covers, the trenches are formed on the ground, leading to water logged area, which inturn contaminates the ground water.  During mining operations, the vibrations are developed, which leads to earthquake.  Noise pollution is another major problem from mining operations.  Mining reduces the shape size of the forest areas.  Landslides may also occur as a result of continuous mining in forest area.  Pollution of surface ground water resources due to the discharge of waste minerals in water.  Migration of tribal people from mining areas to other areas for searching land food. Dams are the massive artificial structures built across the river to create a reservoir in order to store water for many beneficial purpose.  However, these dams are also responsible for the destruction of vast areas of forest displacement of local people.  India has more than 1600 large dams. State Number of dams Maharastra More than 600 dams Gujarat More than 250 dams Madhya pradesh More than 130 dams  Tehri dam is the highest built across the river Bhagirathi in the state of Uttaranchal. Effects of dam on forest 1) Thousands of hectares of forest have been cleared for executing river valley projects. 2) Hydroelectric projects also have led to widespread loss of forest in recent years. 3) Construction of dams under these projects led to killing of wild animals destroying aquatic life. 4) Hydroelectric projects provide opportunities for the spread of water borne diseases. 5) The big river valley projects also cause water logging which leads to salinity inturn reduces the fertility of the land.  Examples  Narmada sagar project : submerged 3.5 lakh hectares of forest comprising teak bamboo trees.  Tehri dam : submerged 1000 hectares of forest affecting about 430 species of plants. Effects of dam on tribal people 1) Widespread displacement of tribal people, such a biodiversity cannot be tolerated. 2) The displacement cultural change affects the tribal people both mentally physically. They do not accommodate the modern food habits life styles. 3) Tribal people are illtreated by the modern society. 4) Many of the displaced people were not recognized resettled or compensated. 5) Tribal people their culture cannot be questioned destroyed. 6) Generally, the body conditions of the tribal people will not suit with the new areas hence they will be affected by many diseases. Water is an important constituent of all the living beings.  Nearly 80 of the earth’s surface is covered with water.  All organisms are made up of mostly by water.  Examples :  A tree is made up of 60 by weight of water.  Animals are made up of 5065 of water.  Forms of water:  Water exists in 3 phases, solid, liquid gas.  It is circulated in accordance with the hydrological cycle. Hydrological cycle  Hydrological cycle involves the following steps, 1) Evaporation 2) Condensation precipitation 3) Transpiration respiration  Evaporation  Heat energy from the sun constantly causes evaporation from all the water surfaces.  Oceans, rivers, streams, lakes, ponds the surfaces of terrestrial organisms lose water due to evaporation.  The evaporated water in the form of water vapour forms clouds.  Condensation precipitation  The water in the gaseous form (water vapor) now gets condensed by means of condensation.  Once water condenses, it is pulled into the ground by gravity.  The process by which the condensed water falls to the earth is known as precipitation (rainfall). Transpiration respiration  Organisms play an important role in the water cycle.  Plants absorbs water through their roots some of the water get lost through their leaves by the process known as transpiration.  Respiration is the process by which both the plants animals break down sugars in their body to produce energy.  Thus the process of evaporation, condensation and transpiration is called hydrological cycle. Evaporation (clouds) Transpiration Condensation Respiration Precipitation (living organisms Water (ocean, lake, plants) river, etc.,) Distribution of water resources  About 97.4 by volume of water is found in oceans is too salty and cannot be used for drinking, irrigation, industrial purposes.  Of the remaining 2.6 of fresh water, most of which is locked up in ice or in deep ground water.  Thus only about 0.014 of the earth’s total volume of water is easily available to us as usable ground water.  Types of fresh water resources  Fresh water resources may be broadly classified into 2 types.  Surface water  Underground waterFresh water resources Surface water Under ground water Standing water bodies Flowing water bodies streams Rivers lakes reservoirs estuaries Surface water • The water, which is coming out directly through precipitation does not percolate down into the ground or does not return to the atmosphere by evaporation is known as surface water. • The water stored on the surface of earth is called surface water.  Standing water bodies  Lakes a) Oligotropic lakes – deep, clear deficient in nutrients without much biological activity. b) Eutrophic lakes – more nutrients are more turbid support more life. c) Dystrophic lakes – shallow coloured lakes with a low pH clogged with plant life.  Reservoirs – larger than lakes.  Estuaries – they are deltas formed at the mouth of rivers, where they join the ocean.  Flowing water bodies  The water which originate from the point of precipitation flows in streams rivers are called flowing water bodies.  They carry sedimentary materials dissolved minerals. Under Ground Water • The water which is found available deep in the ground due to percolation of surface water is called under ground water. • It is the major source of water. • It is pure used for all purpose in the world.  Types of under ground water systems i. Aquifer  A layer of highly permeable rock containing water is called an aquifer.  Examples : a) Layers of sand gravel are good aquifers (have good permeability). b) Clay crystalline rocks are not good aquifers (have poor permeability).  Aquifers are of 2 types,  Unconfined aquifers  formed when water collects over a less permeable rock or compact clay.  They are recharged by water percolating down from the above surface through permeable material.  Confined aquifers  formed when water collects over a impermeable rock.  It is sandwiched between 2 layers of impermeable rock.  They are recharged only in those areas where the aquifer intersects the land surface. The water is used mainly for 2 types of uses  Consumptive use  Here water is completely utilized and it is not reused.  Example : in domestic application  Nonconsumptive use  Here water is not completely utilized and it is reused.  Example : Hydropower plant  Other important uses of water  Domestic purposes like drinking, cooking, bathing, washing, etc.,  Commercial purposes like hotels, theatres, educational institutions, offices, etc.,  Irrigational purposes like agriculture. About 6070 of the fresh water is used for irrigation.  2030 of the total fresh water is used for so many industrial operations like refineries, iron steel, paper pulp industries.  Water is very essential for the sustainance of all the living organisms.  Water also play a key role in sculpting the earth’s surface, moderating climate diluting pollutants. The rapid increase in population industrial growth have increased the demand for water resources.  Effects on overutilization of water (or) Consequences of overdrawing of ground water 1) Decrease of ground water 2) Ground subsidence 3) Lowering of water table 4) Intrusion of salt water 5) Earthquake landslides 6) Drying up of wells 7) Pollution of water A flood is an overflow of water, whenever the magnitude of flow of water exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel within its banks.  Causes of floods 1) Heavy rainfall, melting of snow, sudden release of water from dams, causes flood in lowlying coastal area. 2) Prolonged downpour can also cause overflowing of lakes rivers. 3) Reduction in the carrying capacity of the channel, due to accumulation of sediments or obstructions built on flood ways. 4) Deforestation, overgrazing, mining increases runoff from rains hence the level of flood raises. 5) Removal of dense uniform forest cover over the hilly zones leads to occurrence of floods. Effect of floods 1) Due to flood, water spreads in the surrounding areas submerges them. 2) The plain surface have become eroded silted with mud sand, thus the cultivable land areas gets affected. 3) Extinction of civilization in some coastal areas also occur.  Flood management 1) Floods can be controlled by constructing dams or reservoirs. 2) Channel management embankments also control the floods. 3) Encroachment of flood ways should be banned. 4) Flood hazard may also be reduced by forecasting or flood warning. 5) Flood may also be reduced by reduction of runoff by increasing infiltration through appropriate afforestation in the catchment area. Drought is nothing but scarcity of water, which occurs due to inadequate rainfall, late arrival of rains excessive withdrawal of ground water.  Types of drought • Droughts are classified into 4 types, 1) Meteorological drought – rainfall 75 of the normal rainfall – this drought will be severe if the rainfall is 50 2) Hydrological drought – total amount of rainfall is less than the average rainfall – reduction of statistical average of water reserves in aquifers, lakes reservoirs. 3) Agricultural drought – due to the shortage as well as the timing of overall rainfall – reduction in the ground water reservoir levels, soil moisture – affects cropped plants. 4) Socioeconomic drought – due to reduction in the availability of food social security of the people in affected areas – leads to famine. Causes of drought 1) When annual rainfall is below normal less than evaporation 2) High population 3) Intensive cropping pattern over exploitation of scarce water resources through dug well or bore well. In Maharashtra there has been no recovery from drought for the last 30 years due to over exploitation of water by sugarcane crop. 4) Deforestation leads to desertification drought too.  Effects of drought 1) Hunger, malnutrition scarcity of drinking water also change in water quality. 2) Widespread crop failures leading to acute shortage of food adversely affects human livestock populations. 3) It indicates the worst situation initiation of desertification. 4) Raw materials for agro based industries are critically affected, hence retarding the industrial commercial growth. 5) Also accelerates degradation of natural resources. 6) Leads to large migration of people urbanization. Drought management 1) Indigenous knowledge in control of drought desertification is very useful. 2) Rain water harvesting program. 3) To improve ground water level, construction of reservoirs in drought area are essential. 4) Modern irrigation technology (drip irrigation) is very much useful to conserve water. 5) Afforestation activities also improves the potential of water in drought area. 6) Mixed cropping dry farming are the suitable methods which minimize the risks of crop failures in dry area. Water is so essential for our existence is fast becoming a scarce resource.  Nearly 1.2 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.  Thus due to increase in population decrease in water resources, conflicts over water starts.  Causes of water conflicts 1) Conflict through use – unequal distribution of water has led to inter state or international disputes – international conflicts : India Pakistan fight over the rights to water from the Indus – national conflicts : Sharing of Cauvery water between Karnataka Tamilnadu. 2) Construction of Dams (or) Power stations – for hydroelectric power generation, dams are built across the rivers, which initiates conflict between the states. 3) Conflict through pollution  Besides the production of electricity shipping, rivers lakes are also used for industrial purpose.  Not only they act as reservoirs for the supply of fresh water but also as a means of disposing of waste water industrial rubbish.  With the increasing decline in the quality of the water crossing borders, the problem of cleaning the water takes on an international dimension. Management of conflicts over water 1) Efforts are mainly concentrated to enact laws to check these practices to control water pollution. 2) The conflicts over sharing of river water in the country has been studied by many organizations several solutions are suggested. The interlinking of rivers has been one such solution. 3) Demand for Nationalization of water needs serious consideration. Therefore power must be given to National Water Authority River Basin Authority for equitable distribution of basin water. Dams are built across the river in order to store water for,  Irrigation  Hydroelectric power generation  Flood control  Most of the dams are built to serve for more than one purpose called “multi purpose dams”.  Benefits of constructing dams 1) Control flood store flood water 2) For diverting part or all of the water from river into a channel 3) Drinking agricultural uses 4) Generate electricity 5) For recreational purposes 6) Navigation Fishery can be developed in the dam areas. Problems of constructing dams  Upstream problems 1) Displacement of tribal people 2) Loss of nonforest land 3) Loss of forests, flora fauna 4) Landslips, sedimentation siltation occurs 5) Stagnation water logging around reservoirs retards plant growth 6) Breeding of vectors spread of vectorborne diseases. 7) Reservoir induced seismicity (RIS) causes earthquakes. 8) Navigation aquaculture activities can be developed in the dam area. Downstream problems 1) Water logging salinity due to over irrigation 2) Reduced water flow silt deposition in rivers 3) Salt water intrusion at river mouth 4) Since the sediments carrying nutrients get deposited in the reservoir, the fertility of the land along the river gets reduced. 5) Sometimes due to structural defects the dam may collapse suddenly destroy many living organisms. 6) Salt water intrusion at river mouth.  Minerals are naturally occurring substances having definite chemical composition physical properties.  Ores are minerals or combination of minerals from which useful substances, such as metals, can be profitably extracted used for manufacture.  Formation of mineral deposits  Concentration of minerals at a particular spot, which can be extracted profitably, gives rise to a mineral deposit.  Formation of these deposits is a very slow biological process even it takes millions of years to form these deposits.  Mineral deposits are formed due to, 1) Biological decomposition of dead animals organic matters. 2) The concentration of minerals during cooling of molten rock (lava from volcano). 3) Evaporation of sea water. 4) Oxidationreduction reaction inside the earth. 5) Concentration of minerals during weathering, transport sedimentation. Classification of mineral resources  U.S. Geological Survey divides mineral resources into 3 categories, 1) Identified resources – location, existence, quantity quality of these mineral resources are known by the direct geological evidence measurements. 2) Undiscovered resources – these mineral resources are assumed to exist on the basis of geological knowledge theory but their specific locations, quality quantity are unknown. 3) Reserves – these mineral resources are identified resources, from which a usable minerals can be extracted profitably. The important uses of minerals are as follows, 1) Development of industrial plants machinery – iron, aluminium, copper, etc., 2) Construction, housing, settlements – iron, aluminium, nickel, etc., 3) Generation of energy – coal, lignite, uranium, etc., 4) Designing of defense equipments, weapons, ornaments. 5) Agricultural purposes, as fertilizers, seed dressings fungicides – zineb : containing zinc, maneb : containing manganese 6) Jewellery – gold, silver, platinum diamond. 7) Making of alloys for various purposes – phosphorites. 8) Communication purposes – telephone wires, cables, electronic devices. 9) Medicinal purposes, particularly in ayurvedic system – sulphur pyrites. Most important environmental concern arises from the extraction processing of the minerals during mining, melting, roasting, etc.,  The environmental damage caused by mining activities are as follows,  Devegetation defacing of landscape  The top soil as well as the vegetation are removed from the mining area.  Large scale deforestation or devegetation leads to several ecological losses also landscape gets badly affected.  Groundwater contamination  Mining disturbs also pollutes the ground water.  Many ores has sulphur as an impurity which gets converted into H2SO4 due to microbial action. This makes the water acidic.  Some heavy metals also get leached into groundwater.  Surface water pollution  The drainage of acid mine often contaminates the nearby streams lakes.  The acidic water is harmful to many aquatic life.  Radioactive substances like uranium also contaminate the surface water kill many aquatic animals. Air pollution  Smelting roasting are done to purify the metals, which emits enormous amounts of air pollutants damaging the nearby vegetation.  The suspended particulate matter (SPM), SO, arsenic particles, cadmium, lead, etc., contaminate the atmosphere leads to several health related problems.  Subsidence of land  It is mainly associated with underground mining.  Subsidence of mining area results in cracks in houses, tilting of buildings, bending of rail tracks.  Effects of over exploitation of mineral resources 1) Rapid depletion of mineral deposits. 2) Wastage dissemination of mineral deposits. 3) Causes environmental pollution. 4) Needs heavy energy requirement.  Management of mineral resources 1) Reuse Recycling of the metals 2) Ecofriendly mining technology 3) Modernization of the mining industries 4) Efficient use protection of mineral resources. Mining quarrying in Udaipur  About 200 open cast mining quarrying centres are in Udaipur  Of these 100 mining quarrying centres are illegal involved in stone mining  Nearly 150 tonnes of explosives are used per month in blasting of mines quarry, which pollute the air, soil water.  This blasting activity adversely affects irrigation wildlife.  Mining in Sariska Tiger Reserve in Aravalli range  The Aravalli range is spread in the Northwest India covering Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana Delhi.  The hill region is very rich in biodiversity as well as mineral resources. The Sariska Tiger Reserve, in Aravalli range, is very rich in wildlife has enormous mineral reserves like quartzite, marble granite.  Mining operations around these reserve has made many areas permanently infertile barren.  The Supreme Court has directed the centre state government of Rajasthan to ensure that all mining activities within the series should be stopped.  But still some illegal mining is in progress.  Quarrying thorium uranium in Kanyakumari district  Indian Rare Earths Corporation is quarrying sands, which is enriched with uranium thorium, near the sea shore in Manali, KK district.  It leads to loss of many coconut plantation sea shore beauty. Food is an essential requirement for the human survival.  The main components of food are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals vitamins.  Historically humans have dependent on 3 systems for their food supply, 1) Croplands – grains – 76 of world’s food – rice, wheat, maize, barley, sugarcane, etc., 2) Rangelands – food from the grazing livestock – 17 of world’s food – meat, milk, fruits, etc., 3) Oceans – 7 of world’s food – fish, prawn, crab, etc.,  Even though the earth is provided with more than 1000’s of edible plants animals, only 15 plants 8 terrestrial animal species supply 90 of our global intake of calories.  Rice, wheat maize are the major grains which provide more than 50 of the calories people consume.1 One in every seven persons on this planet lives in India.  With 16 of theworld’s population only 2.4 of its land area, there is a heavy pressure on the natural resources including land.  An average Indian consumes a much lower amount of resources than a person in the developing world.  Green revolution of 1960’s could meetIndia’s growing demand for food, but there are recognized soil health problems like deficiency of micronutrients, organic matter, soil salinity damage of soil structure.  There is a need to develop modernize the technologies without losing our sound traditional values practices. 2 Sustainable development is defined as,“ meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.  True sustainable development aims at optimum use of natural resources with • high degree of reusability • Minimum wastage • Least generation of toxic by products • Maximum productivity 3 Sustainable development is multi dimensional concept aiming at benefits derived from the interactions between society, economy environment. Economy Sustainable development Society Environment  To build up the sustainable development, the following approaches are proposed. 1) Developing appropriate technology 2) Reduce, Reuse, Recycle (3R) approach 3) Providing environmental education awareness 4) Consumption of renewable resources 5) Conservation of non renewable resources 6) Population control 4Urbanization is the movement of human population from rural areas to urban areas for the want of better education,communication,health,employment,etc.,  Causes of urbanization  Since cities are the main centers of economic growth, trade, transportation, education, medical facilities employment, rural people moves to cities.  About 50 of the world population lives in urban area people from rural area is moving to cities for employment.  Thus the urban growth is so fast it is difficult to accommodate all their facilities within a limited area.  As a result there is spreading of the cities into suburban or rural areas.  This phenomenon is known asurban sprawl. 5 Energy demanding activities  In developing countries, urban growth is very fast pollution is uncontrollable.  When compared to rural people, urban people consumes a lot of energy materials generates a lot of waste.  This is because urban people have a higher standard of life their lifestyle demands more energy inputs.  Examples for energy demanding activities • Residential commercial lightings. • Transportation including motor cycle, car public transport • Modern lifestyle using a large number of electrical gadgets in everyday life. 6 Solution for urban energy problem 1) Urban people may use public transport instead of using motor cycles cars. 2) Energy consumption must be minimized in all aspects. 3) Use of energy efficient technology. 4) Use of solar energy wind energy. 5) Imposing strict laws, penalties energy audit. 7The process of saving water for future utilization is knownaswaterconservation.  Need for water conservation 1) Though the resources of water are more, the quality reliability are not high due to changes in environmental factors. 2) Better lifestyle requires more fresh water. 3) Increase in population 4) Due to deforestation, the annual rainfall is also decreasing. 5) Over exploitation of ground water, leads to drought. 6) Agricultural industrial activities require more fresh water. 8 Strategies of water conservation  Reducing evaporation losses • by placing horizontal barriers of asphalt below the soil surface, which increases the water availability crop yield.  Reducing irrigation losses  Sprinkling irrigation drip irrigation conserves water by 3040.  Growing hybrid crop varieties, which require less water.  Irrigation in early morning or later evening, reduces evaporation losses.  Reuse of water  Treated waste water can be used for fertiirrigation.  Grey water from washings, bathrooms, etc., may be used for washing cars, watering gardens. 9 Preventing wastage of water  Closing the taps when not in use.  Repairing any leakage from pipes.  Using small capacity of taps.  Decreasing runoff losses  By contour cultivation or terrace farming.  Avoid discharge of sewage  The discharge of sewage into natural water resources should be prevented as much as possible.  Methods of water conservation 1) Rainwater harvesting 2) Watershed management 10Rainwater harvesting is a technique of capturing and storingofrainwaterforfurther utilization.  Need (or) Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting 1) To meet the increasing demands of water. 2) To raise the water table by recharging the ground water. 3) To reduce the groundwater contamination from the intrusion of saline water. 4) To reduce the surface run off loss. 5) To reduce the storm water run off soil erosion. 6) To increase hydrostatic pressure to stop land subsidence. 7) To minimize water crisis water conflicts. 11 Concept of rainwater harvesting  Rainwater harvesting involves collecting water that falls on the roof of house during rain storms passing it through PVC or aluminium pipe to a near by covered storage unit.  Method (or) type of Rain water Harvesting  The most common method of rainwater harvesting is roof top rainwater harvesting.  Roof top rainwater harvesting • In this method rainwater is collected from the roof of the building is stored in the ground for future use. • It is the low cost effective technique. • The rainwater from the top of the roofs, road surfaces, play grounds, open lands is diverted into the surface tank or recharge pits through a delivery system . • This can be used to recharge underground aquifers by diverting the water from stored water to dugwell or bore wells. 1213 Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting 1) Reduction in the use of current for pumping water. 2) Mitigating the effects of droughts achieving drought proofing. 3) Increasing the availability of water from well. 4) Rise in ground water levels. 5) Minimizing the soil erosion flood hazards. 6) Future generation is assured of water. 14 Watershed (or) Drainage basin • Watershed is defined as the land area from which water drains under the influence of gravity into a stream, lake, reservoirorother bodyofsurfacewater.  Watershed management • The management of rainfall and resultant runoff is called watershedmanagement. • It also involves conservation, regeneration proper use of water.  Factors affecting watershed • Uncontrolled, unplanned unscientific land use activities. • Overgrazing, deforestation, mining, construction activities also affect degrade various watersheds. • Droughtly climates also affects the watershed. 15 Need (or) Objectives of watershed management 1) To minimize the risks of floods, droughts landslides. 2) For developmental activities like domestic water supply, irrigation, hydropower generation, etc., 3) To generate huge employmental opportunities in the backward rainfed areas to ensure livelihood security. 4) To promote social forestry horticultural activity on all suitable areas of land. 5) To protect the soil from erosion by runoff. 6) To raise the groundwater level.  Concept of watershed management • Watershed is not a technology but a concept which integrates construction management budgeting of rainwater through simple but discrete hydrological units. 16 Watershed management techniques • In watershed management, various civil structures were constructed to improve groundwater storage. 1) Trenches (Pits) : to improve groundwater storage. 2) Earthern dam (or) Stone embankment : to check the runoff water. 3) Farm pond : to improve water storage capacity of the catchment area. 4) Underground barriers (Dykes) : to raise the water table.  Maintenance of watershed (or) components of integrated watershed management 1) Water harvesting 2) Afforestation Agroforestry 3) Reducing soil erosion 4) Scientific mining quarrying 5) Public participation 6) Minimizing livestock population 17Resettlement is simple relocation or displacement of human population. Rehabilitation includes replacing the lost economic assets, safeguard employment, provide safe land for building,repairdamagedinfrastructures,etc.,  Resettlement rehabilitation is one of the most serious problems caused by the developmental activities.  Though the developmental projects raises the quality standard of living of the people, there is over exploitation of natural resources degradation of the environment.  Besides this, the native people are directly affected.  Causes of displacement of people 1) Due to developmental activities 2) Due to disaster– natural as well as man made disaster 3) Due to conservation initiatives 18 Rehabilitation issues  In India, most of the displacements have resulted due to land requirements by the government using Land Acquisition Act, 1897.  Tribals are usually the most affected among the displaced, who are already very poor.  Break up of families is an important social issue.  Even if the tribals get cash compensation, they are not familiar with the market policies trends.  Loss of identity loss of the intimate link between the people the environment is one of the big loss. 19 Rehabilitation policy 1) The extent of damage suffering that the proposed project would cause should be studied ascertained before starting the project. 2) The rehabilitation resettlement work should be a part of the project all those affected should be rehabilitated before the commencement of the project. 3) The people should be rehabilitated on“minimum dislocationbasis”, by choosing adjacent areas. 4) The extent of rehabilitation should meet the ends of social justice balanced development. 20Environmental ethics refers to the issues, principles guidelines relating to human interactions with their environment.  It also means that • efforts must be taken to protect an environment • to maintain its stability from the hazardous chemical pollutants.  Functions of environment 1) Life supporting medium for all organisms. 2) Provides food, air, water other important natural resources to the human beings. 3) Disintegrates all the waste materials discharged by the modern society. 4) Moderates the climatic condition of the soil. 5) A healthy economy depends on a healthy environment. 21 Environmental problems 1) Deforestation activities 2) Population growth urbanization. 3) Pollution due to discharge of effluent smoke discharge from the industries. 4) Water scarcity. 5) Land degradation degradation of soil fertility. 22 Solutions to Environmental problems 1) Reduce the waste of matter energy resources. 2) Recycle reuse as many of our waste products resources as possible. 3) Overexploitation of natural resources must be reduced. 4) Soil degradation must be minimized. 5) Biodiversity of the earth must be protected. 6) Reduce population increase the economic growth of our country. 23 Ethical guidelines 1) You should love honor the earth since it has blessed you with life governs your survival. 2) You should keep each day sacred to earth celebrate the turning of its seasons. 3) You should not hold yourself above other living things have no right to drive them into extinction. 4) You should be grateful to the plants animals which nourish you by giving you food. 5) You should not waste your resources on destructive weapons. 6) You should not steal from future generations their right to live in a clean safe planet by polluting it. 7) You should consume the material goods in moderate amounts so that all may share theearth’s precious treasure of resources. 24Climateistheaverageweatherofanarea. It is the general weather conditions, seasonal variations of a region. The average of such conditionsoveralongperiodiscalledclimate.  Theearth’s average surface temperature climate have been changing throughout theworld’s 4.7 billion year history.  The changes are gradual at sometimes whereas at other times they are quick.  We have relatively stable climate for 1000’s of years due to which we have practiced our agriculture. 25 Causes of climate change 1) Presence of green house gases in the atmosphere increases the global temperature. 2) Depletion of ozone layer. 3) Uneven distribution of rainfall. 4) Rotation of earth on its axis. 5) Seasonal changes.  Effect of climate change 1) Agriculture get disturbed. 2) Migration of animals humans takes place. 3) Upset the hydrological cycle, results in floods droughts in different parts of the world. 4) Global pattern of winds ocean currents get disturbed. 26 The progressive warming up of theearth’s surface due to blanketing effect of man made CO in the atmosphere is 2 known as thegreen houseeffect.  The increased inputs of CO other green house gases into 2 the atmosphere from human activities will enhance the earth’s natural green house effect.  This enhanced green house effect is calledglobalwarming.  Effect on global warming 1) Effect on sea level 2) Effect on agriculture forestry 3) Effect on water resources 4) Effect on terrestrial ecosystems 5) Effect on human health 27 Measures to check global warming (or) Preventive measures 1) CO emissions can be decreased by reducing the use 2 of fossil fuels. 2) Use renewable resources such as wind, solar hydropower. 3) Plant more trees. 4) Shift from coal to natural gas. 5) Adopt sustainable agriculture. 6) Stabilize population growth. 7) Efficiently remove CO from smoke stacks. 2 8) Remove atmospheric CO by using photosynthetic 2 algae. 28 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) • CDM is an arrangement under the kyoto protocol which allows industrialized countries with a green house gas reduction commitment to invest in projects that reduce emissions in developing countries. • It aims to develop sustainable development in all countries by reducing CO HFC (Hydro Fluro 2 Carbon) emissions. • The CDM allows net green house gas emissions to be reduced at a much lower global cost by financing emissions reduction projects in developing countries, where costs are lower than in industrialized countries. 29 Normal rain water is always slightly acidic because of the fact that CO present in the atmosphere gets 2 dissolved in it.  Because of the presence of SO NO gases as 2 2 pollutants in the atmosphere, the pH of the rain water is further lowered.  This type of precipitation of water is called acid rain or acid deposition. 30 Formation (or) causes of acid rain • Acid rain means the presence of excessive acids in rain water. • The thermal power plants, industries vehicles release nitrous oxide sulphur dioxide into atmosphere due to burning of coal oil. • When these gases react with water vapor, they form acids descend on to earth as acid rain. SO + H O H SO X 2 2 4 NO + H O HNO X 2 3 • Due to the drifting of these gases in the atmosphere by the wind, their presence are felt as far as 2000 kilometers. • The air pollution of one nation could cause acid rain for another nation. 3132 Effects (impacts) of acid rain  Effect of acid rain on human beings 1) Human nervous system, respiratory system digestive system are affected by acid rain. 2) It also causes the premature death from heart lung disorders such as asthma bronchitis.  Effect of acid rain on buildings 1) The Taj Mahal in Agra suffering at present due to SO 2 H SO acid fumes released from Mathura refinery. Crystals of 2 4 CuSO MgSO are formed as a result of corrosion caused by 4 4 acid rain. 2) Acid rain corrodes houses, monuments, statues, bridges fences. British parliament building also suffered damage due to H SO rains. 2 4 3) Acid rain dry deposition of acidic particles contribute to the corrosion of metals, the deterioration of paint stone. 4) Dry deposition of acidic compounds can also dirty buildings other structures leading to increased maintenance cost. 33 Effect of acid rain on terrestrial lake ecosystem 1) The effect of acid rain on terrestrial vegetation reduces rate of photosynthesis growth increased sensitivity to drought and disease. 2) It severely retards the growth of crops such as beans, radish, potato, spinach carrots. 3) It causes number of complications in ponds, rivers lakes especially significant reduction in fish population. 4) Black flies, mosquitoes, deer flies the aquatic worms occur abundantly. 5) The activity of bacteria other microscopic animals is reduced in acidic water. So the dead materials other substances lying on the bottom of the lakes are not rapidly decomposed. Thus essential nutrients such as nitrogen phosphorous stay locked up in dead wastages.  Other names of acid rain : Acid fog, acid snow acid precipitation 34 Control measures of acid rain 1) Monitor the air pollution by improved technologies also by switching to clean combustion technologies. 2) SO NO emissions from industries power plants 2 2 should be reduced by using pollution control equipments. 3) Coal with lower sulphur content is desirable to use in thermal plants. 4) Replacement of coal by natural gas would also reduce the problem. 5) Liming of lakes soils should be done to correct the adverse effects of acid rain. 6) The real solution is to cut back on the use of fossil fuels by reducing our dependency on motor vehicles unnecessary use of motor articles. 35 Ozone is a gas (O ) found throughout the atmosphere, but 3 most highly concentrated in the stratosphere between 10 and 50 km above sea level, where it is known as the‘ozone layer’. 36 Importance of ozone layer • Without the ozone layer, life onearth’s surface would not be possible. • It protects us from the damaging ultraviolet radiation of the sun. • In particular it filters out UVB radiation. • Recent evidence has shown that certain parts of the ozone layer are becoming thinner ozone‘holes’ have developed. • The consequence of any thinning of the ozone layer is that more UVB radiation reaches theearth’s surface. • UVB radiation affects DNA molecules, causing damage to the outer surface of plants animals. • In humans it causes skin cancer eye disease. 37 Formation of ozone • Ozone is formed in the stratosphere by photochemical reaction, viz., O +hʋ O + O 2 • The atomic oxygen rapidly reacts with molecular oxygen to form ozone. O + O + M O + M 2 3 where M= third body such as nitrogen • Ozone thus formed distributes itself in the stratosphere absorbs harmful UV radiations.  Mechanism of ozone layer depletion (or) Formation (or) Causes of ozone hole • In 1970, it was found that the ozone layer was attacked by chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) which are released into atmosphere by refrigeration units, air conditioning systems, aerosol sprays cleaning solvents. 38• CFC release chlorine which breaks ozone into oxygen. • The following reactions will occur CF Cl +hʋ Cl + CF Cl 2 2 2 CF Cl + O CF O + ClO 2 2 2 Cl + O ClO + O 3 2 ClO + O Cl + O 2 • Each chlorine atom is capable of attacking several ozone molecules. • A 1 loss of ozone results in a 2 increase in UV rays reaching the earth’s surface.  Ozone depleting substances • The ozone depleting substances essentially consists of chlorine or bromine atoms which are extremely reactive while they are in the free state. • The following gases are accumulated in the atmosphere are found to be instruments in ozone depletion. o Chloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC)– refrigerants (freon) in refrigerators, propellant in aerosol spray cans o Hydro Chloro Fluoro Carbon(HCFC)– refrigerants, bowling agents 39o Bromo Fluoro Carbons (BFC)– Fire extinguishers . o Other chemicals • Certain halogen compounds are potential ozone destroyers upto 10 times more powerful than the CFCs. • Sometimes the atmospheric sulphur dioxide is converted into sulphuric acid which greatly increases the rate of ozone depletion.  Effect (or) Environmental impact (or) Consequences of Ozone Layer Depletion  Effect on human health 1) The UVrays damage genetic material in the skin cells which cause skin cancer. 2) For fair skinned people long exposure to high level UVrays increases the risk of non melanine skin cancer. 3) Prolonged exposure to UVrays lead to slow blindness called actinic keratitis. This could also lead to cataracts. 4) Exposure to UVrays can supress the immune responses. It also reduces human resistivity leading to cancer, allergies other infectious disease. 40 Effect on Aquatic systems 1) Affects aquatic forms such as phytoplankton, fish, larval crabs. 2) The phytoplankton consumes large amount of CO Decrease in 2. population of phytoplankton could have more amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere which contributes to global warming.  Effect on materials • Degradation of paints, plastics other polymeric material will result in economic loss due to effects of UV radiation.  Effect on climate • The ozone depleting chemicals can contribute to global warming i.e., increasing the average temperature of theearth’s surface.  Control measures 1) Replacing CFCs by other materials which are less damaging. 2) Use of gases such as methyl bromide which is a crop fumigant also to be controlled. 3) Manufacturing using of ozone depleting chemicals should be stopped. 41 Energy released during a nuclear reaction is called nuclear energy.  The most serious hazard to human environmental health from the nuclear accident is the release of large amounts of nuclear energy radioactive products into the atmosphere.  Type of nuclear accidents  Nuclear test • Nuclear explosions carried out in underground cause settling down the radioactive materials on theearth’s surface radioactive particles, radioactive rays into the atmosphere.  Nuclear power plant accidents • Radiation get released during this accident. • The nuclear power plant located in the seismic vulnerable area may cause nuclear accidents. 42 Improper disposal of radioactive waste • Drums stored underground can rust leak radioactive materials into water, land air.  Accident during transport  Core melt down is the major accident at a nuclear power plant.  Effect of nuclear radiation 1) Radiation may break chemical bonds such as DNA in cells which may be instantaneous, prolonged or delayed types. It may be even carried to future generations. 2) Exposure at low dose of radiation (100250 rads), people do not die, but begin to suffer from fatigue, vomiting loss of hair. 3) Exposure at higher dose of radiation (400500 rads), affect bone marrow, blood cells, natural resistance blood fails to clot. 4) Exposure at very high dose of radiation (10,000 rads) kills the organism by damaging the tissues of heart, brain. 43 Nuclear Holocaust • It means destruction of biodiversity by nuclear equipments nuclear bombs. • In a holocaust, a large number of living beings are totally destroyed as in case of nuclear war.  Effect of nuclear holocaust  Nuclear winter o Nuclear bombardment will cause combustion of wood, plastics, petroleum, forest, etc., o Large quantity of black soot will be carried to the stratosphere. o Black soot will absorb all UVradiations will not allow the radiation to reach the earth. Therefore, cooling will result. o Thus, due to nuclear explosions, a process opposite to global warming will occur. This is called nuclear winter. o Effect of nuclear winter a) Lowers the global temperature, even in summer the temperature will be at around freezing temperature. b) Crop productivity will be reduced causing famines human sufferings.  It ignite all combustible material, destroy all the living beings, material crushing, destructionof homes. 44 Examples of Nuclear Holocausts  Nuclear war • Japan, Hiroshima Nagasaki are the examples of nuclear holocaust, nd which had happened at 2 world war.  At Chernobyl • When the operators lost the control of a watercooled, graphite moderated reactor during a low power tests at Chernobyl in Ukraine, the nuclear reactor exploded. • Chernobyl victims include, a) 31 deaths at the time. b) An estimated 2000 extra cases of cancer in Europe over the next 50 years. c) A much greater loss of life damage to health can still be attributed to the coal industry.  Control measures 1) Suitable precautions are to be taken training must be given to people for handling these materials to avoid accident. 2) Constant monitoring of the radiation level has to be carried out. 3) Regular checks control measures are done by Atomic Energy 45 Regulatory Board under the Department of Atomic Energy. Waste land • The land which is not in use is called waste land. • The waste land is unproductive, unfit for cultivation, grazing other economic uses. • About 20 of the geographical area of India is waste land.  Type of waste lands  Uncultivable wastelands • These lands cannot be brought under cultivation. • Examples baren rocky areas, hilly slopes, sandy deserts, etc.,  Cultivable wastelands • These are cultivable but not cultivated for more than 5 years. • Cultivable waste lands are important for agricultural purposes. • Examples degraded forest lands, saline lands, water logged marsh lands, etc., 46 Causes of waste land formation 1) Due to soil erosion, deforestation, overgrazing, water logging, salinity. 2) The increasing demand for firewood excessive use of pesticides. 3) Developmental activities like construction of dams power projects have caused considerable damage to land due to water logging. 4) Over exploitation of natural resources. 5) By the sewage industrial wastes. 6) Mining activities destroy the forest cultivable land. 7) Growing demands for fuel, fodder, wood food cause degradation and loss of soil productivity. 47 Objectives (or) Need of waste land reclamation 1) To improve the physical structure quality of the soil. 2) To prevent soil erosion, flooding landslides. 3) To avoid over exploitation of natural resources. 4) To improve the availability of good quality of water for agricultural purposes industrial operations. 5) To conserve the biological resources natural ecosystem. 6) To provide a source of income to the rural poor. 7) To supply fuel, fodder timber for local use. 48 Methods of waste land reclamation (or) Integrated waste land development programme  Drainage • Excess water is removed by artificial drainage. • This process is used for waterlogged soil reclamation.  Leaching • It is the process of removal of salt from the salt affected soil by applying excess amount of water. • Leaching is done by dividing the field in small plots. • In continuous leaching 0.5 to 1.0 cm water is required to remove 90 of soluble salts.  Irrigation practices • High frequency irrigation with controlled amount of water helps to maintain better water availability in the land.  Green manures biofertilizers • Application of green manure is found to improve the saline soils. 49 Application of Gypsum • Soil sodicity can be reduced with gypsum. • Calcium of gypsum replaces sodium from the exchangeable sites. • This process converts clay back into calcium clay.  Afforestation programmes • The National Commission on Agriculture (NCA) has launched several afforestation schemes. • The National Development Board has decided to bring 5 million hacres of waste land annually for firewood fodder plantation.  Social Forestry Programmes • These programmes involve strip plantation on road, canal sides, degraded forest land, etc., 50 Consumerism refers to the consumption of resources by the people.  It is an organized movement of citizens government.  The special concentration is given to improve the rights power of the buyers in relation to the sellers.  Consumerism is related to both increase in population size as well as increase in our demand due to change in lifestyle.  In the modern society our needs have increased so consumerism of resources has also increased.  Traditionally favourable rights of sellers 1) The right to introduce any product. 2) The right to change any price. 3) The right to spend any amount to promote their product. 4) The right to use incentives to promote their products. 51 Traditional buyer rights 1) The right to buy or not to buy. 2) The right to expect a product to be safe. 3) The right to expect the product to perform as claimed.  Important informations to be known by buyers 1) Ingredients of a product. 2) Manufacturing date expiry date. 3) Whether the product has been manufactured against an established law of nature or involved in rights violation.  Objectives of consumerism  It improves the rights powers of the buyers.  It involves making the manufacturer liable for the entire life cycle of a product.  It forces the manufacturer to reuse recycle the product after usage.  The items which are very difficult to decompose like computers, televisions etc., can be returned to manufacturer for reclaiming useful parts disposing the rest. 52 The reusable packing materials like bottles can be taken back to the manufacturer. It makes the products cheaper avoids littering pollutions.  Active consumerism improves human health happiness also it saves resources.  Sources of wastes • The sources of the waste materials are agriculture, mining, industrial municipal wastes. • Examples for waste products o Glass, papers, garbage, plastics, soft drink canes, metals, food wastes, automobile wastes, construction factory wastes. • Ewaste (Electronic electrical wastes) o Computers, printers, mobile phones, xerox machines, calculators, etc.,  Effects of wastes  The wastes released from chemical industries from explosives are dangerous to human life.  The dumped wastes degrade soil make unfit for irrigation. 53 Ewaste contains more than 1000 chemicals, which are toxic cause environmental pollution.  Plastics are difficult to recycle or incinerate safely because they are non biodegradable their combustion produces several toxic gases.  Factors affecting consumerism generation of wastes  People overpopulation • It occurs when there are more people than the available supply of food water. • Over population causes degradation of resources, poverty premature death. • This situation occurs in less developed countries (LDCs). • Thus in LDCs per capita consumption of resources waste generation are less.  Consumption overpopulation • It occurs when there are less people than the available resources. • Due to luxurious lifestyle per capita consumption of resources is very high. • If the consumption is more, the generation of waste is also more greater is the degradation of environment. 54 This Act empowers the Central government to fix standards for quality of air, water, soil noise and to formulate procedures and safeguards for handling of hazard substances.  Objectives of environmental act a) To protect improvement of the environment. b) To prevent hazards to all living creatures property. c) To maintain harmonious relationship between humans their environment.  Important features of Environment act  The Act further empowers the government to lay down procedures safeguards for the prevention of accidents which cause pollution remedial measures.  The government has the authority to close or prohibit or regulate any industry or its operation, if the violation of this Act occur. 55 The penal sections of the Act contain more stringent penalties such as imprisonment for a term extending to 5 years or fine upto Rupees 1 lakh or both.  If the violation continues, an additional fine of Rupees 5000 per day may be imposed.  The Act fixes the liability of the offence punishable under Act on the person who is directly in charge.  The Act empowers the officer of Central government to inspect the site or the plant or the machinery for preventing pollution to collect samples of air, water, soil or other material from any factory or its premises for testing.  The Environment (Protection) Act is the most comprehensive legislation with powers for the central government to directly act, avoiding many regulatory authorities or agencies. 56 This act deals with the problems relating to air pollution.  It allows the establishment of Central State Control Boards provided with absolute powers to monitor air quality pollution control.  Objectives of the air act a) To prevent, control abatement of air pollution. b) To maintain the quality of air. c) To establish a board for the prevention control of air pollution.  Important features of air act  The Central Board may lay down the standards for the quality of air.  The State Boards are empowered to lay down the standards for emissions of air pollutants from industrial units or automobiles or other sources. 57 The State Boards also function as inspectorates of air pollution.  The State Boards will examine the manufacturing processes the control of equipment to verify, whether they meet the standards prescribed.  The State Board can advice the State Government to declare certain heavily polluted areas as pollution control areas can advice to avoid the burning of waste products which cause air pollution in such areas.  The directions of the Central Board are mandatory on State Boards.  The operation of an industrial unit is prohibited in a heavily polluted areas without the consent of the Central Board.  Violation of law is punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 3 months or fine upto Rs 10,000 or both. 58 This act provides for maintaining restoring the sources of water.  It also provides for preventing controlling water pollution.  Objectives of the water act 1) Prevention control of water pollution 2) Maintaining or restoring the wholesomeness of water 3) Establishing central state boards for the prevention control of water pollution.  Important features of water act  This act aims at, to protect the water from all kinds of pollution to preserve the quality of water in all aquifers.  Establishment of Central Board State Boards for prevention of water pollution. 59 The States are empowered to restrain any person from discharging a pollutant or sewage or effluent into any water body without the consent of the Board.  Violation of this act leads to prison sentence ranging from 3 months to 6 years.  State Pollution Control Board • The approval of the State Pollution Control Board is needed to, a) Establishing any industry or any treatment disposal system or any extension or addition there to, discharge effluent into a stream or well or river or on land. b) Use of any new or altered outlet for the discharge of a sewage. • In case of violation of this act, the State Board can a) Send a notice to the concerned organization. b) Issue orders to closure or stoppage of supply of electricity, water or any other services to the polluting unit. c) Noncompliance of the order leads to imprisonment for a term of one a half years to 6 years fine of Rs.5000 for everyday if the default continues. 60 This Act is aimed to protect preserve wildlife.  Wildlife refers to all animals plants that are not domesticated.  India has rich wildlife heritage which includes 350 species of mammals, 1200 species of birds about 20,000 known species of insects.  Some of them are listed as‘endangeredspecies’ in the Wildlife (Protection) Act.  The wildlife is declining due to human actions.  Wildlife populations are regularly monitored management strategies formulated to protect them. 61 Objectives of the wildlife Act 1) To maintain essential ecological processes life supporting systems. 2) To preserve biodiversity. 3) To ensure a continuous use of species.  Important features 1) The Act covers the rights nonrights of forest dwellers. 2) It provides restricted grazing in sanctuaries but prohibits in national parks. 3) It also prohibits the collection of nontimber forest. 4) The rights of forest dwellers recognized by the Forest Policy of 1988 are taken away by the Amended Wild life Act of 1991. 62 This act provides conservation of forests related aspects.  This act also covers all type of forests including reserved forests, protected forests any forested land.  This act is enacted in 1980 aims at to arrest deforestation.  Objectives of forest act 1) To protect conserve the forest. 2) To ensure judicious use of forest products.  Important features of forest act  The reserved forests shall not be diverted or dereserved without the prior permission of the central government.  The forest land may not be used for nonforest purposes. 63 Any illegal nonforest activity within a forest area can be immediately stopped under act.  Important features of Amendment Act of 1988 1) Forest departments are forbidden to assign any forest land‘by way of lease or otherwise to any private person’ or nongovernment body for reafforestation. 2) Clearance of any forest land of naturally grown trees for the purpose of reafforestation is forbidden. 3) The diversion of forest land for nonforest uses is cognisable offence any one who violates the law is punishable. 64 There are number of environmental laws in the form of Acts for safeguarding our environmental quality.  But we cannot implement it strictly as there are many drawbacks problems in implementing environmental legislations.  Problems in enforcing the legislation 1) We have not achieved the target of bringing 33 of our land cover under forest. 2) We lose our wildlife continuously. 3) The rivers are now opened to sewer. 4) The air in town is badly polluted. 5) There are many drawbacks in our environmental laws in their implementation. 65 Drawbacks of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972  Since this Act has been enacted just as a fallout of Stockholm Conference held in 1972, it has not included any locally evolved conservation measures.  The ownership certificates for some animal articles (like leopard tiger skins) often serves as a tool for illegal trading.  Since Jammu Kashmir has its own Wildlife Act, hunting trading of many endangered species, prohibited in other states, are allowed in JK.  The offenders of the Act are not subjected to very harsh fines. It is just a fine of Rs.25,000 or imprisonment for upto 3 years.  Drawbacks of the Forest (conservation) Act, 1980  This Act just transfers the powers from state to centre to decide the conversion of reserve forest lands to nonforest areas.  The power has been centralized at the top the local communities have been completely neglected. 66 The tribals were totally dependent on forest resources. When they were stopped from taking those resources, they involve in criminal activities like smuggling, killing, etc.,  The tribal communities have rich knowledge about forest resources, their importance conservation. But their role contribution is not acknowledged.  Drawbacks of Pollution related Act  The power authority has been given only to central government with little of power to state government.  The penalties is very small when compared to the damage caused by the big industries due to pollution.  Litigation, related to environment is expensive, since it involves technical knowledge.  For small unit it is very expensive to install Effluent Treatment Plant.  The position of chairman of the Board is occupied by political appointee. Hence it is difficult to implement the act without political interference. 67 Non government organization is apeople’s organization which is working for the protection of the environment.  The following are some environmental organizations in India. • Voluntary organizations help the government in local environmental issues interact at grass root level. • The NGO,“mahila mandals”, create awareness among the women in remote villages by educating helping them to become healthy economically selfdependent. • Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, Centre for Science Environment (CSE). The report as per CSE on permissible limits of pesticides in the cola drinks sensitized the public all over the country. • Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Madras Naturalists Society (MNS), Chennai, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), India are some of the NGOs taking many steps for the environmental protection health. • Chipko movement works for the conservation of trees by Darholi Gram Swarajya Mandal in Gopeshwar. 68 Central state pollution control boards takes many step to control pollution.  Functions of Central Board  It advises the central government regarding the prevention of pollution.  It plans for the prevention control of pollution.  It establishes labs for the analysis of air water samples.  It provides technical assistance guidance to state boards sponsor research regarding water, air pollution.  It identifies areas or industries causing air pollution.  It encourages industries to recycle reuse the wastes.  It also advises the industries to treat waste water gases with modern technology. 69 Functions of the State Board  It advises the state government on any matter concerning the prevention control of pollution.  It has the right to inspect at all times any pollution control equipment, industrial plant gives orders to take the necessary steps to control pollution.  It encourages research investigations regarding pollution.  It organises educational programme in collaboration with central board.  The analyst of the board is expected to analyze the sample, sent to him submit a report to the board respective industry. 70 Our environment is presently degrading due to many activities like pollution, deforestation, overgrazing, rapid industrialization urbanization.  In order to conserve our environment, each every one must be aware about our environment problems objectives of various environmental policies at national local levels.  Objectives of public awareness  To create awareness among people of rural city about ecological imbalances, local environment technological development.  To organise meetings, group discussion on development, tree plantation programmes, exhibitions.  To focus on current environment problems situations.  To learn to live simple ecofriendly manner. 71 Methods to create Environmental Awareness • Environmental awareness must be created through formal informal education to all sections of the society. • The various methods that is useful for raising environmental awareness are discussed here. 1) Environmental awareness in schools colleges 2) Through mass media 3) Cinema 4) News papers 5) Voluntary organizations– NSS, NCC, Rotary club 6) Traditional techniques– folk plays, dramas for rural people 7) Arranging competitions– story writing, essay writing painting competitions on environmental issues. 8) Leaders appeal– political leaders, cine actors popular social reformers 9) Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) 72
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