Flexible optical networking ppt

optical network components ppt and optical networking and dense wavelength division multiplexing ppt
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Dr.NeerajMittal,India,Teacher
Published Date:19-07-2017
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Introduction to Optical Networking & Relevant Optics Fundamentals Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1Overview  Quick History  Relevant Properties of Light  Components of Fiber Optic Transmission and Switching Systems  Chapter 2 of Ramaswami/Sivarajan Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 2Quick History of Optical Networking  1958: Laser discovered  Mid-60s: Guided wave optics demonstrated  1970: Production of low-loss fibers  Made long-distance optical transmission possible  1970: invention of semiconductor laser diode  Made optical transceivers highly refined  70s-80s: Use of fiber in telephony: SONET  Mid-80s: LANs/MANs: broadcast-and-select architectures  1988: First trans-atlantic optical fiber laid  Late-80s: EDFA (optical amplifier) developed  Greatly alleviated distance limitations  Mid/late-90s: DWDM systems explode Shivkumar Kalyanaraman  Late-90s: Intelligent Optical networks Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 3Big Picture: Optical Transmission System Pieces Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 4Big Picture: DWDM Optical components Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 5What is Light? Theories of Light Historical DevelopmentWhat is Light?  Wave nature:  Reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, polarization, fading, loss …  Transverse EM (TEM) wave:  Interacts with any charges in nearby space…  Characterized by frequency, wavelength, phase and propagation speed  Simplified Maxwell’s equations-analysis for monochromatic, planar waves  Photometric terms: luminous flux, candle intensity, illuminance, Luminance…  Particle nature:  Number of photons, min energy: E = hu  “Free” space = no matter OR EM fields Shivkumar Kalyanaraman  Trajectory affected by strong EM fields Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 10Light Attributes of Interest  Dual Nature: EM wave and particle  Many s: wide & continuous spectrum  Polarization: circular, elliptic, linear: affected by fields and matter  Optical Power: wide range; affected by matter  Propagation:  Straight path in free space  In matter it is affected variously (absorbed, scattered, through);  In waveguides, it follows bends  Propagation speed: diff s travel at diff speeds in matter  Phase: affected by variations in fields and matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 11Interaction of Light with Matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 12Goal: Light Transmission on Optical Fiber Need to understand basic ideas of  interacts with s and with matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 13Light interaction with other s and interaction with matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 14Interaction with Matter: Ray Optics • Light rays travel in straight lines Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 15Reflection of Light Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 16Reflection Applications: Mirrors & MEMS Plane Paraboloidal Elliptical Spherical Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 17Refraction of Light Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 18Propagation of a Polychromatic WaveOptical Splicing Issues: Speckle Patterns Speckle patterns are time-varying and arise from solution of Maxwell’s equations ( geometric optics) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 45Recall: Interaction of Light with Matter Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 46Optical Transmission: More Light- Matter Interaction Effects Attenuation Dispersion Nonlinearity Reflectance Transmitted data waveform Waveform after 1000 km Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 47Absorption vs Scattering Both are linear effects that lead to “attenuation”. Rayleigh scattering effects dominate much more than absorption (in lower Wavelengths, but decreases with wavelength) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 48