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Matter and Energy
Matter and Energy
Dr.SamuelHunt,United Arab Emirates,Teacher
Matter and Energy
www.ThesisScientist.comAre matter & energy related
• Matter is any particle with mass and volume
• Energy is simply matter that is moving
• 0 Kelvin is defined as the temperature when
matter does not moving
• So temperature is related to moving mass
• Therefore: temperature and mass are related to
• That’s why any chemistry or physics equation
with energy must relate mass and temperature.
• Everything you can see,
touch, smell or taste in
your room is made of
www.ThesisScientist.comWhat Is Matter?
• Matter is anything with
• Typically, we think of tiny
little pieces of mass as
atoms and molecules
because those 117 elements
behave Newtonian. There
are over 200 smaller
particles that behave
www.ThesisScientist.comEnergy: it’s just Mass and Velocity
Kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical
• Heat or Thermal Energy
Kinetic energy associated with molecular motion.
• Light or Radiant Energy
Kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an
Potential energy in the nucleus of atoms.
Potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of
their position.Atoms and Molecules
• Atoms are the tiny particles
that make up all matter.
• In most substances, the
atoms are joined together in
units called molecules.
The atoms are joined in
www.ThesisScientist.comAny matter can exist in one
of 3 States
www.ThesisScientist.comStructure Determines Properties
• The atoms or molecules have different
structures in solids, liquids, and gases −
leading to different properties.
• The particles in a solid are packed
close together and are fixed in
Although they may vibrate.
• The close packing of the particles
results in solids being
• The inability of the particles to
move around results in solids
retaining their shape and volume
when placed in a new container
and prevents the particles from
• Some solids have their particles
arranged in an orderly geometric
pattern—we call these crystalline
Salt and diamonds.
• Other solids have particles that do
not show a regular geometric
pattern over a long range—we call
these amorphous solids.
Plastic and glass.
• The particles in a liquid are closely packed,
but they have some ability to move around.
• The close packing results in liquids being
• The ability of the particles to move allows
liquids to take the shape of their container
and to flow. However, they don’t have
enough freedom to escape and expand to fill
• In the gas state, the particles have complete
freedom from each other.
• The particles are constantly flying around,
bumping into each other and the container.
• In the gas state, there is a lot of empty space
between the particles.
• Because there is a lot of empty
space, the particles can be
squeezed closer together.
Therefore, gases are
• Because the particles are not
held in close contact and are
moving freely, gases expand to
fill and take the shape of their
container, and will flow.
www.ThesisScientist.comMatter: is it pure or impure
Pure Substance Mixture
Constant Composition Variable Composition
• Pure Substance = All samples are made of the same
pieces in the same percentages.
• Mixtures = Different samples may have the same pieces in
1. Made of 1. Made of
substances, substances, but
whose appears to be
presence can one substance.
be seen. 2. All portions of
2. Portions of a a sample have
sample have the same
composition and properties.
www.ThesisScientist.comMatter has Properties
• Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter
that can be changed without changing its
Characteristics that are directly observable.
• Chemical Properties are the characteristics that
determine how the composition of matter changes as
a result of contact with other matter or the influence
Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter.
www.ThesisScientist.comH O Physical verses H O Chemical
Melting Point Boiling Point
Electrical Thermal Magnetism
Malleability Ductility Specific Heat
Color Order Taste
Solid Liquid GasSome Physical Properties of Iron
• Iron is a silvery solid at room temperature with a
metallic taste and smooth texture.
• Iron melts at 1538 °C and boils at 4428 °C.
• Iron’s density is 7.87 g/cm .
• Iron can be magnetized.
• Iron conducts electricity, but not as well as most other
• Iron’s ductility and thermal conductivity are about
average for a metal.
• It requires 0.45 J of heat energy to raise the temperature
of one gram of iron by 1°C.