Role of Salicylic acid in plants ppt

salicylic acid biosynthesis and metabolism ppt and salicylic acid pathway in plants ppt
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Published Date:08-07-2017
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The Synthesis, Properties, & Application of Salicylic Acid in the Treatment of Acne Jenny Pham CHEM 4201 – Spring 2014 Introduction ☤Salicylic Acid – name derived from Salix (Latin name for the willow tree) ☤Organic Compound – Chemically Synthesized & Biosynthesized ☤Functions as a Hormone in Plants – Defense Against Pathogens ☤Vast Array of Benefits & Uses • Applications in Food Chemistry, Textiles, Medicine, Cosmetics, Dermatology  Food Chemistry – preservative  Textiles – synthesis of dyes; used for its antibacterial properties  Medicine – relieve fever and pain  Cosmetics – preservative; has exfoliating and cleansing properties  Dermatology – seborrheic dermatitis, viral warts, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, and more Background ☤4000 BC – Assyrians used the extracts of willow leaves to treat painful musculoskeletal joint pain conditions, as well as an antipyretic drug to reduce fever. ☤400 BC – Hippocrates (Greek physician; known as the “father of Western medicine”) used willow bark extract to treat fever and relieve pain associated with childbirth. st ☤1828 – Johann Buchner was the 1 to extract and purify salicin (later determined to be the pharmacological active compound in 1935 by Raffaele Piria) from willow bark. ☤1859 – Kolbe & Schmitt discovered the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction to chemically synthesize salicylic acid from phenol, allowing for it to be produced on a large commercial scale. st ☤1893 – Felix Hoffman was the 1 to synthesize pure and stable acetylsalicylic acid (known as aspirin). Synthesis of Salicylic Acid ☤Synthesis From Natural Sources ☤Industrial Synthesis Synthesis from Natural Sources ☤Salicylaldehyde from Meadowsweet Flowers (Filipendula ulmaria) • Extracted by Pagenstecher (Swiss pharmacist) as early as 1835. • Oxidized by Lowig (German chemist). Industrial Synthesis from Phenol ☤Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction by Hermann Kolbe & Rudolf Schmitt in 1859 Chemical Properties ☤Common Name: Salicylic Acid ☤Molecular Formula: C H O 7 6 3 ☤Molecular Weight: 138.12074 g/mol ☤IUPAC Name: 2-hydroxybenzoic acid → α-hydroxy acid ☤Appearance: Colorless Crystalline Powder to White Needle-Shaped Crystals ☤Odor: Odorless ☤Taste: Acrid Beneficial Properties ☤Antibacterial ☤Anti-Inflammatory ☤Antifungal ☤Keratolytic ☤Antiseptic ☤Comedolytic ☤Antipyretic ☤Bacteriostatic What is Acne Vulgaris? ☤It’s a common chronic disease of the pilosebasceous unit of the skin, affecting more than 80% of adolescents and often persists into adulthood ☤Cause – obstruction of the pilosebasceous canal ☤Characteristics • oily skin (excess sebum production) • non-inflammatory lesions (open/closed comedones) • inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodules) ☤Normally affects the face, upper chest, and back – areas that have the densest amount of sebaceous follicles. Salicylic Acid – Acne Treatment ☤Salicylic acid is applied topically to the skin affected by acne vulgaris. • strong keratolytic and comdelytic agent • increases penetration of other products • has a slight anti-inflammatory effect • bacteriostatic and fungistatic at low concentrations – competitive inhibition of pantothenic acid Written Component ☤Designing an experiment that incorporates the synthesis of salicylic acid from a natural source, such as the flowers of the meadowsweet plant, wintergreen plant, or bark from the willow tree, and utilizing the salicylic acid to make a more natural product used to treat acne, rather than using industrially synthesized salicylic acid. References 1. Mahdi, J. (2010). Medicinal potential of willow: A chemical perspective of aspirin discovery. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 14(3), 317-322. 2. Vlot, A., Dempsey, D., & Klessig, D. (2009). Salicylic Acid, a Multifaceted Hormone to Combat Disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 47, 177-206. 3. Jack, D. B. (1997). One hundred years of aspirin. The Lancet, 350(9075), 437-439. 4. Kantouch, A., El-Sayed, A., Salama, M., El-Kheir, A., & Mowafi, S. (2013). Salicylic acid and some of its derivatives as antibacterial agents for viscose fabric. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 62, 603-607. 5. Young, J. (2008). Salicylic Acid. Journal of Chemical Education, 85(12), 1617. 6. Kornhauser, A., Coelho, S. G., & Hearing, V. J. (2010). Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology : CCID, 3, 135–142. doi:10.2147/CCID.S9042 7. Sladden, M. J., & Johnston, G. A. (2004). Common skin infections in children. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 329(7457), 95–99. 8. Salicylic Acid - PubChem. (2004, September 16). Retrieved November 15, 2014, from http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/338 9. Chemistry Experiments: Salicylic Acid and Salicylates. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.crscientific.com/article-aspirin.html 10. White Willow Bark Organic. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from http://eternityinabox.com/shop/white-willow-bark-organic/ 11. Filipendula rubra. (2014, November 19). Retrieved November 22, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filipendula_rubra5 12. Native Plants for NYC Fall Color. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from http://newecolandscapes.com/5-native-plants-for-fall-color/ 13. Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction. Retrieved November 16, 2014, from http://www.chem.ucla.edu/harding/IGOC/K/kolbe_schmitt_reaction.html 14. Strom, M., & Lio, P. (2014). Alternative Medicine in Pediatric Dermatology: What Is the Evidence? Current Dermatology Reports, 3(4), 165-170. 15. Krautheim, A., & Gollnick, H. (2012). Transdermal Penetration of Topical Drugs Used in the Treatment of Acne. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 42(14), 1287- 1304. 16. Comedogenesis: Inflammation, Androgens, Sebum Lipid and Cytokines. Retrieved November 22, 2014, from http://health.tipsdiscover.com/acne- vulgaris-comedogenesis-the-role-of-inflammation-androgens-sebum-lipid-and-cytokines/ 17. Bowe, W., Glick, J., & Shalita, A. (2012). Solodyn and Updates on Topical and Oral Therapies for Acne. Current Dermatology Reports, 1(3), 97-107. 18. Natural Acne Solutions. Retrieved November 22, 2014, from http://www.burtsbees.com/Natural-Acne-Solutions/naturalAcneSolutions,default,sc.html