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Introduction to Nanotechnology

Introduction to Nanotechnology 28
Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment and Detection Richard Acosta Motivation •Inef   fectiveness of many Cancer treatments •Numer   ous side effects •Dif   ficulties in early Cancer detection • No immunization Scale and Scope The nanoparticles discussed in this presentation are typically between 20150 nm or roughly 100 times smaller than most human cells Cancer Nanotechnology research is interdisciplinary and incorporates Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, Medicine, and Physics Properties of Cancer Cells •Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)   over expression and over activity have been associated many different types of Cancer •Cancer cells have a unique properties that can be exploited by nanoparticles   •Their rapid rate of growth causes them to intake an abnormal amount of   nutrients (i.e., folic acid) •Nanoparticles can be used to target biomarkers or antigens that are   highly specific to Cancer cells Nanoparticle Specialization •99 of chemotherapy drugs do not reach the   Cancer cells • Nanotubes, nanorods, dendrimers, nanospheres, nanoantennas, … using carbon, iron, gadolinium, gold, silicon, etc. •Antigen binding peptide ligands are attached   to the nanostructures • Folic acid baiting • Passive targeting Leaky blood vessels near tumors cause the nanoparticles to cluster around the tumors Uses in Treatment Intracellular Drug Delivery The Trojan Horse Cytotoxic chemical payload Methotrexate, Docetaxel, etc… Uses in Treatment Experiment on mice bearing human prostate tumors After approximately 3 months 100 of the mice treated with the targeted nanoparticles survived 57 of the mice treated with untargeted nanoparticles survived 14 of the mice with Docetaxel alone survived Amount of weight loss and white blood cell count confirmed far lower toxicity for the targeted nanoparticles Comparative efficacy study in LNCaP s.c. xenograft nude mouse model of PCa Farokhzad O. C. PNAS 2006;103:63156320 ©2006 by National Academy of Sciences Uses in Treatment Photothermal Ablation Cancer cells die at 42° C (108° F), normal cells die at about 46° C (115° F) Current optical fiber treatment Hollow, gold nanospheres are 50 times more effective at absorbing light near the infrared than solid gold nanoparticles Nanoparticles can be tuned to be excited only by certain ranges of light Uses in Treatment In another study, preclinical trials reveal that a single intravenous nanoparticle injection eradicated 100 percent of tumors in mice when exposed to nearinfrared light. Most work is being done with nearinfrared light, which is harmless to humans but can only penetrate human tissue about 1.5 inches. Nanoparticles heated up to 70° C (160° F) The Kanzius RF Machine uses radio waves for dielectric heating Uses in Detection Gold nanoparticles in this image showed 600 percent more affinity to Cancer cells than healthy cells (EGFR binding) White light and simple, inexpensive microscope is all that’s necessary for powerful ex vivo Cancer detection. The scattering is so strong that even one nanoparticle can be detected. Uses in Detection Using a metalorganic framework with metals such as gadolinium or iron, nanoparticles can be used as MRI contrast agents For the same amount of contrast, only 1/3 of the contrast agent is necessary using nanoparticle targeting Uses in Detection Fluorescent Microscopy Nanoparticles can serve as dual detection devices for both magnetic resonance and microscopy Current Limitations Cancer targeting is highly dependent on surface chemistry. Not just any nanoparticle will work. The need for biocompatible and stable nanoparticles Sideeffects and toxicity Environmental impact Uncharted territory Future Human clinical trials within the next 23 years Highly specific team of communicating multifunctional nanoparticles used in the discovery, treatment, and prevention of Cancer growth Safer, more consistent, and highly specific nanoparticle production Turning Cancer into a chronic, but manageable disease within the next 1520 years Summary Different types of Cancer cells have unique properties that can be exploited by nanoparticles to target the Cancer cells Nanoparticles can be used to detect/monitor (by utilizing or adding optic, magnetic, and fluorescent properties) and to treat Cancer (by Heat ablation, chemotherapy, gene therapy). No human trials have been performed yet and human trials are still at least a few years away. (Unknown side effects, toxicity, difficulty in manufacturing and harmful byproducts, need for highly specific nanoparticles) Sources •  University of California Santa Cruz (2009, March 28). Hollow Gold Nanospheres Show Promise For Biomedical And Other Applications. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 24, 2009, from /releases/2009/03/090322154415.htm •  University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (2009, February 8). Targeted Nanospheres Find, Penetrate, Then Fuel Burning Of Melanoma. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 24, 2009, from /releases/2009/02/090202074856.htm •  Couvreur P, Vauthier C. Nanotechnology: intelligent design to treat complex disease. Pharmaceutical Research. 2006; 23(7): 141750. •  Sunderland CJ, Steiert M, Talmadge JE, Derfus AM, Barry SE. Targeted nanoparticles for detecting and treating cancer. Drug Development Research. 2006; 67: 7093. •  Yih TC, AlFandi M. Engineered nanoparticles as precise drug delivery systems. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 2006; 97: 118490. •  ElSayed, Mostafa. Gold Nanoparticles May Simplify Cancer Detection. Georgia Institute of Technology. 2005 •  Misty D. Rowe, Douglas H. Thamm, Susan L. Kraft, Stephen G. Boyes. PolymerModified Gadolinium MetalOrganic Framework Nanoparticles Used as Multifunctional Nanomedicines for the Targeted Imaging and Treatment of Cancer. Biomacromolecules 2009 10 (4), 983993 •  Chungang Wang, Jiji Chen, Tom Talavage, Joseph Irudayaraj. Gold Nanorod/Fe3O4 Nanoparticle NanoPearlNecklaces for Simultaneous Targeting, DualMode Imaging, and Photothermal Ablation of Cancer Cells. Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2009) •  L. Denton, Michael S. Foltz, Gary D. Noojin, Larry E. Estlack, Robert J. Thomas, and Benjamin A. Rockwell. Determination of threshold average temperature for cell death in an in vitro retinal model using thermograph Proc. SPIE 7175, 71750G (2009), DOI:10.1117/12.807861 •  Targeted nanoparticleaptamer bioconjugates for cancer chemotherapy in vivo PNAS 2006 103:63156320; published online before print April 10, 2006, doi:10.1073/pnas.0601755103 • • • • • • Questions 1)  Which of the following are not potential methods for treating Cancer using nanotechnology. a)  Photothermal ablation b)  Folic acid introduction c)  Cytotoxic drug delivery d)  Gene therapy e)  None of the above 2) A cause for the stall in utilizing nanotechnology treatment on a mass scale is a)  Unknown toxic effects of nanoparticles b)  Environmental repercussions c)  Lack of human clinical trials d)  Inefficient nanoparticle creation techniques e)  All of the above
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