Matter and energy definition

can matter and energy be recycled and matter and energy flow definition
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Dr.SamuelHunt,United Arab Emirates,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Chapter 3 Matter and Energy www.ThesisScientist.comAre matter & energy related • Matter is any particle with mass and volume • Energy is simply matter that is moving • 0 Kelvin is defined as the temperature when matter does not moving • So temperature is related to moving mass • Therefore: temperature and mass are related to energy • That’s why any chemistry or physics equation with energy must relate mass and temperature. www.ThesisScientist.comAround you • Everything you can see, touch, smell or taste in your room is made of matter. www.ThesisScientist.comWhat Is Matter? • Matter is anything with mass. • Typically, we think of tiny little pieces of mass as atoms and molecules because those 117 elements behave Newtonian. There are over 200 smaller particles that behave Quantunian. www.ThesisScientist.comEnergy: it’s just Mass and Velocity • Electrical  Kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical charge. • Heat or Thermal Energy  Kinetic energy associated with molecular motion. • Light or Radiant Energy  Kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an atom. • Nuclear  Potential energy in the nucleus of atoms. • Chemical  Potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of www.ThesisScientist.com their position.Atoms and Molecules • Atoms are the tiny particles that make up all matter. • In most substances, the atoms are joined together in units called molecules. The atoms are joined in specific geometric arrangements. www.ThesisScientist.comAny matter can exist in one of 3 States • Solid • Liquid • Gas www.ThesisScientist.comStructure Determines Properties • The atoms or molecules have different structures in solids, liquids, and gases − leading to different properties. www.ThesisScientist.comSolids • The particles in a solid are packed close together and are fixed in position.  Although they may vibrate. • The close packing of the particles results in solids being incompressible. • The inability of the particles to move around results in solids retaining their shape and volume when placed in a new container and prevents the particles from flowing. www.ThesisScientist.comSolids, Continued • Some solids have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric pattern—we call these crystalline solids. Salt and diamonds. • Other solids have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range—we call these amorphous solids. Plastic and glass. www.ThesisScientist.comLiquids • The particles in a liquid are closely packed, but they have some ability to move around. • The close packing results in liquids being incompressible. • The ability of the particles to move allows liquids to take the shape of their container and to flow. However, they don’t have enough freedom to escape and expand to fill the container. www.ThesisScientist.comGases • In the gas state, the particles have complete freedom from each other. • The particles are constantly flying around, bumping into each other and the container. • In the gas state, there is a lot of empty space between the particles. On average. www.ThesisScientist.comGases, Continued • Because there is a lot of empty space, the particles can be squeezed closer together. Therefore, gases are compressible. • Because the particles are not held in close contact and are moving freely, gases expand to fill and take the shape of their container, and will flow. www.ThesisScientist.comMatter: is it pure or impure Matter Pure Substance Mixture Constant Composition Variable Composition Heterogeneous Homogeneous • Pure Substance = All samples are made of the same pieces in the same percentages.  Salt • Mixtures = Different samples may have the same pieces in different percentages.  Salt water www.ThesisScientist.comMixtures Heterogeneous Homogeneous 1. Made of 1. Made of multiple multiple substances, substances, but whose appears to be presence can one substance. be seen. 2. All portions of 2. Portions of a a sample have sample have the same different composition composition and properties. and properties. www.ThesisScientist.comMatter Summary www.ThesisScientist.comMatter has Properties • Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing its composition.  Characteristics that are directly observable. • Chemical Properties are the characteristics that determine how the composition of matter changes as a result of contact with other matter or the influence of energy.  Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter. www.ThesisScientist.comH O Physical verses H O Chemical 2 2 www.ThesisScientist.co mPhysical Properties Melting Point Boiling Point Electrical Thermal Magnetism Conductivity Conductivity Malleability Ductility Specific Heat Color Order Taste www.ThesisScientist.com Solid Liquid GasSome Physical Properties of Iron • Iron is a silvery solid at room temperature with a metallic taste and smooth texture. • Iron melts at 1538 °C and boils at 4428 °C. 3 • Iron’s density is 7.87 g/cm . • Iron can be magnetized. • Iron conducts electricity, but not as well as most other common metals. • Iron’s ductility and thermal conductivity are about average for a metal. • It requires 0.45 J of heat energy to raise the temperature of one gram of iron by 1°C. www.ThesisScientist.com