Solid liquid dispersion ppt

ppt on solids liquids and gases and solid liquid gas powerpoint 2nd grade
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Dr.SamuelHunt,United Arab Emirates,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces www.ThesisScientist.comInteractions Between Molecules • Many of the phenomena we observe are related to interactions between molecules that do not involve a chemical reaction, such as taste, smell at the receptor sites in our tongue and nose, fleeting in nature. www.ThesisScientist.comInteractions Between Molecules • Important to scientists are the physical properties of solids, liquids and gas: How can water exists in three states on this planet Why are there solids What holds a liquid together Why are gasses not liquids Why does matter have such different melting and boiling points www.ThesisScientist.comThe Physical States of Matter • Matter can be classified as solid, liquid, or gas based on what properties it exhibits. State Shape Volume Compress Flow Solid Fixed Fixed No No Liquid Indef. Fixed No Yes Gas Indef. Indef. Yes Yes •Fixed = Keeps shape when placed in a container. •Indefinite = Takes the shape of the container. www.ThesisScientist.comStructure Determines Properties • The atoms or molecules have different structures in solids, liquids, and gases, leading to different properties. www.ThesisScientist.comProperties of the States of Matter: Gases • Low densities compared to solids and liquids. • Fluid. The material exhibits a smooth, continuous flow as it moves. • Take the shape of their container(s). • Expand to fill their container(s). • Can be compressed into a smaller volume. www.ThesisScientist.comProperties of the States of Matter: Liquids • High densities compared to gases. • Fluid.  The material exhibits a smooth, continuous flow as it moves. • Take the shape of their container(s). • Keep their volume, do not expand to fill their container(s). • Cannot be compressed into a smaller volume. www.ThesisScientist.comProperties of the States of Matter: Solids • High densities compared to gases. • Nonfluid.  They move as an entire ―block‖ rather than a smooth, continuous flow. • Keep their own shape, do not take the shape of their container(s). • Keep their own volume, do not expand to fill their container(s). • Cannot be compressed into a smaller volume. www.ThesisScientist.comThe Structure of Solids, Liquids, and Gases www.ThesisScientist.comGases • In the gas state, the particles have complete freedom from each other. • The particles are constantly flying around, bumping into each other and their container(s). • In the gas state, there is a lot of empty space between the particles. On average. www.ThesisScientist.comGases, Continued • Because there is a lot of empty space, the particles can be squeezed closer together. Therefore, gases are compressible. • Because the particles are not held in close contact and are moving freely, gases expand to fill and take the shape of their container(s), and will flow. www.ThesisScientist.comLiquids • The particles in a liquid are closely packed, but they have some ability to move around. • The close packing results in liquids being incompressible. • But the ability of the particles to move allows liquids to take the shape of their container and to flow. However, they don’t have enough freedom to escape and expand to fill the container(s). www.ThesisScientist.comSolids • The particles in a solid are packed close together and are fixed in position.  Though they are vibrating. • The close packing of the particles results in solids being incompressible. • The inability of the particles to move around results in solids retaining their shape and volume when placed in a new container, and prevents the particles from flowing. www.ThesisScientist.comSolids, Continued • Some solids have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric pattern. We call these crystalline solids. Salt and diamonds. • Other solids have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range. We call these amorphous solids. Plastic and glass. www.ThesisScientist.comWhy Is Sugar a Solid, But Water Is a Liquid? • The state a material exists in depends on the attraction between molecules and their ability to overcome the attraction. • The attractive forces between ions or molecules depends on their structure.  The attractions are electrostatic.  They depend on shape, polarity, etc. • The ability of the molecules to overcome the attraction depends on the amount of kinetic energy they possess. www.ThesisScientist.comProperties and Attractive Forces Relative strength of attractive Phase Density Shape Volume forces Gas Low Indefinite Indefinite Weakest Liquid High Indefinite Definite Moderate Solid High Definite Definite Strongest www.ThesisScientist.comPhase Changes: Melting • Generally, we convert a material in the solid state into a liquid by heating it. • Adding heat energy increases the amount of kinetic energy of the molecules in the solid. • Eventually, they acquire enough energy to partially overcome the attractive forces holding them in place. • This allows the molecules enough extra freedom to move around a little and rotate. www.ThesisScientist.comPhase Changes: Boiling • Generally, we convert a material in the liquid state into a gas by heating it. • Adding heat energy increases the amount of kinetic energy of the molecules in the liquid. • Eventually, they acquire enough energy to completely overcome the attractive forces holding them together. • This allows the molecules complete freedom to move around and rotate. www.ThesisScientist.comProperties of Liquids: Surface Tension • Liquids tend to minimize their surface—a phenomenon we call surface tension. • This tendency causes liquids to have a surface that resists penetration. • The stronger the attractive force between the molecules, the larger the surface tension. www.ThesisScientist.comSurface Tension • Molecules in the interior of a liquid experience attractions to surrounding molecules in all directions. • However, molecules on the surface experience an imbalance in attractions, effectively pulling them in. • To minimize this imbalance and maximize attraction, liquids try to minimize the number of molecules on the exposed surface by minimizing their surface area. • Stronger attractive forces between the molecules = larger surface tension. www.ThesisScientist.com