Question? Leave a message!




Introduction to Optical Networking & Relevant Optics Fundamentals

Introduction to Optical Networking & Relevant Optics Fundamentals 6
Dr.NeerajMittal Profile Pic
Dr.NeerajMittal,India,Teacher
Published Date:19-07-2017
Website URL
Comment
Introduction to Optical Networking & Relevant Optics Fundamentals Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1Overview  Quick History  Relevant Properties of Light  Components of Fiber Optic Transmission and Switching Systems  Chapter 2 of Ramaswami/Sivarajan Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 2Quick History of Optical Networking  1958: Laser discovered  Mid-60s: Guided wave optics demonstrated  1970: Production of low-loss fibers  Made long-distance optical transmission possible  1970: invention of semiconductor laser diode  Made optical transceivers highly refined  70s-80s: Use of fiber in telephony: SONET  Mid-80s: LANs/MANs: broadcast-and-select architectures  1988: First trans-atlantic optical fiber laid  Late-80s: EDFA (optical amplifier) developed  Greatly alleviated distance limitations  Mid/late-90s: DWDM systems explode Shivkumar Kalyanaraman  Late-90s: Intelligent Optical networks Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 3Big Picture: Optical Transmission System Pieces Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 4Big Picture: DWDM Optical components Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 5Evolution of Fiber Transmission Systems Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 6Bigger Picture: Key Features of PhotonicsElectromagnetic Spectrum Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 8What is Light? Theories of Light Historical DevelopmentWhat is Light?  Wave nature:  Reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, polarization, fading, loss …  Transverse EM (TEM) wave:  Interacts with any charges in nearby space…  Characterized by frequency, wavelength, phase and propagation speed  Simplified Maxwell’s equations-analysis for monochromatic, planar waves  Photometric terms: luminous flux, candle intensity, illuminance, Luminance…  Particle nature:  Number of photons, min energy: E = hu  “Free” space = no matter OR EM fields Shivkumar Kalyanaraman  Trajectory affected by strong EM fields Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 10Light Attributes of Interest  Dual Nature: EM wave and particle  Many s: wide & continuous spectrum  Polarization: circular, elliptic, linear: affected by fields and matter  Optical Power: wide range; affected by matter  Propagation:  Straight path in free space  In matter it is affected variously (absorbed, scattered, through);  In waveguides, it follows bends  Propagation speed: diff s travel at diff speeds in matter  Phase: affected by variations in fields and matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 11Interaction of Light with Matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 12Goal: Light Transmission on Optical Fiber Need to understand basic ideas of  interacts with s and with matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 13Light interaction with other s and interaction with matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 14Interaction with Matter: Ray Optics • Light rays travel in straight lines Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 15Reflection of Light Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 16Reflection Applications: Mirrors & MEMS Plane Paraboloidal Elliptical Spherical Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 17Refraction of Light Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 18Ray Deflection by Prism • Newton’s Rainbow: Deflection angle dependent on the wavelength; • Used in optical multiplexers and de- multiplexers Optical Multiplexer & DeMultiplexer