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The term ecosystem is coined from a Greek word
meaning study of home.
It is the basic functional unit of ecology.
Ecology means the study of ecosystem.
An ecosystem can be defined as a group of organisms
interacting among themselves and with their
environment.TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM
dams, etc., Aquatic ecosystem
Fresh water ecosystem
Lotic(running water) Lentic (standing water)
ecosystem ecosystemNATURAL ECOSYSTEM
Operates themselves under natural conditions.
Based on their habitat types, it can be further classified into
1) Terrestrial ecosystem related to land vegetation – grassland
ecosystem, forest ecosystem, desert ecosystem , etc.,
2) Aquatic ecosystem related to water and is further sub
classified into 2 types based on their salt content as,
Fresh water ecosystem
a) Running water ecosystem – rivers, streams.
b) Standing water ecosystem – pond, lake.
Marine ecosystem – sea and sea shore.STRUCTURE (OR) COMPONENTS
OF AN ECOSYSTEM
• An ecosystem has two major components ,
1) Abiotic (nonliving) components.
2) Biotic (living) components.
Fig. 1 Components of an ecosystem and their relationshipABIOTIC COMPONENTS
The nonliving components of an ecosystem
Examples – Climate, soil, water, air, energy, nutrients etc.,
1) Physical components include the energy, climate, raw
materials and the living space which the biotic components
(living organisms) needs. Examples – air, water, soil,
2) Chemical components are the sources of essential
nutrients. Examples :
a) Organic substances – Protein, lipids, carbohydrates, etc.,
b) Inorganic substances – All micro (Al, Co, Zn, Cu) and
macro elements ( C, H, O, P, N, K)BIOTIC COMPONENTS
The living organisms or the living members of an ecosystem.
The living components are made of many different species which are
distinguished based on their feeding habit. It includes,
1) Autotrophic components include producers which are autotrops
they derive energy from sunlight to make organic compounds.
Examples Green plants, algae, bacteria, etc.,
2) Heterotrophic components include consumers and decomposers
which are heterotrophs i.e. they depend on others especially the
producers for food.
The heterotrophs are
a) Macro consumers – herbivores, carnivores, omnivores.
b) Saprotrophs ( micro consumers) – decomposers ( bacteria, fungi,
etc.,)CLASSIFICATION OF BIOTIC
Biotic components are grouped into 3 groups based on their
Producers ( Autotrophs) synthesize their own food through
6Co + 12 H O C H O + 6O + 6H O
2 2 6 12 6 2 2
Consumers (Heterotrophs) depends on producers for their
food and are of the following types:
a) Primary consumers herbivores depends on plants for their
food plant eaters insects, rat, goat, horse, cow , etc.,
b) Secondary consumers primary carnivores depends on 1°
consumers for their food meat eaters frog, cat, snakes, etc.,a) Tertiary consumers secondary carnivores depends on 2°
consumers for their food meat eaters tiger, lion, etc.,
Decomposers feed on dead organisms, plants animals
decompose them into simpler compounds.
During this process inorganic nutrients are released which are
then used by the producers along with other organic nutrients
for preparing their own food.FUNCTION OF AN ECOSYSTEM
The function of an ecosystem is to allow flow of energy and
cycling of nutrients.
Functions of an ecosystem is of 3 types :
1) Primary function of all ecosystem is manufacture of starch
2) Secondary function is distributing energy in the form of food
to all consumers.
3) Tertiary function includes decomposing the dead items and
initiate the process of “cycling”ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM
Energy is the most essential requirement for all living
Solar energy is the only source to our planet earth.
Of the solar radiations reached the earth’s surface, some of
which is absorbed by producers (plants) to produce organic
matter through photosynthesis.
The plants are used by the herbivores and the herbivores are
used by the carnivores as their food.
Thus the energy enters the ecosystem through photosynthesis
and passes through the different tropic levels (feeding levels).
The conversion of solar energy is governed by the law of
thermodynamics. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
o energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be
converted from one form to another.
o Solar energy is converted into chemical energy through
photosynthesis by plants.
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
o whenever energy is transformed, there is a loss of energy through
the release of heat.
o This occurs when energy is transferred between tropic levels.
o The loss of energy takes place through respiration, running, hunting,
o Respiration equation
CH O + O CO + H O
2 2 2 2
Carbohydrate oxygen carbondioxide water NUTRIENT FLOW OR NUTRIENT
CYCLING OR BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
IN THE ECOSYSTEM
Nutrients are the elements which are essential for the
survival of both plants and animals.
o Macronutrients elements needed in large amounts O, N, C,
Ca, Mg P.
o Micronutrients – elements needed in small amounts Co, Zn,
Cu, Boron Strontium.
Nutrient cycles the cyclic flow of nutrients between the
biotic abiotic components. biogeochemical cycles.
The major nutrients like C, H, O N are cycled again again
between biotic abiotic components of the ecosystem.CARBON CYCLE
Carbon – basic component in all the organic compounds.
It is present in all biotic components in different forms such as
carbohydrates, proteins, fats aminoacids.
It is present in the atmosphere as CO
CO is taken up by green plants for photosynthesis.
This food moves through food chain finally the carbon present in
the dead matter is returned to the atmosphere as CO
During respiration, plants animals liberates CO in the
Combustion of fuels also release CO
Volcanic eruptions also release CO
Nitrogen is present in the atmosphere as N in large amounts (78).
It is present in all biotic components in different forms such as
proteins, vitamins ,aminoacids, etc.,
It is taken up by the green plants and these move through the food
After the death of the plants animals, the organic nitrogen in
dead tissues is decomposed by several ammonifying nitrifying
bacteria into ammonia, nitrites nitrates.
Nitrates again converted into molecular nitrogen (N ) which are
again used by the plants.
Nitrification – conversion of ammonia into nitrates by nitrifying
bacteria Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas
Denitrification conversion of nitrates into nitrogen by denitrifying
bacteria – Pseudomonas fluorescencePHOSPHOROUS CYCLE
Phosphorous is mainly present in the rocks fossils.
It is present in all biotic components in different forms such as
bones, teeth, guano deposits.
Phosphate rocks is excavated by man for using it as a
The excess phosphate fertilizers move with the surface runoff,
reaches the ocean are lost into the deep sediments.
Sea birds eat sea fishes, which are phosphorous rich the
excreta of the birds return the phosphorous to the land.
Animals plants use these dissolved phosphates during the
The progressive replacement of one community by another
till the development of stable community in a particular area
Community – group of plants or animals living in an area.
Stages of ecological succession
1. Pioneer community – first group of organism which establish
their community in the area
2. Seres (or) Seral stage – the various developmental stages of a
communityTYPES OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
2 types based on the conditions present at the beginning of the
• Primary succession – gradual establishment of biotic
communities on a lifeless ground.
1) Hydrarch (or) Hydrosere – establishment starts in an watery
area like pond lake.
2) Xerarch (or) Xerosere establishment starts in a dry area like
• Secondary succession – establishment of biotic communities
in an area, where some type of biotic community is already
present.PROCESS OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
Nudation : development of bare area without any life form.
Invasion : establishment of one or more species on a bare area
through migration followed by establishment .
a) Migration : migration of seeds brought about by wind, water or
b) Establishment : the seeds then germinate grow on the land
establishes their pioneer communities.
Competition : as the number of individual species grow there will be
competition between them for space, water nutrients
Reaction : living organisms take water, nutrients grow modify
the environment is known as reaction. This becomes unsuitable for
some favour for some species leads to seral communities
Stabilizations : it leads to stable community, which is in equilibrium
with the environment.FOOD CHAINS
The sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is
known as food chain.
Transfer of food energy from the plants through a series of
organisms is reffered to as food chain.
At each every transfer, nearly 8090 of the potential
energy gets lost as heat.
A food chain always starts with plant life ends with animal.FOOD CHAIN IN A GRASSLANDFOOD CHAIN IN A PONDFOOD CHAIN IN A FORESTTYPES OF FOOD CHAIN
Grazing food chain
o Found in grassland ecosystems forest ecosystems
o Starts with green plants goes to decomposer food chain
through herbivores carnivores.
Detritus food chain
o Found in grassland ecosystems forest ecosystems
o Starts with dead organic matter (plants animals) goes to
decomposer food chain through herbivores carnivores.FLOW DIAGRAM OF ENERGY IN
GRAZING FOOD CHAIN DETRITUS
In a Grassland ecosystem
Heat Heat Heat
Herbivores Carnivores Carnivores
(Rat) (Snakes) (Eagle)
Grazing food chain
Heat Heat Heat
Decomposers Carnivores Carnivores
(Bacteria) (Soil animal) (Soil animal)
Detritus food chain In a forest ecosystem
Grazing food chain
(Bacteria) (Soil animal)
Detritus food chainTROPIC LEVELS (T , T , T , T , T )(OR)
1 2 3 4 5
The various steps
through which food
energy passes in an
ecosystem is called as
The tropic levels are
arranged in the following
way as follows:FOOD WEB
The interlocking pattern of various food chains in an
ecosystem is known as food web.
In a food web many food chains are interconnected.
Since different types of organisms are connected at different
trophic levels, there will be a number of opportunities of
eating being eaten at each trophic level. ENERGY FLOW IN FOOD WEB
The food web shown here, is formed
by interconnecting five linear grazing
food chains, which in sequence are
i. Grass Mouse Snake Hawk
ii. Grass Mouse Hawk
iii. Grass Rabbit Hawk
iv. Grass Grasshopper Hawk
v. Grass Grasshopper Lizard
Hawk DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOOD CHAIN
Food chain Food web
If one species get If one species get
affected (or) becomes affected, it does not
extinct, then the affect other tropic
species in the levels so seriously.
There are number of
levels are also
options available at
each tropic level.SIGNIFICANCE OF FOOD CHAIN
Both play an very important role in the ecosystem as because the
energy flow nutrient cycling takes place through them.
They help in maintaining the ecological balance by maintain
regulating the population size of different tropic levels.
They have the property of biomagnification .
o The non biodegradable materials keep on passing from one tropic
level to another.
o At each successive tropic level, the concentration keep on increasing.
o This process is known as biomagnification.
o DDT sprayed for pest control is an example for biomagnification.ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
Graphical representation of structure
function of tropic levels of an
ecosystem is called ecological
In food chain starting from producers
to consumers, there is a regular
decrease in the properties (i.e., energy,
biomass number of the organisms).
Since some energy is lost as heat in
each tropic levels, it becomes
progressively smaller near the top.TYPES OF ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
Ecological pyramids are of three types
1) Pyramid of numbers
2) Pyramid of energy
3) Pyramid of biomassPYRAMID OF NUMBERS
It represents the number
of individual organisms
present in each tropic
levels.PYRAMID OF ENERGY
It represents the amount of energy present in each tropic
levels.PYRAMID OF BIOMASS
The amount of living (or) organic matter present in a particular
environment (or) tropic level is called biomass.FOREST ECOSYSTEM
A forest ecosystem is the one in which tall dense trees grow
that support many animals birds.
The forests are found in undisturbed areas receiving moderate
to high rainfall.
The forest occupies nearly 40 of the world’s land area.
In India it occupies only 19 of its total land area.TYPES OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM
Depending upon the climate conditions, forests can be
classified into the following types,
1) Tropical rain forests
2) Tropical deciduous forests
3) Tropical scrub forests
4) Temperate rain forests
5) Temperate deciduous forestsFEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF
Tropical rain forests
o Found near the equator
o Characterized by high temperature
o Trees : broad leaf trees like teak sandal
o Animals : lion, tiger monkey
Tropical deciduous forests
o Found little away from the equator
o Characterized by a warm climate rain only during monsoon
o Trees : deciduous trees like maple, oak hickary
o Animals : deer, fox, rabbit rat Tropical scrub forests
o Characterized by a dry climate for longer time
o Trees : small deciduous trees shrubs
o Animals : deer, fox etc.,
Temperate rain forests
o Found in temperate areas with adequate rainfall
o Trees : characterized by coniferous trees like pines, firs, red wood
o Animals : squirrels, fox, cats, bear etc.,
Temperate deciduous forests
o Found in areas with moderate temperatures
o Trees : broad leaf deciduous trees like oak, hickory
o Animals : deer, fox, bear, etc.,CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREST
Forests are characterized by warm temperature adequate
rainfall, which makes the generation of number of ponds,
They maintains climate rainfall
They support many wild animals protect biodiversity
The soil is rich in organic matter nutrients, which support
the growth of trees
Since penetration of light is so poor, conversion of organic
matter into nutrients is very fastSTRUCTURE FUNCTION OF
o Physical components found in the soil atmosphere.
o Climatic factors (temperature, light, rainfall) minerals.
o In addition to minerals, occurrence of litter is characteristic features of majority of
Producers Trees ,shrubs, ground vegetation
a) Primary consumers ( herbivores)– ants, flies, insects, mice,deer, squirrels
b) Secondary consumers (primary carnivores)– snakes, birds, fox
c) Tertiary consumers– tiger, lion etc.,
Decomposers bacteria fungi – rate of decomposition in tropical subtropical
forests is more rapid than in the temperate forests.GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM
Grassland occupies about 20 of earth’s surface.
In addition to grass species, some trees shrubs are also
present in grasslands.
Limited grazing will help to improve the net primary
production of the grasslands.
Overgrazing leads to degradation of these grasslands resulting
in desertification.TYPES OF GRASSLAND
Grassland can be classified into 3 types based on their climatic
1) Tropical grasslands
2) Temperate grasslands
3) Polar grasslandsFEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES
o Found near the borders of tropical rain forests
o Characterized by high temperature moderate rainfall (40 to 100
o Also known as Savanna type
o Plants : tall grasses with scattered shrubs stunted trees
o Animals : zebras, giraffes, etc.,
o Found in the centers of continents, on flat, sloped hills
o Characterized by very cold winters hot summers
o Intense grazing summer fires, do not allow shrubs or trees to grow Polar grasslands
o Found in arctic polar regions
o Characterized by severe cold strong winds along with ice
o Plants : in summer several small annual plants will grow
o Animals : arctic wolf, weasel, arctic fox etc.,CHARACTERISTICS OF
Grassland ecosystem is a plain land occupied by grasses.
The soil is very rich in nutrients organic matter.
Ideal place for grazing animals , as it has tall grasses.
Characterized by low or uneven rainfall.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF THE
o Nutrients , C, H, O, N, P, S, etc.,
o These abiotic components are supplied by CO nitrates, H O,
Producers– Grasses, forbs shrubs
a) Primary consumers ( herbivores)– Cows, buffaloes, deer, sheep,
etc., they depend on grasses for their food.
b) Secondary consumers (carnivores)– snakes, birds, fox, lizards,
c) Tertiary consumers– hawks, eagles, etc.,
Decomposers bacteria fungi.DESERT ECOSYSTEMS
Desert occupies about 35 of our world’s land area.
Characterized by less than 25 cm rainfall.
Atmosphere is dry.
TYPES OF DESERT ECOSYSTEM
Based on the climatic conditions, deserts are classified into 3
1) Tropical deserts
2) Temperate deserts
3) Cold desertsFEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES
o Found in Africa – Sahara desert, Rajasthan – Thar desert
o Characterized by only few species
o Wind blown sand dunes are very common
o Found in South California – Majave
o Characterized by very hot summer very cool winter time
o Found in China – Gobi desert
o Characterized by cold winters warm summersCHARACTERISTICS FEATURES OF
The desert air is dry the climate is hot
Annual rainfall is less than 25 cm
Soil is very poor in nutrients organic matter
Vegetation is poorSTRUCTURE FUNCTIONS OF
THE DESERT ECOSYSTEMS
o Temperature, rainfall, sunlight, water, etc.,
o The temperature is very high
o Rainfall the nutrient cycling is very low
• Shrubs, bushes, some grasses few trees
• Mostly succulent (e.g., cacti) plants are available which
have water inside them to stay alive waxy layer on the
outside to protect them from the sun. Consumers
• Squirrels, mice, foxes, rabbits, deer reptiles
• These animals dig holes in the ground to live in
• They come out at night to find food
• Most of the animals can extract water from the seeds they eat.
• bacteria fungi.
• Desert has poor vegetation with a very low amount of dead
organic matter which are decomposed by bacteria fungiAQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
The aquatic ecosystem deals with water bodies.
The major types of organisms found in aquatic environments
are determined by the water’s salinity.
TYPES OF AQUATIC LIFE ZONE
Aquatic life zones divided into 2 types
1) Fresh water life zones – ponds, streams, lakes, rivers
2) Salt water life zones – oceans, estuariesFRESH WATER ECOSYSTEM
A pond is a fresh water aquatic ecosystem, where water is
It receives enough water during rainy season.
It contains several types of algae, aquatic plants, insects,
Characteristic features of pond ecosystem
Pond is temporary, only seasonal.
It is a stagnant fresh water body.
Ponds get polluted easily due to limited amount of water.STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS OF
o Temperature, light, water and organic inorganic
o These include green photosynthetic organisms they are of
o Phytoplankton microscopic aquatic plants, which freely
float on the water surface – algae, small floating plants like
volvox, pandorina, anabaena, cosmarium.
o Microphytes large floating plants submerged plants like
hydrilla, jussiaea, wolfia, demna. Consumers
a) Primary consumers ( Zooplanktons)– microscopic animals
which freely float on the water surface protozoa, very small
fish, ciliates, flagellates
b) Secondary consumers (Carnivores)– insects like water
beetles small fish
c) Tertiary consumers– large fish like game fish
Decomposers bacteria , fungi flagellates – they
decompose the dead plant animal matter their nutrients
are released reused by the green plants.LAKE ECOSYSTEM
Lakes are large natural shallow water bodies.
They are used for various purposes.
Lakes are supplied with water from rainfall, melting snow streams.
Types of lakes
1) Oligotrophic lakes low nutrient concentrations
2) Eutrophic lakes over nourished by nutrients like N P
3) Dystrophic lakes low pH, high humic acid content brown waters
4) Volcanic lakes receive water from magma after volcanic eruptions
5) Meromictic lakes – rich in salts
6) Artificial lakes created due to construction of dams ZONES OF LAKE
Depending upon their depth distance from the shore, lakes
consists of 4 distinct zones.
a) Littoral zones – top layer of the lake – has a shallow water
b) Limnetic zones – effective penetration of solar light takes
c) Profundal zone – deep open water, where it is too dark
d) Benthic zone – found at the bottom of the lake
Characteristic features of lake ecosystem
Lake is a shallow fresh water body
Permanent water body with large water resources
Helps in irrigation drinkingSTRUCTURE FUNCTION OF
o Temperature, light, proteins, lipids, turbidity, O and CO .
o They are green plants, which may be submerged, free floating
amphibious plants – Phytoplanktons, algae flagellates
a) Primary consumers ( Zooplanktons)– protozoans, ciliates etc.,
b) Secondary consumers (Carnivores)– insects small fishes
c) Tertiary consumers– large fishes like game fish
Decomposers bacteria , fungi actinomycetes.RIVER OR STREAM ECOSYSTEM
The running water of a stream or a river is usually well
oxygenated, because it absorbs oxygen from the air.
The number of animals are low in river or stream.
Characteristic features of River or Stream
It is a fresh water free flowing water systems.
Due to mixing of water, dissolved oxygen content is more.
River deposits large amount of nutrients.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF
RIVER OR STREAM ECOSYSTEM
o Temperature, light, pH, nutrients, organic inorganic
o Phytoplanktons, algae, water grasses, aquatic masses
other amphibious plants.
a) Primary consumers – water insects, snails, fishes
b) Secondary consumers – Birds mammals
Decomposers bacteria fungi .SALT WATER ECOSYSTEM
OCEAN (OR) MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
Oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth’s surface.
Environment is characterized by its high concentration of salts
It supplies huge variety of seaproducts drugs.
It also provides us iron, magnesium, phosphorous, natural gas.
Zones of oceans
The oceans have 2 major life zones.
a) Coastal zone – relatively warm, nutrient rich shallow water –
zone of high primary productivity because of high nutrients
b) Open sea – deeper part of the ocean . It is vertically divided into 3
regions.i. Euphotic zone it receives abundant light shows high
ii. Bathyal zone it receives dim light is usually geologically active.
iii. Abyssal zone – it is the dark zone is very deep (2000 to 5000
Characteristic features of ocean ecosystem
It occupies a large surface area with saline water.
Since ship, submarines can sail in ocean, commercial activities may
be carried out.
Rich in biodiversity
It moderates the temperature of the earth.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF
o Temperature, light, NaCl, K, Ca and Mg salts, alkalinity.
o Phytoplanktons ( diatoms, unicellular algae, etc.,) marine plants
( sea weeds, chlorophyceal, phaeophyceae)
a) Primary consumers ( Herbivores)– Crustaceans, moiluscs, fish.
b) Secondary consumers (Carnivores)–Herring sahd, mackerel, etc.,
c) Tertiary consumers– Cod, Haddock, etc.,
Decomposers bacteria fungiESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of a river,
where river joins the sea.
It is strongly affected by tidal action.
Estuaries are generally abundant of nutrients.
They are useful to the human beings due to their high food potential. It is
essential to protect the estuaries from pollution.
Characteristics of estuarine ecosystem
Estuaries are transition zones, which are strongly affected by tides of the
Water characteristics are periodically changed.
The living organisms in this ecosystem have wide tolerance.
Salinity remains highest during the summer lowest during the winter.STRUCTURE FUNCTION OF
o Temperature, pH, sodium and potassium salts various nutrients.
o Marsh grasses, seaweeds, seagrasses phytoplankton .
o Oysters, crabs, seabirds, small fishes
o Bacterias , fungi actinomycetesENVIRONMENTAL
Environmental pollution may be defined as, “ the
unfavorable alteration of our surroundings”.
It changes the quality of air, water land which interferes
with the health of humans other life on earth.
Pollutants are of 2 types
Biodegradable pollutants – decompose rapidly by
Nondegradable pollutants – do not decompose or
decompose slowly in the environment. The slowly
decomposed materials are more dangerous because it is
more difficult to remove them.Classification of Pollution
The different kinds of pollution that affects the
1) Air Pollution
2) Water Pollution
3) Soil Pollution
4) Marine Pollution
5) Noise Pollution
6) Thermal Pollution
7) Nuclear hazardsAir Pollution
Air pollution may be defined as, “ the presence of one or
more contaminants like dust, smoke, mist odour in
the atmosphere which are injurious to human
beings, plants animals”.
Some causes of pollution in general are,
Rapid growth in population
Drastic increase in vehicles on the roads and
Other activities of human beingsSources of Air Pollution
The sources of air pollution are of 2 types,
Radioactive materials etc.,
Man –made (anthropogenic) activities
Thermal power plants
Fossil fuel burning
Agricultural activities etc.,Classification of Air Pollutants
Depending upon the form (origin) of pollutants present in the
environment, they are classified as
Primary air pollutants emitted directly in the atmosphere in harmful
form – CO, NO, SO2, etc.,
Indoor air pollutants are primary air pollutants. The most important
indoor air pollutant is radon gas.
Sources (causes) of indoor air pollutants
1) Radon gas is emitted from the building materials like bricks, concrete,
tiles, etc., which are arrived from soil containing radium.
2) It is also present in natural gas ground water and is emitted indoors
while using them.
3) Burning of fuels in the kitchen, cigarette smoke, liberates the pollutions
like CO, SO2, formaldehyde, BAP (benzoapyrene )
Secondary air pollutants
Some of the primary air pollutants may react with one another or with the
basic components of air to form new pollutants. They are called as
secondary air pollutants.
NO/NO2 moist (HNO3/NO3) etc.,Common air pollutants sources
(causes) their effects
According to WHO, more than 1.1 billion people live in urban
areas where outdoor air is unhealthy to breathe.
Some of the common air pollutants are described below.
Carbon monoxide (CO)
It is a colorless, odorless gas is poisonous to air breathing
Formed during the incomplete combustion of carbon
2C + O 2CO
Human sources (causes)
Cigarette smoking, incomplete burning of fossil fuels.
About 77 comes from motor vehicle exhaust.Health effects
React with heamoglobin in red blood cells reduce the
ability of blood to bring oxygen to body cells tissues,
which causes headache anemia.
At high levels it causes coma, irreversible brain cell
It increases the global temperature.
Nitrogen di oxide (NO2)
It is a reddishbrown, irritating gas that gives
In the atmosphere it can be converted to nitric acid.
NO + moisture HNO
2 3 Human sources (causes)
Fossil fuel burning in motor vehicles (49) and power industrial
Lung irritation and damage.
Acid deposition of HNO3 can damage trees, soils aquatic life in
HNO3 can corrode metals eat away stone on buildings, statues
NO2 can damage fabrics.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
It is a colorless irritating gas and is formed mostly from the
combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuels such as coal oil.
In the atmosphere it can be converted to sulphuric acid which is a
major component of acid deposition.Human sources (causes)
Coal burning in power plants (88) and industrial
Breathing problems for healthy people.
Acid deposition of H2SO4 can damage trees, soils
aquatic life in lakes.
Suspended particulate matter(SPM)
It includes variety of particles droplets (aerosols).
They can be suspended in atmosphere for short periods to
long periods. Human sources (causes)
Burning coal in power and industrial plants (40)
Burning diesel other fuels in vehicles (17)
Agriculture , unpaved roads, construction etc.,
Nose throat irritation
Reproductive problems cancer
Acid deposition and H2SO4 can damage trees, soils aquatic life in lakes.
Highly reactive irritating gas with an unpleasant odour that forms in the
It is a major component of photochemical smog. Human sources (causes)
Chemical reaction with volatile organic compounds (emitted
mostly by cars industries) and nitrogen oxides.
Moderates the climate.
Brownish smoke like appearance that forms on clear, sunny days
over large cities with significant amounts of automobile traffic.
It is mainly due to chemical reactions among nitrogen oxides
hydrocarbon by sunlight.
Cough, eye, nose throat irritation
Reduces resistance to colds pneumonia. Environmental effects
Ozone can damage plants trees.
Smog can reduce visibility.
Solid toxic metal its compounds, emitted into the atmosphere as
Human sources (causes)
Smelters (metal refineries)
Accumulates in the body, brain nervous system and causes damage.
Mental retardation especially in children
Digestive other health problems
Some lead containing chemicals cause cancer in test animals. Environmental effects
Can harm wild life.
Hydrocarbons (aromatic aliphatic)
Hydrocarbons especially lower hydrocarbons get accumulated
due to the decay of vegetable matter.
Human sources (causes)
Decay of plants
Burning of wet logs
It produces an oily film on the surface do not as such causes a
serious problem until they react to form secondary pollutants.
Ethylene causes plant damage even at low concentrations.Chromium (Cr)
It is a solid toxic metal, emitted into the atmosphere as
Human sources (causes)
Perforation of nasal septum
Gastro intestinal ulcer
Central nervous system disease and
Cancer Control measures of air pollution
The atmosphere has several builtin self cleaning processes such as
dispersion, absorption, rain wash out so on, to cleanse the
In terms of long range control of air pollution, control of
contaminants at their source is a more desirable effective method.
Use only unleaded petrol.
Use petroleum products other fuels that have low sulphur ash
Reduce the number of private vehicles on the road encourage
people to walk or use cycles.
Ensure that houses, schools, restaurants places where children
play are not located on busy streets.
Plant trees along busy streets because they remove particulates
CO, and absorb noise. Industries waste disposal sites should be situated outside the city
centre preferably downwind of the city.
Use catalytic converters to help control the emissions of CO
Control measures in industrial centres
1) The emission rates should be restricted to permissible levels by each
2) Incorporation of air pollution control equipments in the design of
the plant layout must be made mandatory.
3) Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere for the pollutants should
be carried out to know the emission levels.
Equipments used to control air pollution
To ensure sufficient supply of oxygen to the combustion chamber
adequate temperature so that combustion is complete, eliminating
much of the smoke consisting of partly burnt ashes dust.
To use mechanical devices such as scrubbers, cyclones, bag houses
electrostatic precipitators, reducing particulate pollutants. The four figures are commonly used control methods for
removing particulates from the exhaust gases of electric
power industrial plants.
All these methods retain hazardous materials that must be
disposed off safely.
The wet scrubber can also reduce SO2 emissions.
Chemical treatment to deal with factory fumes.
The disposal of the collected air pollutants is equally
important for successful control of air pollution.Water pollution
The alteration in physical, chemical biological
characteristics of water which may cause harmful effects
on humans aquatic lives.
The pollutants include
Industrial chemicals effluents
Oil other wastes
chemicals from the air dissolved in rain water
Fertilizers, pesticides herbicides leached form the land
also pollute water.Types, effects sources of water pollution
Bacteria, viruses, protozoa parasitic worms.
Human sources (causes)
Human animals wastes.
Variety of diseases.
Oxygen demanding wastes (Dissolved oxygen)
Organic wastes such as animal manure plant debris that can be decomposed by
This degradation consumes dissolved oxygen in water.
DO is the amount of oxygen dissolved in a given quantity of water at a particular
Human sources (causes)
Paper mills Effects
Large populations of bacteria decomposing these wastes can
degrade water quality by depleting water of dissolved oxygen.
This causes fish other forms of O2 consuming aquatic life to
Water soluble inorganic chemicals.
2) Compounds of toxic metals such as Pb, arsenic
3) Salts such as Nacl in ocean water fluorides found in
Human sources (causes)
1) Can make fresh water unusable for drinking or irrigation.
2) Causes skin cancers neck damage.
3) Damage the nervous system, liver kidneys.
4) Harm fish other aquatic life.
5) Lower crop yields.
6) Accelerates corrosion of metals exposed to such water.
Oil, gasoline, plastics, pesticides, cleaning solvents, detergents.
Human sources (causes)
Surface runoff from farms
Household cleansers Effects
1) Can threaten human health by causing nervous system
damage some cancers.
2) Harm fish wild life.
Water soluble compounds containing nitrate, phosphate
Human sources (causes)
Runoff of agricultural urban fertilizers
1) Can cause excessive growth of algae other aquatic plants,
which die, decay, deplete dissolved O2 in H2O kill the fish.
2) Drinking water with excessive levels of nitrates lower the O2
carrying capacity of the blood can kill urban children
Soil, silt, etc.,
Human sources (causes)
1) Can reduce photosynthesis cloud water.
2) Disrupt aquatic food webs.
3) Carry pesticides, bacteria other harmful substances.
4) Settle out destroy feeding and spawning rounds of fish.
5) Clog fill lakes, artificial reservoirs, stream channels harbours.
Radioactive isotopes of iodine, radon, uranium, cesium thorium.
Human sources (causes)
Nuclear power plants
Mining processing of uranium and other ores
Nuclear weapons production
Natural sources Effects
1) Genetic mutations
2) Birth defects
3) Certain cancers
Heat (Thermal pollution)
Human sources (causes)
Water cooling of electric power plants some types of industrial plants.
1) Lowers dissolved O2 levels makes aquatic organisms more vulnerable to
disease, parasites toxic chemicals.
2) When a power plant first opens or shuts down for repair, fish other
organisms adapted to a particular temperature range can be killed by the
abrupt change in H2O temperature known as thermal shock.
Point Nonpoint sources of Water pollution
• Discharged pollutants at specific locations through pipes, ditches or sewers
into bodies of surface water.
• Examples : factories, sewage treatment plants, abandoned underground
mines oil tankers. Non point sources
• They are usually large land areas or air sheds that pollute water
by runoff, subsurface flow or deposition from the atmosphere.
• Examples : logged forests, parking lots, livestock feedlots etc.,
Characteristics (or) Testing of river water
o is the amount of oxygen dissolved in a given quantity of
water at a particular pressure temperature.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
o is the amount of oxygen required for the biological
decomposition of organic matter present in the water.
Chemical Oxygen Demand
o is the amount of oxygen required for chemical oxidation of
organic matter using some oxidising agent like K2Cr2O7
and KMnO4.Control measures of water pollution
The administration of water pollution control should be in the
hands of State or Central Government.
Scientific techniques need to be adopted for the
environmental control of catchment areas of rivers, ponds or
The industrial plants should be based on recycling operations.
Plants, trees forests control pollution and they acts as
natural air conditioners.
The national goal should be “Conservation of Forests” and
campaign should be “Plant more trees”.
It is not advisable to discharge any type of waste into streams,
rivers, lakes, ponds reservoirs.
Highly qualified experienced persons should be consulted
for effective control of water pollution. Public awareness regarding adverse effects of water
pollution is a must.
Suitable laws, standards practices should be framed to
regulate the discharge of undesirable flow of water in
Basic applied research in public health engineering
should be encouraged.
The possible reuse or recycle of treated sewage effluents
industrial wastes should be emphasized and encouraged.Waste water (or) Sewage treatment
The main objectives of waste water treatment are,
1) to convert harmful compounds into harmless compounds.
2) to eliminate the offensive smell.
3) to remove the solid content of the sewage.
4) to destroy the disease producing microorganisms.
The sewage (or) waste water treatment process involves the
Primary Treatment (or) Settling process
Secondary (or) Biological treatment
a) Trickling filter process
b) Activated sludge process
Disposal of sludge Preliminary treatment
Coarse solids suspended impurities are removed by passing
the waste water through bar and mesh screens.
Primary treatment (or) Settling process
Greater proportion of the suspended inorganic organic solids
are removed from the liquid sewage by settling.
To promote quick settling coagulants like alum, ferrous
sulphate are added.
These produce large gelatinous precipitates, which entrap
finely divided organic matter settle rapidly.
Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2SO4
Secondary (or) Biological treatment
Biodegradable organic impurities are removed by aerobic
It removes upto 90 of the O2 demanding wastes.
This is done by trickling filter or activated sludge process. Trickling filter process
It is a circular tank is filled with either coarse or crushed
Sewage is sprayed over this bed by means of slowly rotating
When sewage starts percolating downwards,
microorganisms present in the sewage will grow on the
surface of the filtering media, using organic material of the
sewage as food.
After completion of aerobic oxidation, the treated sewage
is taken to the settling tank the sludge is removed.
This process removes about 8085 of BOD. Activated sludge process
Activated sludge is biologically active sewage it has a large
number of aerobic bacterias, which can easily oxidise the
The sewage effluent from primary treatment is mixed with the
required amount of activated sludge.
Then the mixture is aerated in the aeration tank.
Under these condition, organic impurities of the sewage get
oxidised rapidly by the microorganisms.
After aeration, the sewage is taken to the sedimentation tank.
Sludges settle down in this tank, called activated sludge.
A portion of it was used for seeding fresh batch of the sewage.
This process removes about 9095 of BOD.Air supply
from for drainage
at the bottomTertiary treatment
The effluent is introduced into a flocculation tank, where
lime is added to remove phosphates.
From here, the effluent is led to ammonia stripping tower,
where pH is maintained to 11 the NH4 ions is converted
to gaseous NH3.
Then the effluent is allowed to pass through activated charcoal
column, where minute organic wastes are adsorbed by
Finally the effluent water is treated with disinfectant
(chlorine).Disposal of sludge
This is the last stage in the sewage treatment.
Sludge formed from different steps can be disposed by,
1) Dumping into lowlying areas
2) Burning of sludge (incineration)
3) Dumping into the sea
4) Using it as low grade fertilizers. The flow sheet diagram of sewage treatment
Coagulant Activated sludge Treated sewage
Primary treatment Secondary treatmentThermal pollution
Thermal pollution is defined as the addition of excess of
undesirable heat to water that makes it harmful to
man, animal or aquatic life or otherwise causes
significant departures from the normal activities of
aquatic communities in water.
Sources (causes) of thermal pollution
a) Nuclear power plants
b) Coalfired power plants
c) Industrial effluents
d) Domestic sewage
e) Hydroelectric powerNuclear power plants
Nuclear power plants including drainage from hospitals,
research institutes, nuclear experiments explosions,
discharged a lot of unutilized heat traces of toxic radio
nuclides into nearby water streams.
Emissions from nuclear reactors processing installation
are also responsible for increasing the temperature of
The operations of power reactors nuclear fuel
processing units are the major contributor of heat in the
Heated effluents from power plants are discharged at
10 C, higher than the receiving water which affect the
aquatic flora fauna. Coalfired power plants
They constitute the major source of thermal pollutants.
Their condenser coils are cooled with water from nearby river or lake
discharge the hot water back to the stream increasing the
temperature of nearby water to about 15 C.
The heated effluents decrease the dissolved oxygen content of water.
It results into killing of fish other marine organisms.
Industries generating electricity like coal powered nuclear powered
plants, require huge amounts of cooling water for heat removal.
Other industries like textile, paper pulp as well as sugar also release
heat in water but to a much lesser extent.
Normally the discharged water from streamelectric power industry
using turbo generators, will have a higher temperature ranging from
6 C to 9 C than the receiving water.
This results in the increase of stream temperature to a level at which
natural dissipation of heat will be inefficient. Domestic sewage
Domestic sewage is commonly discharged into rivers, lakes,
canals or streams with or without waste treatment.
The municipal sewage normally has a higher temperature than
the receiving water.
With the increase in temperature of the receiving water, the
dissolved oxygen content decreases the demand of oxygen
Hence the anaerobic condition will set up resulting in the
release of foul offensive gases in water.
The marine organisms which depend on the dissolved oxygen
will die out.
Generation of hydroelectric power, sometimes, results in
negative thermal loading in water systems.Apart from electric power industries, various factories
with cooling requirement contribute to thermal loading.
It has been reported that about 18 more heat is given to
cooling waters in nuclear power plants than any other
plant of equivalent size.
Introduction of thermal pollution into streams by human
1) Industries power plants use water to cool machinery
then discharge the warmed water into a stream.
2) Stream (water) temperature rises when trees tall
vegetation providing shades are cut down.
3) Soil erosion caused by construction.
4) Removal of stream side vegetation.
5) Poor farming practices.Effects of thermal pollution
1) Reduction in dissolved oxygen
2) Increase in toxicity
3) Interference with biological activities
4) Interference with reproduction
5) Direct mortality
6) Food storage for fish Control measures (or) management of thermal pollution
• The following methods can be adopted to control the high temperature
caused by thermal dischargers.
1) Cooling towers
2) Cooling ponds
3) Spray ponds
4) Artificial lakes
The use of water from water systems for cooling purposes, with
subsequent return to the water way after passage through the
condenser, is termed as cooling process.
Cooling towers transfer some of the heat from hot water to the
surrounding atmosphere by the process of evaporation.
It is generally used to dissipate the recovered waste heat to eliminate
the problems of thermal pollution.
Cooling towers are of 2 types, wet cooling tower dry cooling tower Wet cooling tower
o Hot water, coming out from the condensor (reactor) is
allowed to spray over baffles.
o Cool air, with high velocity is passed from the sides, which
takes away the heat cools the water. Dry cooling tower
o Hot water,Nuclear hazards (pollution) or
The radiation hazard in the environment comes from
ultraviolet, visible, cosmic rays microwave radiation which
produce genetic mutations in man.
The biggest hazard comes from Xrays which account for 95
of out radiation exposure other than cosmic rays.
Nuclear energy is used to produce clean electric power.
The energy released in the splitting of nuclei in the atoms is
used to generate electricity.
There were about 600 nuclear power plants in developed
countries up to 1985.
US alone have 100 licensed nuclear plants.
About 53 power plants were cancelled between 1980 1984
due to enormous radiation danger The nuclear power plants are more convenient to run.
Once fueled, they can operate for several months.
The fuel used in nuclear plants, being radioactive, is critically
dangerous the waste materials are hazardous.
The nuclear wastes released by the nuclear reactor also emit
radiations, if not properly stored.
Sources of Nuclear Hazards
• Various sources of nuclear hazards are grouped into 2 types,
1) Natural sources
2) Manmade sources
a) The very important natural source is space, which emit
b) Soil, rocks, air, water, food, radioactive radon222 etc., also
contain one or more radioactive substances.Manmade sources
• Manmade sources are
Nuclear power plants
Diagnostic kits etc.,
where radioactive substances are used.
Effects of Nuclear Hazards
Radiation pollution of the environment is one of the most
horrible ecological crisis to which we are subjected severely.
Radioactive radiation affects the cells in the body the
functions of glands organs.
People suffer from blood cancer bone cancer if exposed to
doses around 100 to 1000 roentgens.
Unlike the other pollution, radioactive pollution can cause
genetic disorders even in the subsequent generation. Studies have shown that the health effects due to radiation are
dependent on the level of dose.
1) Exposure of the brain central nervous system to high doses
of radiation causes delirium, convulsions death within
hours or days.
2) The use of eye is vulnerable to radiation. As its cell die, they
become opaque forming cataracts that impair sight.
3) Acute radiation sickness is marked by vomiting, bleeding of
the gums in severe cases, mouth ulcers.
4) Internal bleeding blood vessel damage may show up as red
spots on the skin.
5) Nausea vomiting often begin a few hours after the
gastrointestinal tract is exposed. Infection of the intestinal
wall can kill weeks afterwards.
6) Unborn children are vulnerable to brain damage or mental
retardation, especially if irradiation occurs during formation
of the central nervous system in early pregnancy.Control measures from Nuclear Hazards
Nuclear devices should never be exploded in air. If
necessary they can be exploded underground.
In nuclear reactors, closedcycle coolant system with
gaseous coolants may be used to prevent extraneous
Containments may also be employed to decrease the
radioactive emissions. It can be achieved by using tightly
sealed boxes closed cycle system.
Production of radioisotopes should be minimized, as
once produced they cannot be rendered harmless by any
means except the passage of time.
Minimum number of nuclear installations should be
Fission reactions should be minimized.In nuclear chemical industries, the use of radioisotopes
may be carried under a jet of soil or water instead of
powder or gaseous forms.
In nuclear mines, wet drilling may be employed along with
Extreme care should be exercised in the disposal of
industrial wastes contaminated with radio nuclides.
Nuclear medicines radiation therapy should be applied
when absolutely necessary with minimum doses.
Use of high chimneys ventilations at the working place
where radioactive contamination is high.
Disposal methods are the possible ways to distribute the
radiopollutants. These methods make the pollutant in a
confined place to spread over a large space such that
pollution can be weakened its effects can be reduced.Disposal of Radioactive wastes (Nuclear Hazards)
Since nuclear wastes are extremely dangerous the way in which
they are disposed is strictly controlled by international
Classification of radioactive wastes
1) High level wastes (HLW)
2) Medium level wastes (MLW)
3) Low level wastes (LLW)
High level wastes
Examples : spent nuclear fuel
HLW have a very high radioactivity per unit volume.
They have to be cooled stored for several decades by its
producer before disposal.
Since they are too dangerous, they must be contained either
by converting them into inert solids then buried deep into
earth or stored in deep salt mines. Medium level wastes
Examples : filters, reactor components, etc.,
MLW are solidified are mixed with concrete in steel
drums before being buried in deep mines or below the sea
bed in concrete chambers.
Low level wastes
Examples : solids or liquids contaminated with traces of
LLW are disposed off in steel drums in concretelined
trenches.Solid waste management (or) waste shed
Rapid population growth urbanization in developing
countries have led to the generations of enormous quantities
of solid wastes consequential environmental degradation.
An estimated 7.6 million tonnes of municipal solid waste is
produced per day in developing countries.
These wastes are disposed in open dumps creating
considerable nuisance environmental problems.
These are potential risks to health to the environment from
improper management of solid wastes.
Management of solid waste is therefore, become very
important in order to minimize the adverse effects of solid
wastes.Types and sources of solid wastes
• Depending upon the nature, solid wastes can be broadly
classified into 3 types,
1) Urban (or) Municipal wastes
2) Industrial wastes
3) Hazardous wastesUrban (or) Municipal wastes
Sources of Urban (Municipal) wastes
Variety of materials thrown out from the homes.
Examples : food waste, cloth, waste paper, glass bottles, polythene
Wastes coming out from the shops, markets, hotels, offices,
Examples : waste paper, packing material, cans, bottles, polythene
Wastes of construction materials.
Examples : wood, concrete, debris, etc.,
Waste organic materials.
Examples :anatomical wastes, infectious wastes, etc.,Types characteristics of urban (municipal) wastes
Urban solid waste materials that can be degraded by
Examples : food, vegetables, tea leaves, egg shells, dry
Urban solid waste materials that cannot be degraded by
Examples : polythene bags, scrap metals, glass bottles,
The main sources of industrial wastes are chemical
industries, metal mineral processing industries.
a) Nuclear power plants : generates radioactive wastes.
b) Thermal power plants : produces fly ash in large
c) Chemical industries : produces large quantities of
hazardous toxic materials.
d) Other industries : produce packing materials, rubbish,
organic wastes, acids, alkalis, scrap metals, rubber,
plastic, paper, glass, wood, oils, paints, dyes, etc.,Hazardous wastes
Hazardous wastes are the wastes, that pose a substantial danger
immediately or over a period of time to human, plant or animal life.
Sources of hazardous wastes
Chemical manufacturing companies
Biological wastes other industries.
Types characteristics of hazardous wastes
Toxic wastes : poisonous even in very small or trace amounts.
a) Acute toxicity : wastes have immediate effect on humans or animals
b) Chronic toxicity : wastes have long term effect slowly causing
irreparable harm to the exposed persons. It is much more difficult to
determine.Reactive wastes : wastes react vigorously with air, water,
heat generate toxic gases. Gun powder, nitroglycerine
Corrosive wastes : wastes destroy materials living
tissues by chemical reaction. Acids bases.
Radioactive wastes : these are from nuclear power plants
persist in the environment for 1000’s of years.
Infectious wastes : causes infection to others. Used
bandages, human tissue from surgery, etc.,
Heavy metals : lead, mercury arsenic are hazardous
substances.Effects of solid wastes (or) effects of
improper solid waste management
1) Due to improper disposal of municipal solid wastes on the
road side their immediate surroundings, biodegradable
materials undergo decomposition. This produces foul smell
breeds various types of insects which spoil the land value.
2) Industrial solid wastes are the sources of toxic metals
hazardous wastes, which affect the soil characteristics
productivity of soils when they are dumped on the soil.
3) Toxic substances may percolate into the ground
contaminate the ground water.
4) Burning of some industrial as well as domestic wastes
produce furans, dioxins, which are harmful to human beings.Process of solid waste management (or) process
of preventing solid waste generation in urban
areas (or) waste shed management
Solid waste management includes,
The waste generation
Mode of collection
Segregation of wastes
Disposal techniques.Solid waste generation
Collection of waste from
Collection of waste
To transfer the collected wastes to
the destination point
To store the collected wastes
meanwhile time of the disposal
Home separation for recycling
Segregation of wastes
Landfill Incineration CompostingSteps involved in solid waste management (or)
waste shed management
2 important steps of solid waste management is,
Reduce, reuse recycle
Discarding safe storage of wastes
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (3R)
Reduce the usage of raw materials
If the usage of raw materials are reduced, the generation of waste materials also
Reuse of waste materials
Rubber rings can be made from discarded cycle tubes, which reduces the waste
generation during rubber bands manufacturing.
Recycling of materials
Old aluminium cans glass bottles are melted recast into new cans
Preparation of automobiles construction materials from steel cans.
These process saves money, energy, raw materials reduces pollution.Discarding wastes
• Solid wastes are placed in sanitary landfill system in alternate
layers of 80 cm thick refuse .
• It is covered with selected earth fill of 20 cm thickness.
• After 2 or 3 years, solid waste volume shrinks by 2530 the
land is used for parks, roads small buildings.
• The most common cheapest method of waste disposal is
dumping in sanitary landfills which is invariably employed in
• Landfill structure is built either into the ground or on the
ground into which the waste is dumped.• This method involves spreading the solid waste on the ground,
compacting it then covering it with soil at suitable intervals.
1) It is simple economical.
2) Segregation not required.
3) Land filled areas can be reclaimed used for other purposes.
4) Converts lowlying, marshy wasteland into useful areas.
5) Natural resources are returned to soil recycled.
1) Large area is required.
2) Since land is available away from the town, transportation cost is
3) Bad odors, if landfills are not properly managed.
4) The land filled areas will be the sources of mosquitoes flies
hence insecticides pesticides are to be applied at regular
5) Causes fire hazards due to the formation of methane in wet
weather.Incineration (or) Thermal process
• It is a hygienic way of disposing solid waste.
• It is more suitable if the waste contains more hazardous
material organic content.
• It is a thermal process is very effective for detoxification
of all combustible pathogens.
• It is an expensive technology compared to landfill
composting because incinerators are costly.
• In this method the municipal solid wastes are burnt in a
furnace called incinerator.
• The combustible substances the noncombustible
matter are separated before feeding to incinerators.
• The noncombustible materials can be left out for recycling
reuse. The left out ashes clinkers from the incinerators may be
accounted for only about 10 to 20 which need further disposal
either by sanatory landfill or by some other means.
The heat produced in the incinerator during the burning of
refuse is used in the form of steam power for generation of
electricity throughout turbines.
The municipal solid waste is generally wet but has a very high
calorific value so it has to be dried up first before burning.
The waste is dried in preheater from where it is taken into large
incinerating furnace called destructors which can incinerate
about 100 to 150 tonnes per hour.
The temperature normally maintained in a combustion
chamber is about700 C may be increased to about 1000 C
when electricity is to be generated.Marine Pollution
Spilled oil, breakdown the natural insulating oils and
waxes,which shield the birds from water. Ultimately they
loose their insulation,start shivering and freeze to death in
About 30,000 birds died in torry canyon incident.Nearly 150
rare species of bladeagles also become victims when they
ingested oil during Exxn valdez accident.
Gulf War (marine pollution)
The gulf war took place in kuwait from jan 16 to feb 26,1991
between Iraq and USA.
• 1 million birds have been killed due to the oil slick.
• The oil slicks in the sea made desalination plants
ineffective The Miniamatta Epidemic (1953)
Miniamatta is a small coastal village in
japan.The Chisso Chemical Company which produce vinyl
It damages the central nervous system,which causes various
disorders such as
1. Loss of vision and hearing
2. Loss of muscular coordination and severe headache.
3. Nervous disorders.
Chernobyl Nulear disaster(Nuclear pollution)
In april 26,1986, the melt down of the chernobyl nuclear
reactor, in Russia, has leaked out the radioactive rays and
Effects: 200 people killed, Animals,Plants also affected Cause
of severe bleeding,anaemia,skin cancer.DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Disaster or calamities is a geological process and is
defined as an event, concentrated in time and space,in
which a society, or subdivision of a society under goes
severe danger and cause loss of its members and
Types of disaster
Natural disaster: generater by natural phenomena
Eg: Cyclone, floods,earthquqkes, landslides etc.
Manmade disaster: Resulting from manmade hazards
Eg: Accidents, Pollution, Fire..
1. Floods 4. Earthquakes
2. Cyclones 5. Tsunami
3. LandslidesNATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are the sources which are useful to
man or can be transformed into a useful product.
Natural resources are classified into 2 types,
1) Renewable resources – soil, water, air
2) Nonrenewable resources – minerals, coal, oil Forests are one of the most important renewable
natural resources on this earth.
About onethird of the world’s land surface is covered
TYPES OF FORESTS
1) Evergreen forests
2) Deciduous forests
3) Coniferous forests Evergreen forests
• Found in the equatorial regions, where the temperature
rainfall is very high.
• Due to heavy rainfall throughout the year these forests are
• Example : The silent valley in Kerala.
• Important trees : Teak, rosewood.
• These forests are of 2 types,
1) Tropical deciduous forests
2) Temperate deciduous forests
• Tropical deciduous forests
Found in the tropical monsoon.
They receive only seasonal rainfall hence they shed their
leaves during the summer season.
Important trees : Teak, sandalwood• Temperate deciduous forests
Due to severe winter with heavy snowfall the trees shed their
leaves just before the winter season.
• The snow slides down the sloping sides of the trees.
• The needle typed leaves preserve the moisture.
• Important trees : Pine tree, spruce tree.
FUNCTIONS OF FORESTS
Forests are habitats to millions of plants, animals wildlife.
They recycle rainwater remove pollutants from air.
They control water quality quantity.
They moderate temperature weather and help to maintain
They prevent soil erosion perform watershed functions.
They promote tourism contribute aesthetic beauty. Commercial uses
Name of the products Uses
1. Forests supply wood Used as fuel.
2. Forests supply wood for various industries Raw materials as pulp,
paper, timber etc.,
3. Forests supply minor forest products Like gums, resins, dyes, etc.,
4. Many plants Are utilized in preparing
5. Forest produces variety of animal products Honey, ivory, etc.,
6. Many forest lands are used for Mining, grazing, recreation
for dams. Ecological uses
• Production of oxygen
• Reducing global warming
• Soil conservation
• Regulation of hydrological cycle
• Pollution moderators
• Wildlife habitat
• Tribals utilize bamboo wild grass for erecting the huts to
reside for making other product like mats, basket, cots, etc.,
• Some of the forest plants are used as food by the tribal people.
• Ecotourism provides a growing income for those who have
• Several countries are now attracting the tourists. Due to over population the materials supplied by the forest are
not sufficient to meet the people’s demand.
Hence exploitation of forest materials is going on increasing
day by day.
It has been estimated that in India the minimum area of forests
required to maintain good ecological balance is about 33 of
But at present, it is only about 22. So over exploitation of
forest materials occur.
Causes of over exploitation
1) Increasing agricultural production
2) Increasing industrial activities
3) Increase in demand of wood resources Effects (or) consequences of over exploitation
1) Over exploitation of forest resources led to migration
of the farmers.
2) Environmental damage caused by over exploitation is
3) The tropical forests are destroyed at very fast rate.
4) Countless plant species animals are endangered.
5) Marine populations will go into extinction.
6) The dumping of waters into land, water air has
become a severe problem. Deforestation is the process of removal of (or) elimination
of forest resources due to many natural or manmade
activities. In general deforestation means destruction of
In India about 1.3 hectares of forest land has been lost.
The presence of wasteland is a sign of deforestation of
India. Causes of deforestation
1) Developmental projects
2) Mining operations
3) Raw materials for industries
4) Fuel requirements
5) Shifting cultivation
6) Forest fires
Consequences (or) ill effects (or) impact of deforestation on
Loss of genetic diversity
Loss of biodiversity
Loss of food grains Unemployment problems
Preventive measures (or) avoid of deforestation (or) methods of
conservation of forests
New plants should be planted to replace the trees cut down for timber.
Use of wood for fuel should be discouraged.
Forest pests can be controlled by spraying pesticides by using
Forest fire must be controlled by modern techniques.
Over grazing by cattle must be controlled.
Education awareness programmes must be conducted.
Strict implementation of law of Forest Conservation Act.
Deforestation in the Himalaya region
Disappearing Tea gardens in Chhota Nagpur Due to population growth lack of alternative fuels, people living near
by forest area are mostly using wood as fuel.
Uses of timber
1) Raw materials for various wood based industries like paper,
2) For various developmental activities like railways, boats, road
Consequences (or) effects of timber extraction
1) Large scale timber extraction causes deforestation.
2) Soil erosion, loss of fertility, landslides loss of biodiversity.
3) Loss of tribal culture extinction of tribal people.
4) Reduces the thickness of the forest.
• In India, industries consume about 28 million cu.mts/year of wood.
• But, annual forest growth is only about 12 million cu.mts/year. Mining is the process of extracting mineral resources fossil fuels like coal from the
These deposits are found in the forest region any operation of mining will naturally
affect the forest.
Mining operation requires removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle.
Types of mining
a) Surface mining
b) Underground mining
Steps involved in mining
a) Exploration (investigation searching of minerals)
c) Exploitation (extraction of minerals)
d) Ore processing (separation of ore)
e) Extraction purification of minerals
Effects of mining
Mining activity not only destroys trees, it also pollutes
• Air with heavy metal toxins that are almost impossible to remove. Destruction of natural habitat at the mine waste disposal
Due to continuous removal of minerals, forest covers, the
trenches are formed on the ground, leading to water logged
area, which inturn contaminates the ground water.
During mining operations, the vibrations are developed, which
leads to earthquake.
Noise pollution is another major problem from mining
Mining reduces the shape size of the forest areas.
Landslides may also occur as a result of continuous mining in
Pollution of surface ground water resources due to the
discharge of waste minerals in water.
Migration of tribal people from mining areas to other areas for
searching land food. Dams are the massive artificial structures built across the river
to create a reservoir in order to store water for many beneficial
However, these dams are also responsible for the destruction of
vast areas of forest displacement of local people.
India has more than 1600 large dams.
State Number of dams
Maharastra More than 600 dams
Gujarat More than 250 dams
Madhya pradesh More than 130 dams
Tehri dam is the highest built across the river Bhagirathi in the
state of Uttaranchal. Effects of dam on forest
1) Thousands of hectares of forest have been cleared for
executing river valley projects.
2) Hydroelectric projects also have led to widespread loss of
forest in recent years.
3) Construction of dams under these projects led to killing of
wild animals destroying aquatic life.
4) Hydroelectric projects provide opportunities for the spread
of water borne diseases.
5) The big river valley projects also cause water logging which
leads to salinity inturn reduces the fertility of the land.
Narmada sagar project : submerged 3.5 lakh hectares of
forest comprising teak bamboo trees.
Tehri dam : submerged 1000 hectares of forest affecting
about 430 species of plants. Effects of dam on tribal people
1) Widespread displacement of tribal people, such a
biodiversity cannot be tolerated.
2) The displacement cultural change affects the tribal
people both mentally physically. They do not
accommodate the modern food habits life styles.
3) Tribal people are illtreated by the modern society.
4) Many of the displaced people were not recognized
resettled or compensated.
5) Tribal people their culture cannot be questioned
6) Generally, the body conditions of the tribal people will not
suit with the new areas hence they will be affected by
many diseases. Water is an important constituent of all the living beings.
Nearly 80 of the earth’s surface is covered with water.
All organisms are made up of mostly by water.
A tree is made up of 60 by weight of water.
Animals are made up of 5065 of water.
Forms of water:
Water exists in 3 phases, solid, liquid gas.
It is circulated in accordance with the hydrological cycle. Hydrological cycle
Hydrological cycle involves the following steps,
2) Condensation precipitation
3) Transpiration respiration
Heat energy from the sun constantly causes evaporation from all the water
Oceans, rivers, streams, lakes, ponds the surfaces of terrestrial organisms
lose water due to evaporation.
The evaporated water in the form of water vapour forms clouds.
The water in the gaseous form (water vapor) now gets condensed by means of
Once water condenses, it is pulled into the ground by gravity.
The process by which the condensed water falls to the earth is known as
precipitation (rainfall). Transpiration respiration
Organisms play an important role in the water cycle.
Plants absorbs water through their roots some of the water get
lost through their leaves by the process known as transpiration.
Respiration is the process by which both the plants animals
break down sugars in their body to produce energy.
Thus the process of evaporation, condensation and transpiration is
called hydrological cycle.
(living organisms Water (ocean, lake,
plants) river, etc.,) Distribution of water resources
About 97.4 by volume of water is found in oceans is
too salty and cannot be used for drinking, irrigation,
Of the remaining 2.6 of fresh water, most of which is
locked up in ice or in deep ground water.
Thus only about 0.014 of the earth’s total volume of
water is easily available to us as usable ground water.
Types of fresh water resources
Fresh water resources may be broadly classified into 2
Underground waterFresh water resources
Surface water Under ground water
Standing water bodies Flowing water bodies
reservoirs estuaries Surface water
• The water, which is coming out directly through precipitation
does not percolate down into the ground or does not return to the
atmosphere by evaporation is known as surface water.
• The water stored on the surface of earth is called surface water.
Standing water bodies
a) Oligotropic lakes – deep, clear deficient in nutrients without
much biological activity.
b) Eutrophic lakes – more nutrients are more turbid support
c) Dystrophic lakes – shallow coloured lakes with a low pH
clogged with plant life.
Reservoirs – larger than lakes.
Estuaries – they are deltas formed at the mouth of rivers, where they
join the ocean.
Flowing water bodies
The water which originate from the point of precipitation flows in
streams rivers are called flowing water bodies.
They carry sedimentary materials dissolved minerals. Under Ground Water
• The water which is found available deep in the ground due to percolation
of surface water is called under ground water.
• It is the major source of water.
• It is pure used for all purpose in the world.
Types of under ground water systems
A layer of highly permeable rock containing water is called an aquifer.
a) Layers of sand gravel are good aquifers (have good permeability).
b) Clay crystalline rocks are not good aquifers (have poor permeability).
Aquifers are of 2 types,
formed when water collects over a less permeable rock or compact clay.
They are recharged by water percolating down from the above surface
through permeable material.
formed when water collects over a impermeable rock.
It is sandwiched between 2 layers of impermeable rock.
They are recharged only in those areas where the aquifer intersects the
land surface. The water is used mainly for 2 types of uses
Here water is completely utilized and it is not reused.
Example : in domestic application
Here water is not completely utilized and it is reused.
Example : Hydropower plant
Other important uses of water
Domestic purposes like drinking, cooking, bathing, washing, etc.,
Commercial purposes like hotels, theatres, educational institutions, offices,
Irrigational purposes like agriculture. About 6070 of the fresh water is
used for irrigation.
2030 of the total fresh water is used for so many industrial operations
like refineries, iron steel, paper pulp industries.
Water is very essential for the sustainance of all the living organisms.
Water also play a key role in sculpting the earth’s surface, moderating
climate diluting pollutants. The rapid increase in population industrial growth have
increased the demand for water resources.
Effects on overutilization of water (or) Consequences of
overdrawing of ground water
1) Decrease of ground water
2) Ground subsidence
3) Lowering of water table
4) Intrusion of salt water
5) Earthquake landslides
6) Drying up of wells
7) Pollution of water A flood is an overflow of water, whenever the magnitude of
flow of water exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel
within its banks.
Causes of floods
1) Heavy rainfall, melting of snow, sudden release of water
from dams, causes flood in lowlying coastal area.
2) Prolonged downpour can also cause overflowing of lakes
3) Reduction in the carrying capacity of the channel, due to
accumulation of sediments or obstructions built on flood
4) Deforestation, overgrazing, mining increases runoff from
rains hence the level of flood raises.
5) Removal of dense uniform forest cover over the hilly zones
leads to occurrence of floods. Effect of floods
1) Due to flood, water spreads in the surrounding areas
2) The plain surface have become eroded silted with mud
sand, thus the cultivable land areas gets affected.
3) Extinction of civilization in some coastal areas also occur.
1) Floods can be controlled by constructing dams or reservoirs.
2) Channel management embankments also control the floods.
3) Encroachment of flood ways should be banned.
4) Flood hazard may also be reduced by forecasting or flood
5) Flood may also be reduced by reduction of runoff by increasing
infiltration through appropriate afforestation in the catchment
area. Drought is nothing but scarcity of water, which occurs due to
inadequate rainfall, late arrival of rains excessive withdrawal of
Types of drought
• Droughts are classified into 4 types,
1) Meteorological drought – rainfall 75 of the normal rainfall – this
drought will be severe if the rainfall is 50
2) Hydrological drought – total amount of rainfall is less than the
average rainfall – reduction of statistical average of water reserves in
aquifers, lakes reservoirs.
3) Agricultural drought – due to the shortage as well as the timing of
overall rainfall – reduction in the ground water reservoir levels,
soil moisture – affects cropped plants.
4) Socioeconomic drought – due to reduction in the availability of food
social security of the people in affected areas – leads to famine. Causes of drought
1) When annual rainfall is below normal less than evaporation
2) High population
3) Intensive cropping pattern over exploitation of scarce water
resources through dug well or bore well. In Maharashtra there has
been no recovery from drought for the last 30 years due to over
exploitation of water by sugarcane crop.
4) Deforestation leads to desertification drought too.
Effects of drought
1) Hunger, malnutrition scarcity of drinking water also change
in water quality.
2) Widespread crop failures leading to acute shortage of food
adversely affects human livestock populations.
3) It indicates the worst situation initiation of desertification.
4) Raw materials for agro based industries are critically affected,
hence retarding the industrial commercial growth.
5) Also accelerates degradation of natural resources.
6) Leads to large migration of people urbanization. Drought management
1) Indigenous knowledge in control of drought
desertification is very useful.
2) Rain water harvesting program.
3) To improve ground water level, construction of
reservoirs in drought area are essential.
4) Modern irrigation technology (drip irrigation) is very
much useful to conserve water.
5) Afforestation activities also improves the potential of
water in drought area.
6) Mixed cropping dry farming are the suitable
methods which minimize the risks of crop failures in
dry area. Water is so essential for our existence is fast becoming a scarce resource.
Nearly 1.2 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.
Thus due to increase in population decrease in water resources, conflicts over water
Causes of water conflicts
1) Conflict through use – unequal distribution of water has led to inter state or
international disputes – international conflicts : India Pakistan fight over the rights
to water from the Indus – national conflicts : Sharing of Cauvery water between
2) Construction of Dams (or) Power stations – for hydroelectric power generation,
dams are built across the rivers, which initiates conflict between the states.
3) Conflict through pollution
Besides the production of electricity shipping, rivers lakes are also used for
Not only they act as reservoirs for the supply of fresh water but also as a means of
disposing of waste water industrial rubbish.
With the increasing decline in the quality of the water crossing borders, the problem
of cleaning the water takes on an international dimension. Management of conflicts over water
1) Efforts are mainly concentrated to enact laws to check
these practices to control water pollution.
2) The conflicts over sharing of river water in the country
has been studied by many organizations several
solutions are suggested. The interlinking of rivers has
been one such solution.
3) Demand for Nationalization of water needs serious
consideration. Therefore power must be given to
National Water Authority River Basin Authority for
equitable distribution of basin water. Dams are built across the river in order to store water for,
Hydroelectric power generation
Most of the dams are built to serve for more than one purpose
called “multi purpose dams”.
Benefits of constructing dams
1) Control flood store flood water
2) For diverting part or all of the water from river into a
3) Drinking agricultural uses
4) Generate electricity
5) For recreational purposes
6) Navigation Fishery can be developed in the dam areas. Problems of constructing dams
1) Displacement of tribal people
2) Loss of nonforest land
3) Loss of forests, flora fauna
4) Landslips, sedimentation siltation occurs
5) Stagnation water logging around reservoirs retards
6) Breeding of vectors spread of vectorborne diseases.
7) Reservoir induced seismicity (RIS) causes earthquakes.
8) Navigation aquaculture activities can be developed
in the dam area. Downstream problems
1) Water logging salinity due to over irrigation
2) Reduced water flow silt deposition in rivers
3) Salt water intrusion at river mouth
4) Since the sediments carrying nutrients get deposited in
the reservoir, the fertility of the land along the river
5) Sometimes due to structural defects the dam may
collapse suddenly destroy many living organisms.
6) Salt water intrusion at river mouth. Minerals are naturally occurring substances having definite
chemical composition physical properties.
Ores are minerals or combination of minerals from which useful
substances, such as metals, can be profitably extracted used for
Formation of mineral deposits
Concentration of minerals at a particular spot, which can be
extracted profitably, gives rise to a mineral deposit.
Formation of these deposits is a very slow biological process even it
takes millions of years to form these deposits.
Mineral deposits are formed due to,
1) Biological decomposition of dead animals organic matters.
2) The concentration of minerals during cooling of molten rock (lava
3) Evaporation of sea water.
4) Oxidationreduction reaction inside the earth.
5) Concentration of minerals during weathering, transport
sedimentation. Classification of mineral resources
U.S. Geological Survey divides mineral resources into 3
1) Identified resources – location, existence, quantity
quality of these mineral resources are known by the
direct geological evidence measurements.
2) Undiscovered resources – these mineral resources are
assumed to exist on the basis of geological knowledge
theory but their specific locations, quality quantity are
3) Reserves – these mineral resources are identified
resources, from which a usable minerals can be
extracted profitably. The important uses of minerals are as follows,
1) Development of industrial plants machinery – iron,
aluminium, copper, etc.,
2) Construction, housing, settlements – iron, aluminium, nickel,
3) Generation of energy – coal, lignite, uranium, etc.,
4) Designing of defense equipments, weapons, ornaments.
5) Agricultural purposes, as fertilizers, seed dressings
fungicides – zineb : containing zinc, maneb : containing
6) Jewellery – gold, silver, platinum diamond.
7) Making of alloys for various purposes – phosphorites.
8) Communication purposes – telephone wires, cables,
9) Medicinal purposes, particularly in ayurvedic system –
sulphur pyrites. Most important environmental concern arises from the extraction
processing of the minerals during mining, melting, roasting, etc.,
The environmental damage caused by mining activities are as follows,
Devegetation defacing of landscape
The top soil as well as the vegetation are removed from the mining area.
Large scale deforestation or devegetation leads to several ecological losses
also landscape gets badly affected.
Mining disturbs also pollutes the ground water.
Many ores has sulphur as an impurity which gets converted into H2SO4
due to microbial action. This makes the water acidic.
Some heavy metals also get leached into groundwater.
Surface water pollution
The drainage of acid mine often contaminates the nearby streams lakes.
The acidic water is harmful to many aquatic life.
Radioactive substances like uranium also contaminate the surface water
kill many aquatic animals. Air pollution
Smelting roasting are done to purify the metals, which emits enormous
amounts of air pollutants damaging the nearby vegetation.
The suspended particulate matter (SPM), SO, arsenic particles, cadmium,
lead, etc., contaminate the atmosphere leads to several health related
Subsidence of land
It is mainly associated with underground mining.
Subsidence of mining area results in cracks in houses, tilting of buildings,
bending of rail tracks.
Effects of over exploitation of mineral resources
1) Rapid depletion of mineral deposits.
2) Wastage dissemination of mineral deposits.
3) Causes environmental pollution.
4) Needs heavy energy requirement.
Management of mineral resources
1) Reuse Recycling of the metals
2) Ecofriendly mining technology
3) Modernization of the mining industries
4) Efficient use protection of mineral resources. Mining quarrying in Udaipur
About 200 open cast mining quarrying centres are in
Of these 100 mining quarrying centres are illegal involved
in stone mining
Nearly 150 tonnes of explosives are used per month in blasting
of mines quarry, which pollute the air, soil water.
This blasting activity adversely affects irrigation wildlife.
Mining in Sariska Tiger Reserve in Aravalli range
The Aravalli range is spread in the Northwest India covering
Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana Delhi.
The hill region is very rich in biodiversity as well as mineral
resources. The Sariska Tiger Reserve, in Aravalli range, is very rich in
wildlife has enormous mineral reserves like quartzite,
Mining operations around these reserve has made many areas
permanently infertile barren.
The Supreme Court has directed the centre state
government of Rajasthan to ensure that all mining activities
within the series should be stopped.
But still some illegal mining is in progress.
Quarrying thorium uranium in Kanyakumari district
Indian Rare Earths Corporation is quarrying sands, which is
enriched with uranium thorium, near the sea shore in
Manali, KK district.
It leads to loss of many coconut plantation sea shore beauty. Food is an essential requirement for the human survival.
The main components of food are carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
Historically humans have dependent on 3 systems for their
1) Croplands – grains – 76 of world’s food – rice, wheat,
maize, barley, sugarcane, etc.,
2) Rangelands – food from the grazing livestock – 17 of
world’s food – meat, milk, fruits, etc.,
3) Oceans – 7 of world’s food – fish, prawn, crab, etc.,
Even though the earth is provided with more than 1000’s of
edible plants animals, only 15 plants 8 terrestrial animal
species supply 90 of our global intake of calories.
Rice, wheat maize are the major grains which provide more
than 50 of the calories people consume.1 One in every seven persons on this planet lives in India.
With 16 of theworld’s population only 2.4 of its
land area, there is a heavy pressure on the natural
resources including land.
An average Indian consumes a much lower amount of
resources than a person in the developing world.
Green revolution of 1960’s could meetIndia’s growing
demand for food, but there are recognized soil health
problems like deficiency of micronutrients, organic
matter, soil salinity damage of soil structure.
There is a need to develop modernize the
technologies without losing our sound traditional values
2 Sustainable development is defined as,“ meeting the
needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own
True sustainable development aims at optimum use of
natural resources with
• high degree of reusability
• Minimum wastage
• Least generation of toxic by products
• Maximum productivity
3 Sustainable development is multi dimensional concept
aiming at benefits derived from the interactions between
society, economy environment.
To build up the sustainable development, the following
approaches are proposed.
1) Developing appropriate technology
2) Reduce, Reuse, Recycle (3R) approach
3) Providing environmental education awareness
4) Consumption of renewable resources
5) Conservation of non renewable resources
6) Population control
4Urbanization is the movement of human population from
rural areas to urban areas for the want of better
Causes of urbanization
Since cities are the main centers of economic growth,
trade, transportation, education, medical facilities
employment, rural people moves to cities.
About 50 of the world population lives in urban area
people from rural area is moving to cities for employment.
Thus the urban growth is so fast it is difficult to
accommodate all their facilities within a limited area.
As a result there is spreading of the cities into suburban or
This phenomenon is known asurban sprawl.
5 Energy demanding activities
In developing countries, urban growth is very fast
pollution is uncontrollable.
When compared to rural people, urban people
consumes a lot of energy materials generates a lot
This is because urban people have a higher standard of
life their lifestyle demands more energy inputs.
Examples for energy demanding activities
• Residential commercial lightings.
• Transportation including motor cycle, car public
• Modern lifestyle using a large number of electrical
gadgets in everyday life.
6 Solution for urban energy problem
1) Urban people may use public transport instead of
using motor cycles cars.
2) Energy consumption must be minimized in all
3) Use of energy efficient technology.
4) Use of solar energy wind energy.
5) Imposing strict laws, penalties energy audit.
7The process of saving water for future utilization is
Need for water conservation
1) Though the resources of water are more, the quality
reliability are not high due to changes in
2) Better lifestyle requires more fresh water.
3) Increase in population
4) Due to deforestation, the annual rainfall is also
5) Over exploitation of ground water, leads to drought.
6) Agricultural industrial activities require more
8 Strategies of water conservation
Reducing evaporation losses
• by placing horizontal barriers of asphalt below the soil
surface, which increases the water availability crop yield.
Reducing irrigation losses
Sprinkling irrigation drip irrigation conserves water by
Growing hybrid crop varieties, which require less water.
Irrigation in early morning or later evening, reduces
Reuse of water
Treated waste water can be used for fertiirrigation.
Grey water from washings, bathrooms, etc., may be used
for washing cars, watering gardens.
9 Preventing wastage of water
Closing the taps when not in use.
Repairing any leakage from pipes.
Using small capacity of taps.
Decreasing runoff losses
By contour cultivation or terrace farming.
Avoid discharge of sewage
The discharge of sewage into natural water resources
should be prevented as much as possible.
Methods of water conservation
1) Rainwater harvesting
2) Watershed management
10Rainwater harvesting is a technique of capturing and
Need (or) Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting
1) To meet the increasing demands of water.
2) To raise the water table by recharging the ground
3) To reduce the groundwater contamination from the
intrusion of saline water.
4) To reduce the surface run off loss.
5) To reduce the storm water run off soil erosion.
6) To increase hydrostatic pressure to stop land
7) To minimize water crisis water conflicts.
11 Concept of rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting involves collecting water that falls on
the roof of house during rain storms passing it through
PVC or aluminium pipe to a near by covered storage unit.
Method (or) type of Rain water Harvesting
The most common method of rainwater harvesting is roof
top rainwater harvesting.
Roof top rainwater harvesting
• In this method rainwater is collected from the roof of the
building is stored in the ground for future use.
• It is the low cost effective technique.
• The rainwater from the top of the roofs, road surfaces, play
grounds, open lands is diverted into the surface tank or
recharge pits through a delivery system .
• This can be used to recharge underground aquifers by
diverting the water from stored water to dugwell or bore
1213 Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting
1) Reduction in the use of current for pumping water.
2) Mitigating the effects of droughts achieving
3) Increasing the availability of water from well.
4) Rise in ground water levels.
5) Minimizing the soil erosion flood hazards.
6) Future generation is assured of water.
14 Watershed (or) Drainage basin
• Watershed is defined as the land area from which water
drains under the influence of gravity into a stream, lake,
• The management of rainfall and resultant runoff is called
• It also involves conservation, regeneration proper use of
Factors affecting watershed
• Uncontrolled, unplanned unscientific land use activities.
• Overgrazing, deforestation, mining, construction activities
also affect degrade various watersheds.
• Droughtly climates also affects the watershed.
15 Need (or) Objectives of watershed management
1) To minimize the risks of floods, droughts
2) For developmental activities like domestic water
supply, irrigation, hydropower generation, etc.,
3) To generate huge employmental opportunities in the
backward rainfed areas to ensure livelihood security.
4) To promote social forestry horticultural activity on
all suitable areas of land.
5) To protect the soil from erosion by runoff.
6) To raise the groundwater level.
Concept of watershed management
• Watershed is not a technology but a concept which
integrates construction management budgeting of
rainwater through simple but discrete hydrological
16 Watershed management techniques
• In watershed management, various civil structures were
constructed to improve groundwater storage.
1) Trenches (Pits) : to improve groundwater storage.
2) Earthern dam (or) Stone embankment : to check the
3) Farm pond : to improve water storage capacity of the
4) Underground barriers (Dykes) : to raise the water table.
Maintenance of watershed (or) components of
integrated watershed management
1) Water harvesting
2) Afforestation Agroforestry
3) Reducing soil erosion
4) Scientific mining quarrying
5) Public participation
6) Minimizing livestock population
17Resettlement is simple relocation or displacement of
Rehabilitation includes replacing the lost economic
assets, safeguard employment, provide safe land for
Resettlement rehabilitation is one of the most serious
problems caused by the developmental activities.
Though the developmental projects raises the quality
standard of living of the people, there is over exploitation
of natural resources degradation of the environment.
Besides this, the native people are directly affected.
Causes of displacement of people
1) Due to developmental activities
2) Due to disaster– natural as well as man made disaster
3) Due to conservation initiatives
18 Rehabilitation issues
In India, most of the displacements have resulted due
to land requirements by the government using Land
Acquisition Act, 1897.
Tribals are usually the most affected among the
displaced, who are already very poor.
Break up of families is an important social issue.
Even if the tribals get cash compensation, they are not
familiar with the market policies trends.
Loss of identity loss of the intimate link between
the people the environment is one of the big loss.
19 Rehabilitation policy
1) The extent of damage suffering that the proposed
project would cause should be studied ascertained
before starting the project.
2) The rehabilitation resettlement work should be a
part of the project all those affected should be
rehabilitated before the commencement of the
3) The people should be rehabilitated on“minimum
dislocationbasis”, by choosing adjacent areas.
4) The extent of rehabilitation should meet the ends of
social justice balanced development.
20Environmental ethics refers to the issues, principles
guidelines relating to human interactions with their
It also means that
• efforts must be taken to protect an environment
• to maintain its stability from the hazardous chemical
Functions of environment
1) Life supporting medium for all organisms.
2) Provides food, air, water other important natural
resources to the human beings.
3) Disintegrates all the waste materials discharged by the
4) Moderates the climatic condition of the soil.
5) A healthy economy depends on a healthy environment.
21 Environmental problems
1) Deforestation activities
2) Population growth urbanization.
3) Pollution due to discharge of effluent smoke
discharge from the industries.
4) Water scarcity.
5) Land degradation degradation of soil fertility.
22 Solutions to Environmental problems
1) Reduce the waste of matter energy resources.
2) Recycle reuse as many of our waste products
resources as possible.
3) Overexploitation of natural resources must be
4) Soil degradation must be minimized.
5) Biodiversity of the earth must be protected.
6) Reduce population increase the economic growth
of our country.
23 Ethical guidelines
1) You should love honor the earth since it has
blessed you with life governs your survival.
2) You should keep each day sacred to earth celebrate
the turning of its seasons.
3) You should not hold yourself above other living
things have no right to drive them into extinction.
4) You should be grateful to the plants animals which
nourish you by giving you food.
5) You should not waste your resources on destructive
6) You should not steal from future generations their
right to live in a clean safe planet by polluting it.
7) You should consume the material goods in moderate
amounts so that all may share theearth’s precious
treasure of resources.
It is the general weather conditions, seasonal
variations of a region. The average of such
Theearth’s average surface temperature climate
have been changing throughout theworld’s 4.7 billion
The changes are gradual at sometimes whereas at other
times they are quick.
We have relatively stable climate for 1000’s of years
due to which we have practiced our agriculture.
25 Causes of climate change
1) Presence of green house gases in the atmosphere
increases the global temperature.
2) Depletion of ozone layer.
3) Uneven distribution of rainfall.
4) Rotation of earth on its axis.
5) Seasonal changes.
Effect of climate change
1) Agriculture get disturbed.
2) Migration of animals humans takes place.
3) Upset the hydrological cycle, results in floods
droughts in different parts of the world.
4) Global pattern of winds ocean currents get
26 The progressive warming up of theearth’s surface due to
blanketing effect of man made CO in the atmosphere is
known as thegreen houseeffect.
The increased inputs of CO other green house gases into
the atmosphere from human activities will enhance the
earth’s natural green house effect.
This enhanced green house effect is calledglobalwarming.
Effect on global warming
1) Effect on sea level
2) Effect on agriculture forestry
3) Effect on water resources
4) Effect on terrestrial ecosystems
5) Effect on human health
27 Measures to check global warming (or) Preventive
1) CO emissions can be decreased by reducing the use
of fossil fuels.
2) Use renewable resources such as wind, solar
3) Plant more trees.
4) Shift from coal to natural gas.
5) Adopt sustainable agriculture.
6) Stabilize population growth.
7) Efficiently remove CO from smoke stacks.
8) Remove atmospheric CO by using photosynthetic
28 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
• CDM is an arrangement under the kyoto protocol
which allows industrialized countries with a green
house gas reduction commitment to invest in projects
that reduce emissions in developing countries.
• It aims to develop sustainable development in all
countries by reducing CO HFC (Hydro Fluro
• The CDM allows net green house gas emissions to be
reduced at a much lower global cost by financing
emissions reduction projects in developing countries,
where costs are lower than in industrialized countries.
29 Normal rain water is always slightly acidic because of
the fact that CO present in the atmosphere gets
dissolved in it.
Because of the presence of SO NO gases as
pollutants in the atmosphere, the pH of the rain water
is further lowered.
This type of precipitation of water is called acid rain
or acid deposition.
30 Formation (or) causes of acid rain
• Acid rain means the presence of excessive acids in rain
• The thermal power plants, industries vehicles
release nitrous oxide sulphur dioxide into
atmosphere due to burning of coal oil.
• When these gases react with water vapor, they form
acids descend on to earth as acid rain.
SO + H O H SO
X 2 2 4
NO + H O HNO
X 2 3
• Due to the drifting of these gases in the atmosphere by
the wind, their presence are felt as far as 2000
• The air pollution of one nation could cause acid rain
for another nation.
3132 Effects (impacts) of acid rain
Effect of acid rain on human beings
1) Human nervous system, respiratory system digestive system
are affected by acid rain.
2) It also causes the premature death from heart lung disorders
such as asthma bronchitis.
Effect of acid rain on buildings
1) The Taj Mahal in Agra suffering at present due to SO
H SO acid fumes released from Mathura refinery. Crystals of
CuSO MgSO are formed as a result of corrosion caused by
2) Acid rain corrodes houses, monuments, statues, bridges
fences. British parliament building also suffered damage due
to H SO rains.
3) Acid rain dry deposition of acidic particles contribute to the
corrosion of metals, the deterioration of paint stone.
4) Dry deposition of acidic compounds can also dirty buildings
other structures leading to increased maintenance cost.
33 Effect of acid rain on terrestrial lake ecosystem
1) The effect of acid rain on terrestrial vegetation reduces
rate of photosynthesis growth increased sensitivity
to drought and disease.
2) It severely retards the growth of crops such as beans,
radish, potato, spinach carrots.
3) It causes number of complications in ponds, rivers
lakes especially significant reduction in fish population.
4) Black flies, mosquitoes, deer flies the aquatic worms
5) The activity of bacteria other microscopic animals is
reduced in acidic water. So the dead materials other
substances lying on the bottom of the lakes are not
rapidly decomposed. Thus essential nutrients such as
nitrogen phosphorous stay locked up in dead wastages.
Other names of acid rain : Acid fog, acid snow acid
34 Control measures of acid rain
1) Monitor the air pollution by improved technologies
also by switching to clean combustion technologies.
2) SO NO emissions from industries power plants
should be reduced by using pollution control equipments.
3) Coal with lower sulphur content is desirable to use in
4) Replacement of coal by natural gas would also reduce the
5) Liming of lakes soils should be done to correct the
adverse effects of acid rain.
6) The real solution is to cut back on the use of fossil fuels
by reducing our dependency on motor vehicles
unnecessary use of motor articles.
35 Ozone is a gas (O ) found throughout the atmosphere, but
most highly concentrated in the stratosphere between 10 and
50 km above sea level, where it is known as the‘ozone
36 Importance of ozone layer
• Without the ozone layer, life onearth’s surface would
not be possible.
• It protects us from the damaging ultraviolet radiation
of the sun.
• In particular it filters out UVB radiation.
• Recent evidence has shown that certain parts of the
ozone layer are becoming thinner ozone‘holes’ have
• The consequence of any thinning of the ozone layer is
that more UVB radiation reaches theearth’s surface.
• UVB radiation affects DNA molecules, causing
damage to the outer surface of plants animals.
• In humans it causes skin cancer eye disease.
37 Formation of ozone
• Ozone is formed in the stratosphere by photochemical
O +hʋ O + O
• The atomic oxygen rapidly reacts with molecular oxygen to
O + O + M O + M
where M= third body such as nitrogen
• Ozone thus formed distributes itself in the stratosphere
absorbs harmful UV radiations.
Mechanism of ozone layer depletion (or) Formation (or)
Causes of ozone hole
• In 1970, it was found that the ozone layer was attacked by
chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) which are released into
atmosphere by refrigeration units, air conditioning systems,
aerosol sprays cleaning solvents.
38• CFC release chlorine which breaks ozone into oxygen.
• The following reactions will occur
CF Cl +hʋ Cl + CF Cl
2 2 2
CF Cl + O CF O + ClO
2 2 2
Cl + O ClO + O
ClO + O Cl + O
• Each chlorine atom is capable of attacking several ozone molecules.
• A 1 loss of ozone results in a 2 increase in UV rays reaching the
Ozone depleting substances
• The ozone depleting substances essentially consists of chlorine or
bromine atoms which are extremely reactive while they are in the free
• The following gases are accumulated in the atmosphere are found
to be instruments in ozone depletion.
o Chloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC)– refrigerants (freon) in refrigerators,
propellant in aerosol spray cans
o Hydro Chloro Fluoro Carbon(HCFC)– refrigerants, bowling agents
39o Bromo Fluoro Carbons (BFC)– Fire extinguishers .
o Other chemicals
• Certain halogen compounds are potential ozone destroyers upto
10 times more powerful than the CFCs.
• Sometimes the atmospheric sulphur dioxide is converted into
sulphuric acid which greatly increases the rate of ozone depletion.
Effect (or) Environmental impact (or) Consequences of
Ozone Layer Depletion
Effect on human health
1) The UVrays damage genetic material in the skin cells which
cause skin cancer.
2) For fair skinned people long exposure to high level UVrays
increases the risk of non melanine skin cancer.
3) Prolonged exposure to UVrays lead to slow blindness called
actinic keratitis. This could also lead to cataracts.
4) Exposure to UVrays can supress the immune responses. It also
reduces human resistivity leading to cancer, allergies other
40 Effect on Aquatic systems
1) Affects aquatic forms such as phytoplankton, fish, larval crabs.
2) The phytoplankton consumes large amount of CO Decrease in
population of phytoplankton could have more amount of CO
in the atmosphere which contributes to global warming.
Effect on materials
• Degradation of paints, plastics other polymeric material will
result in economic loss due to effects of UV radiation.
Effect on climate
• The ozone depleting chemicals can contribute to global warming
i.e., increasing the average temperature of theearth’s surface.
1) Replacing CFCs by other materials which are less damaging.
2) Use of gases such as methyl bromide which is a crop fumigant
also to be controlled.
3) Manufacturing using of ozone depleting chemicals should be
41 Energy released during a nuclear reaction is called nuclear
The most serious hazard to human environmental health
from the nuclear accident is the release of large amounts of
nuclear energy radioactive products into the atmosphere.
Type of nuclear accidents
• Nuclear explosions carried out in underground cause
settling down the radioactive materials on theearth’s
surface radioactive particles, radioactive rays into the
Nuclear power plant accidents
• Radiation get released during this accident.
• The nuclear power plant located in the seismic vulnerable
area may cause nuclear accidents.
42 Improper disposal of radioactive waste
• Drums stored underground can rust leak radioactive materials
into water, land air.
Accident during transport
Core melt down is the major accident at a nuclear power plant.
Effect of nuclear radiation
1) Radiation may break chemical bonds such as DNA in cells
which may be instantaneous, prolonged or delayed types. It
may be even carried to future generations.
2) Exposure at low dose of radiation (100250 rads), people do
not die, but begin to suffer from fatigue, vomiting loss of
3) Exposure at higher dose of radiation (400500 rads), affect
bone marrow, blood cells, natural resistance blood fails to
4) Exposure at very high dose of radiation (10,000 rads) kills the
organism by damaging the tissues of heart, brain.
43 Nuclear Holocaust
• It means destruction of biodiversity by nuclear equipments
• In a holocaust, a large number of living beings are totally
destroyed as in case of nuclear war.
Effect of nuclear holocaust
o Nuclear bombardment will cause combustion of wood, plastics,
petroleum, forest, etc.,
o Large quantity of black soot will be carried to the stratosphere.
o Black soot will absorb all UVradiations will not allow the
radiation to reach the earth. Therefore, cooling will result.
o Thus, due to nuclear explosions, a process opposite to global
warming will occur. This is called nuclear winter.
o Effect of nuclear winter
a) Lowers the global temperature, even in summer the
temperature will be at around freezing temperature.
b) Crop productivity will be reduced causing famines human
It ignite all combustible material, destroy all the living beings,
material crushing, destructionof homes.
44 Examples of Nuclear Holocausts
• Japan, Hiroshima Nagasaki are the examples of nuclear holocaust,
which had happened at 2 world war.
• When the operators lost the control of a watercooled, graphite moderated
reactor during a low power tests at Chernobyl in Ukraine, the nuclear
• Chernobyl victims include,
a) 31 deaths at the time.
b) An estimated 2000 extra cases of cancer in Europe over the next 50
c) A much greater loss of life damage to health can still be attributed to
the coal industry.
1) Suitable precautions are to be taken training must be given to people
for handling these materials to avoid accident.
2) Constant monitoring of the radiation level has to be carried out.
3) Regular checks control measures are done by Atomic Energy
Regulatory Board under the Department of Atomic Energy. Waste land
• The land which is not in use is called waste land.
• The waste land is unproductive, unfit for cultivation, grazing
other economic uses.
• About 20 of the geographical area of India is waste land.
Type of waste lands
• These lands cannot be brought under cultivation.
• Examples baren rocky areas, hilly slopes, sandy deserts, etc.,
• These are cultivable but not cultivated for more than 5 years.
• Cultivable waste lands are important for agricultural purposes.
• Examples degraded forest lands, saline lands, water logged
marsh lands, etc.,
46 Causes of waste land formation
1) Due to soil erosion, deforestation, overgrazing, water
2) The increasing demand for firewood excessive use of
3) Developmental activities like construction of dams
power projects have caused considerable damage to land
due to water logging.
4) Over exploitation of natural resources.
5) By the sewage industrial wastes.
6) Mining activities destroy the forest cultivable land.
7) Growing demands for fuel, fodder, wood food cause
degradation and loss of soil productivity.
47 Objectives (or) Need of waste land reclamation
1) To improve the physical structure quality of the soil.
2) To prevent soil erosion, flooding landslides.
3) To avoid over exploitation of natural resources.
4) To improve the availability of good quality of water for
agricultural purposes industrial operations.
5) To conserve the biological resources natural
6) To provide a source of income to the rural poor.
7) To supply fuel, fodder timber for local use.
48 Methods of waste land reclamation (or) Integrated waste
land development programme
• Excess water is removed by artificial drainage.
• This process is used for waterlogged soil reclamation.
• It is the process of removal of salt from the salt affected soil by
applying excess amount of water.
• Leaching is done by dividing the field in small plots.
• In continuous leaching 0.5 to 1.0 cm water is required to remove
90 of soluble salts.
• High frequency irrigation with controlled amount of water helps
to maintain better water availability in the land.
Green manures biofertilizers
• Application of green manure is found to improve the saline soils.
49 Application of Gypsum
• Soil sodicity can be reduced with gypsum.
• Calcium of gypsum replaces sodium from the exchangeable
• This process converts clay back into calcium clay.
• The National Commission on Agriculture (NCA) has
launched several afforestation schemes.
• The National Development Board has decided to bring 5
million hacres of waste land annually for firewood
Social Forestry Programmes
• These programmes involve strip plantation on road, canal
sides, degraded forest land, etc.,
50 Consumerism refers to the consumption of resources by the
It is an organized movement of citizens government.
The special concentration is given to improve the rights power
of the buyers in relation to the sellers.
Consumerism is related to both increase in population size as
well as increase in our demand due to change in lifestyle.
In the modern society our needs have increased so
consumerism of resources has also increased.
Traditionally favourable rights of sellers
1) The right to introduce any product.
2) The right to change any price.
3) The right to spend any amount to promote their product.
4) The right to use incentives to promote their products.
51 Traditional buyer rights
1) The right to buy or not to buy.
2) The right to expect a product to be safe.
3) The right to expect the product to perform as claimed.
Important informations to be known by buyers
1) Ingredients of a product.
2) Manufacturing date expiry date.
3) Whether the product has been manufactured against an
established law of nature or involved in rights violation.
Objectives of consumerism
It improves the rights powers of the buyers.
It involves making the manufacturer liable for the entire life
cycle of a product.
It forces the manufacturer to reuse recycle the product after
The items which are very difficult to decompose like
computers, televisions etc., can be returned to manufacturer for
reclaiming useful parts disposing the rest.
52 The reusable packing materials like bottles can be taken back to
the manufacturer. It makes the products cheaper avoids
Active consumerism improves human health happiness also
it saves resources.
Sources of wastes
• The sources of the waste materials are agriculture, mining,
industrial municipal wastes.
• Examples for waste products
o Glass, papers, garbage, plastics, soft drink canes, metals, food
wastes, automobile wastes, construction factory wastes.
• Ewaste (Electronic electrical wastes)
o Computers, printers, mobile phones, xerox machines,
Effects of wastes
The wastes released from chemical industries from explosives
are dangerous to human life.
The dumped wastes degrade soil make unfit for irrigation.
53 Ewaste contains more than 1000 chemicals, which are toxic
cause environmental pollution.
Plastics are difficult to recycle or incinerate safely because they
are non biodegradable their combustion produces several toxic
Factors affecting consumerism generation of wastes
• It occurs when there are more people than the available supply of
• Over population causes degradation of resources, poverty
• This situation occurs in less developed countries (LDCs).
• Thus in LDCs per capita consumption of resources waste
generation are less.
• It occurs when there are less people than the available resources.
• Due to luxurious lifestyle per capita consumption of resources is
• If the consumption is more, the generation of waste is also more
greater is the degradation of environment.
54 This Act empowers the Central government to fix standards for
quality of air, water, soil noise and to formulate procedures
and safeguards for handling of hazard substances.
Objectives of environmental act
a) To protect improvement of the environment.
b) To prevent hazards to all living creatures property.
c) To maintain harmonious relationship between humans their
Important features of Environment act
The Act further empowers the government to lay down
procedures safeguards for the prevention of accidents which
cause pollution remedial measures.
The government has the authority to close or prohibit or regulate
any industry or its operation, if the violation of this Act occur.
55 The penal sections of the Act contain more stringent penalties
such as imprisonment for a term extending to 5 years or fine
upto Rupees 1 lakh or both.
If the violation continues, an additional fine of Rupees 5000
per day may be imposed.
The Act fixes the liability of the offence punishable under Act
on the person who is directly in charge.
The Act empowers the officer of Central government to
inspect the site or the plant or the machinery for preventing
pollution to collect samples of air, water, soil or other
material from any factory or its premises for testing.
The Environment (Protection) Act is the most comprehensive
legislation with powers for the central government to directly
act, avoiding many regulatory authorities or agencies.
56 This act deals with the problems relating to air pollution.
It allows the establishment of Central State Control Boards
provided with absolute powers to monitor air quality
Objectives of the air act
a) To prevent, control abatement of air pollution.
b) To maintain the quality of air.
c) To establish a board for the prevention control of air
Important features of air act
The Central Board may lay down the standards for the quality
The State Boards are empowered to lay down the standards
for emissions of air pollutants from industrial units or
automobiles or other sources.
57 The State Boards also function as inspectorates of air
The State Boards will examine the manufacturing processes
the control of equipment to verify, whether they meet the
The State Board can advice the State Government to declare
certain heavily polluted areas as pollution control areas can
advice to avoid the burning of waste products which cause air
pollution in such areas.
The directions of the Central Board are mandatory on State
The operation of an industrial unit is prohibited in a heavily
polluted areas without the consent of the Central Board.
Violation of law is punishable with imprisonment for a term
which may extend to 3 months or fine upto Rs 10,000 or both.
58 This act provides for maintaining restoring the sources of
It also provides for preventing controlling water pollution.
Objectives of the water act
1) Prevention control of water pollution
2) Maintaining or restoring the wholesomeness of water
3) Establishing central state boards for the prevention
control of water pollution.
Important features of water act
This act aims at, to protect the water from all kinds of
pollution to preserve the quality of water in all aquifers.
Establishment of Central Board State Boards for prevention
of water pollution.
59 The States are empowered to restrain any person from
discharging a pollutant or sewage or effluent into any water body
without the consent of the Board.
Violation of this act leads to prison sentence ranging from 3
months to 6 years.
State Pollution Control Board
• The approval of the State Pollution Control Board is needed to,
a) Establishing any industry or any treatment disposal system
or any extension or addition there to, discharge effluent into a
stream or well or river or on land.
b) Use of any new or altered outlet for the discharge of a sewage.
• In case of violation of this act, the State Board can
a) Send a notice to the concerned organization.
b) Issue orders to closure or stoppage of supply of electricity,
water or any other services to the polluting unit.
c) Noncompliance of the order leads to imprisonment for a term
of one a half years to 6 years fine of Rs.5000 for everyday
if the default continues.
60 This Act is aimed to protect preserve wildlife.
Wildlife refers to all animals plants that are not
India has rich wildlife heritage which includes 350
species of mammals, 1200 species of birds about
20,000 known species of insects.
Some of them are listed as‘endangeredspecies’ in the
Wildlife (Protection) Act.
The wildlife is declining due to human actions.
Wildlife populations are regularly monitored
management strategies formulated to protect them.
61 Objectives of the wildlife Act
1) To maintain essential ecological processes life
2) To preserve biodiversity.
3) To ensure a continuous use of species.
1) The Act covers the rights nonrights of forest dwellers.
2) It provides restricted grazing in sanctuaries but prohibits
in national parks.
3) It also prohibits the collection of nontimber forest.
4) The rights of forest dwellers recognized by the Forest
Policy of 1988 are taken away by the Amended Wild life
Act of 1991.
62 This act provides conservation of forests related aspects.
This act also covers all type of forests including reserved
forests, protected forests any forested land.
This act is enacted in 1980 aims at to arrest
Objectives of forest act
1) To protect conserve the forest.
2) To ensure judicious use of forest products.
Important features of forest act
The reserved forests shall not be diverted or dereserved
without the prior permission of the central government.
The forest land may not be used for nonforest purposes.
63 Any illegal nonforest activity within a forest area can
be immediately stopped under act.
Important features of Amendment Act of 1988
1) Forest departments are forbidden to assign any forest
land‘by way of lease or otherwise to any private
person’ or nongovernment body for reafforestation.
2) Clearance of any forest land of naturally grown trees
for the purpose of reafforestation is forbidden.
3) The diversion of forest land for nonforest uses is
cognisable offence any one who violates the law is
64 There are number of environmental laws in the form of
Acts for safeguarding our environmental quality.
But we cannot implement it strictly as there are many
drawbacks problems in implementing environmental
Problems in enforcing the legislation
1) We have not achieved the target of bringing 33 of our
land cover under forest.
2) We lose our wildlife continuously.
3) The rivers are now opened to sewer.
4) The air in town is badly polluted.
5) There are many drawbacks in our environmental laws
in their implementation.
65 Drawbacks of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
Since this Act has been enacted just as a fallout of Stockholm
Conference held in 1972, it has not included any locally
evolved conservation measures.
The ownership certificates for some animal articles (like
leopard tiger skins) often serves as a tool for illegal trading.
Since Jammu Kashmir has its own Wildlife Act, hunting
trading of many endangered species, prohibited in other
states, are allowed in JK.
The offenders of the Act are not subjected to very harsh fines.
It is just a fine of Rs.25,000 or imprisonment for upto 3 years.
Drawbacks of the Forest (conservation) Act, 1980
This Act just transfers the powers from state to centre to
decide the conversion of reserve forest lands to nonforest
The power has been centralized at the top the local
communities have been completely neglected.
66 The tribals were totally dependent on forest resources. When
they were stopped from taking those resources, they involve in
criminal activities like smuggling, killing, etc.,
The tribal communities have rich knowledge about forest
resources, their importance conservation. But their role
contribution is not acknowledged.
Drawbacks of Pollution related Act
The power authority has been given only to central
government with little of power to state government.
The penalties is very small when compared to the damage
caused by the big industries due to pollution.
Litigation, related to environment is expensive, since it
involves technical knowledge.
For small unit it is very expensive to install Effluent Treatment
The position of chairman of the Board is occupied by political
appointee. Hence it is difficult to implement the act without
67 Non government organization is apeople’s organization which is
working for the protection of the environment.
The following are some environmental organizations in India.
• Voluntary organizations help the government in local environmental
issues interact at grass root level.
• The NGO,“mahila mandals”, create awareness among the women
in remote villages by educating helping them to become healthy
• Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, Centre for Science Environment
(CSE). The report as per CSE on permissible limits of pesticides in
the cola drinks sensitized the public all over the country.
• Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Madras Naturalists
Society (MNS), Chennai, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF),
India are some of the NGOs taking many steps for the
environmental protection health.
• Chipko movement works for the conservation of trees by Darholi
Gram Swarajya Mandal in Gopeshwar.
68 Central state pollution control boards takes many step to
Functions of Central Board
It advises the central government regarding the prevention of
It plans for the prevention control of pollution.
It establishes labs for the analysis of air water samples.
It provides technical assistance guidance to state boards
sponsor research regarding water, air pollution.
It identifies areas or industries causing air pollution.
It encourages industries to recycle reuse the wastes.
It also advises the industries to treat waste water gases with
69 Functions of the State Board
It advises the state government on any matter concerning
the prevention control of pollution.
It has the right to inspect at all times any pollution control
equipment, industrial plant gives orders to take the
necessary steps to control pollution.
It encourages research investigations regarding pollution.
It organises educational programme in collaboration with
The analyst of the board is expected to analyze the sample,
sent to him submit a report to the board respective
70 Our environment is presently degrading due to many
activities like pollution, deforestation, overgrazing, rapid
In order to conserve our environment, each every one must
be aware about our environment problems objectives of
various environmental policies at national local levels.
Objectives of public awareness
To create awareness among people of rural city about
ecological imbalances, local environment technological
To organise meetings, group discussion on development, tree
plantation programmes, exhibitions.
To focus on current environment problems situations.
To learn to live simple ecofriendly manner.
71 Methods to create Environmental Awareness
• Environmental awareness must be created through formal
informal education to all sections of the society.
• The various methods that is useful for raising environmental
awareness are discussed here.
1) Environmental awareness in schools colleges
2) Through mass media
4) News papers
5) Voluntary organizations– NSS, NCC, Rotary club
6) Traditional techniques– folk plays, dramas for rural people
7) Arranging competitions– story writing, essay writing
painting competitions on environmental issues.
8) Leaders appeal– political leaders, cine actors popular
9) Nongovernment organizations (NGOs)