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OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING USING C++ CSCI 5448 Object Oriented Analysis and Design By – Manali Torpe Fundamentals of OOP  Class  Object  Encapsulation  Abstraction  Inheritance  Polymorphism  Reusability C++ as an OOP language  C++ : C with classes  Multiparadigm language  As Object oriented language, it offers bottom to top approach  As Procedural language, it offers top to bottom approach Classes and objects (I)  Class user defined data type. Fundamental packaging unit of OOP technology  Class declaration is similar to struct declaration  Keyword ‘class’ followed by class name.  Object is an instance of class  Object combines data and functions  Object is created as a variable of class type using class name  Members of class  Data members / attributes  Member functions / methods Classes and objects (II)  Structure of C++ program with class Data members  Data members can be any of the following types  Primary data types : int, float, char, double, bool  Secondary data types : arrays, pointers, class objects etc.  Data members classified into two groups  Regular : every object gets its own copy of data members  Static: all objects share the same copy of data member Static Data Members  Variable declaration preceded by keyword ‘static’  Only one copy of static variable is created. All the objects share the same copy  Initialized to zero when first object is created. No other initialization permitted.  Should be defined outside the class definition after declaring them inside the class in this way – datatype classname :: varname  They are normally used to maintain values that are common to the entire class, e.g., to keep a count of number of objects created. Methods (I)  Function defined inside a class declaration is called as member function or method  Methods can be defined in two ways inside the class or outside the class using scope resolution operator (::)  When defined outside class declaration, function needs to be declared inside the class Methods (II) Method defined inside the Method defined outside class the class Methods (III)  Types of functions in a class  Regular functions  Overloaded functions  Inline functions  Friend functions  Static functions  Constructors  Destructors  Virtual functions Inline Function (I)  It is a function defined with a keyword ‘inline’  Compiler replaces the function call with function definition  It can not be recursive  It can not contain any types of loops  It can not have switch cases or nested if’s  It can not have static variable or goto statements  Main() can not be inline Inline Function (II)  All the inline functions must be defined before the call, because compiler needs to go through definition before the call Friend Function (I)  Nonmember function  Has access to private and protected data of class. It gets the access through declaration in the class with keyword ‘friend’  It can be declared anywhere in class, i.e., private/public scope  It has minimum one object of the class as its parameter because it accesses data members with the object name  It can not be called by an object, because it is not a member function  One function can be friend of any number of classes. Friend Function (II)  Friend function example Friend function (III)  Uses of Friend function  Useful when overloading certain types of operators  Useful when two or more classes contain members that are interrelated to other parts of program  Enhances encapsulation. Only programmer who has access to the source code of class, can make a function friend of that class Friend Classes  They are used when two or more classes need to work together and need access of each other’s data members without making them accessible by other classes. Static and Const Member Functions  Static member functions  Can have access to only static members of the same class  Can be called using class name as – classname :: functionname ();  Const member functions  Function declaration followed by keyword ‘const’, e.g., void put() const statements……..  It ensures that it will never modify any data members  Can be invoked for both const and nonconst objects Constructors (I)  Special member function to initialize the objects of its class  Automatically called when an object is created  Data members can be initialized through constructors  Have the same name of the class  They can have any number of parameters  Do not have return types, because they are called automatically by system  A constructor can only be called by a constructor Constructors (II)  Three types of constructors  Default constructors constructor with no parameters. Compiler supplies default constructor by itself if not defined explicitly. e.g. Circle() . In main function, Circle c.  Parameterized constructors constructors with parameters. Used for initializing data members e.g. Circle(float x) r =x; . In main function, Circle c(3.5);  Copy constructors used when one object of the class initializes other object. It takes reference to an object of the same class as an argument. e.g. Circle (Circle x) r=x.r; . in main function, Circle c1(3.5); Circle c2=c1; Constructors (III)  Ways of calling the constructors  Implicit call – Calling the constructor by its object. we do not specify the constructor name (Circle(3.5)) e.g. Circle c(3.5);  Explicit call – constructor is called by its name with parameters E.g. Circle c = Circle(3.5);  Dynamic initialization – first memory is allocated to the object using default constructor. Then parameterized constructor is called to initialize data members E.g. Circle c; float x; cinx; c= Circle(x); Destructors  Special member function that is called implicitly to de allocate the memory of objects allocated by constructor  Has same name of the class preceded by ()sign E.g. Circle()  Only one destructor in class  Can never have parameters and cannot be called explicitly  No return type  Is called by itself when object goes outside its scope  Called in reverse order of constructors Function Overloading  Functions with same name but different parameters  All the functions are defined in the same class  Binding is done during compile time Operator Overloading (I)  Mechanism in which we give an additional meaning to existing operators when they are applied to user defined data types e.g. objects  When an operator is overloaded, its original meanings are not lost  Improves readability of code and increases scope of operator. Operator overloading (II)  General rules of operator overloading  Only existing operators can be overloaded  Overloaded operator must have at least one user defined operator  Operator function can not have default arguments  All binary arithmetic overloaded operator functions explicitly return a value  Precedence of operators can not be altered. E.g. has higher precedence over + Unary Operator Overloading (I)  Unary operator acts on single operand(++,)  Can be overloaded either through nonstatic member function or friend function  Member function – takes no parameter. E.g. x.operator++()  Friend function takes one parameter. E.g. operator++(x)  Increment(++) and decrement() have two versions, prefix and postfix. To differentiate between them, a dummy parameter of type int is used in postfix Unary Operator Overloading (II) Member function Friend function Binary Operator Overloading (I)  Binary operator is an operator that requires two operands e.g. +,,=  Member function –  takes one parameter e.g. c.operator+(Circle x).  Left hand side operand becomes calling object. R.H.S. becomes passing object. e.g. c=c1+c2; c = c1.operator+(c2);  Left hand operand can not be primary data type as it can not call the function E.g. c=100+c1; //error because c=100.operator+(c1) not possible  Friend function –  takes 2 parameters. One parameter has to be userdefined data type. Other can be either secondary or primary data type e.g. operator+(Circle c, int n) st nd  Both L.H.S and R.H.S. are passed as objects, L.H.S. as 1 parameter and R.H.S. as 2 parameter e.g. c=c1+100; c= operator+(c1,100)  In case of one of the operands being primary data type, object may appear on either left or right side of operator. e.g. C=100+c1; c=operator+(100,c1)  Return type in general is the object of the class Binary Operator Overloading (II)  Assignment operators – e.g. =,+=,=,= etc  Assignment operator functions do not return any value. Changes are made in L.H.S. operand  In case of friend function, first parameter must be an reference to the object  e.g. Speed operator+=(Speed x, Speed y) s1+=s2; operator+=(s1,s2);  If an object is assigned to another object at the line of declaration, then copy constructor is called.  E.g. Speed s1=s2;  If it is done on the next line of declaration, then = operator is called.  E.g. Speed s1; S1=s2; Inheritance (I)  It is a concept in which the properties of one class are available to another  The class that is being inherited is called as superclass or baseclass  The class that inherits the properties and functions of base class is called as subclass or derived class  Derived class inherits all the properties of baseclass without making any changes to it. So facilitates code reuse, hence reusability Inheritance (II)  An access specifier defines a boundary to member of a class.  A class can have 3 types of member access specifiers:  Private: members of class accessible only by members friends of class. By default, all members are private  Protected: members of class accessible only by members and friends of derived class.  Public: members of class accessible by any function in the application Inheritance (III)  Baseclass access specifier determines access status of base class members inside derived class  3 types of base class access specifiers:  Private – all public, protected members of base class become private in derived class. Inaccessible by derived class objects  Protected – all public, protected members of base class become protected in derived class. Accessible only by members and friends of derived class  Public – public members become public in derived class, hence accessible by derived class objects. Protected remain protected. Inheritance (IV)  Class can inherit properties of one or more classes or from more than one level.  Depending on the number of base classes and number of levels, 5 Types of inheritance:  Single inheritance  Multilevel inheritance  Multiple inheritance  Hybrid inheritance  Hierarchical inheritance Single Inheritance  Derived class has only one base class  All properties of base class are available in derived class. But vice versa not true  Object of derived class can access all public properties of base class Multilevel Inheritance  Derived class becomes base class to another class  Here B is called intermediate base class  All the public properties of A are available in C  Private properties of A not accessible in C Multiple Inheritance  Derived class has more than one base class  Derived class has all the public and protected properties of all the base classes  Each base class can be inherited with any visibility mode. All are separated by a comma Hybrid Inheritance  Derived class has multiple base classes  These intermediate base classes have a common base class  To avoid getting multiple copies of common base class in the derived class, intermediate base classes inherit the base class as virtual  Hence only one copy of base class will be given in derived class Hierarchical Inheritance  Different derived class inherits one level of inheritance  Additional members are added in each derived class to extend the capabilities of class  Each derived class serves as base class for lower level of classes Constructors and Destructors in Inheritance  Single and multilevel inheritance – base class constructors are called first, then derived class constructors are called  E.g. class B : public A  Constructor of A is called first, then of B.  Multiple inheritance – base class constructors are called from left to right as specified in derived class inheritance list. Then derived class constructors are called.  E.g. class C : public A, public B  Here constructor of A is called first, then constructor of B is called and then of derived class C  Destructors are called in the reverse order of constructors Encapsulation  Means of data hiding  Binds together code and data it manipulates and keeps both safe from outside interference.  Tells exactly what user can access and can not access through public and private access specifiers  Prevents hacking of code. Function Overriding (I)  Functions with same name and same parameters and same return type  Defined in base class and derived classes  When derived class object calls the function, it calls overridden function in the derived class  When base class object calls the function, it calls the base class copy of the function Function Overriding (II)  Example of function overriding Virtual Functions (I)  Member function preceded by keyword ‘virtual’ in base class and overridden in derived class  If object of base class invokes virtual function, then copy of base class is invoked and if derived class object invokes it, then copy of derived class is invoked.  Virtual functions are declared to specify late binding.  When base class pointer points at derived class object, c++ determines which copy to be called depending upon the type of the object at run time  They are resolved at run time not at compile time Virtual Functions (II)  General rules while defining virtual function:  Must be member of some class  Accessed using object pointers  Can be friend of another class  Prototype of base class and derived class virtual function must be identical  No need to use keyword ‘virtual’ in definition if its is defined outside the class  Can not be a static member Polymorphism (I)  Function overriding with base class function declared virtual  Always needs to be called with base class pointer or reference  When derived class object is assigned to base class pointer, base class pointer will access the overridden derived class function during run time  This is know as run time polymorphism / dynamic binding Polymorphism (II)  Example of polymorphism Pure Virtual Function  Virtual member function of base class without definition and forces derived class to give definition for it  Should be overridden in all the derived classes  Is initialized to 0. “=0” indicates that code for the function is null pointer.  E.g. class Shape virtual void area() = 0; ;  If derived class fails to provide definition for the function, then it becomes an abstract class and instance of it can not be created then. Abstract Class (I)  Contains at least one pure virtual function  Object of abstract class can not be created, because it contains one or more pure virtual functions without definition.  A reference or pointer can be created to support run time polymorphism  All the pure virtual functions of abstract class must be overridden in derived class.  Can be used to create generic, extensible libraries for programmer to use in their own implementations Abstract Class (II)  Example of abstract class. Similarly, another sub class Triangle can also be added. Overview  We learnt the basics of objectoriented programming using C++ language  Following key features were explained with examples:  Inline functions  Friend functions  Operator overloading  Inheritance  Encapsulation  Polymorphism  Virtual functions  Abstract class