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TYPES OF RESEARCH

TYPES OF RESEARCH 6
Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia POLICY RESEARCH, ACTION RESEARCH, AND INTERPRETIVE RESEARCH IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS AREAS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CLASS Lecturer : RIRI SATRIA Date : October 06, 2009 WHAT IS RESEARCH Orderly investigate process for the purpose of creating new knowledge. To explain To design something something Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 2 TYPES OF RESEARCH •  Exploratory research –  To develop hypothesis and propositions for futher inquiry –  ”what are the ways of making IS effective” •  Descriptive research –  To describe the incidence or prevalence of a phenomenon –  Es. CIO / IT manager attitudes •  Explanatory research –  To trace operational links over time –  Impacts of IS/IT to business operations. •  Design research –  To design a system / actions in a organization. –  Es : strategic IS/IT plan, change management plan. Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 3 RESEARCH PARADIGM •  Positivism –  Research conducted based on sensory experience and logical rationalism. –  Reality is objectively given and can be described by measurable properties, which are independent of the observer and the instruments. –  Formal propositions, quantifiable measures of variables, hypothesis testing, and the drawing of inference from sample to stated populations. •  Constructivism / Interpretivism –  Believes that reality only exists in the context of a mental framework (construct) for thinking about it, such as language, consciousness, and shared meanings. This research focus on context of something. Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 4 POSITIVIST PARADIGM Reality exists out there and is governed by unchangeable ONTOLOGY natural laws. The job of research is to discover the 'true' (WHAT) nature of reality and how it 'truly' works. The ultimate aim is to predict and control natural phenomena. Since there is a real world out there operating according to EPISTEMOLOGY natural laws, the researcher must objectively and without (PARADIGM OF KNOWLEDGE) influencing study the world and objects within the world. The researcher states an hypothesis or question as a METHODOLOGY proposition and then tests the proposition to see if it is (HOW) true. Anything that might influence the test must be controlled to prevent bias. Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 5 CONSTRUCTIVISM / INTERPRETIVISM PARADIGM Realities are multiple and 'they exist in peoples ONTOLOGY minds‘.`Constructs (understandings) are not more or less (WHAT) 'true' but 'simply more or less informed and/or sophisticated' . Knowledge is created when the researcher and the EPISTEMOLOGY researched undertake the inquiry. Findings are literally the (PARADIGM OF creation of the process of interaction between the two. KNOWLEDGE) What is true is ‘what makes sense to those being studied and if it allows others to understand or enter the reality of those being studied. Aim is to build a consensus understanding that is more METHODOLOGY sophisticated than previous understandings. ‘Interpretive (HOW) researchers study meaningful social action’ in natural settings. Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 6 INTERPRETIVE RESEARCH (Orlikowski and Baroudi 1991) •  Interpretive studies assume that people create and associate their own subjective and inter subjective meanings as they interact with the world around them. •  Interpretive researchers thus attempt to understand phenomena through accessing the meanings participants assign to them Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia INTERPRETIVE RESEARCH (Walsham 1993) •  Interpretive methods of research start from the position that our knowledge of reality, including the domain of human action, is a social construction by human actors and that this applies equally to researchers. •  Thus there is no objective reality which can be discovered by researchers and replicated by others, in contrast to the assumptions of positivist science. Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia Interpretive View of Data (Geertz 1973) •  What we call our data are really our own constructions of other people’s constructions of what they and their compatriots are up to. Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia POLICY RESEARCH Research that aimed to create alternatives for decision making. Output : Set of alternatives for improvements (organization or public) Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 10 ACTION RESEARCH •  Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals (researchers) working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. •  Action research is part of an important shift in paradigm from the traditional, positivist, science paradigm which arose to bring certainty and verifiability to research questions, to postpositivism / interpretivism which recognizes and tries to address complex human and social problems. Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 11 ACTION / POLICY RESEARCH Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 12 ACTION RESEARCH TOOLS : SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY •  Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is an approach to organisational process modelling and it can be used both for general problem solving and in the management of change. It was developed in England by academics at the University of Lancaster Systems Department through a ten year Action Research programme. •  STAGES : –  Appreciating the unstructured problematical situation –  Understanding the worldviews of the key stakeholders –  Creating root definitions of relevant systems –  Making and testing conceptual models based upon worldviews –  Comparing conceptual models with reality –  Identifying feasible and desirable changes –  Acting to improve the problem situation Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 13 ACTION / POLICY RESEARCH TOOLS : SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 14 ACTION / POLICY RESEARCH TOOLS : SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia 15 Master of Information Technology Program Faculty of Computer Science University of Indonesia THANK YOU for your attention
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