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Social Psychology

Social Psychology 32
Chapter 15 Social Psychologyƒƒ ƒƒ Social Thinking Social Psychology scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Attribution Theory tendency to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s dispositionƒƒ ƒƒ Social Thinking Fundamental Attribution Error tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition Attitude belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and eventsƒ Social Thinking Our behavior is affected by our inner attitudes as well as by external social influences Internal External attitudes influences Behaviorƒƒ Social Thinking Attitudes follow behavior Cooperative actions feed mutual likingƒƒƒ ƒƒ Social Thinking FootintheDoor Phenomenon tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Role set of expectations about a social position defines how those in the position ought to behaveƒ ƒ ƒ Social Thinking Cognitive Dissonance Theory we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent example when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudesƒ Social Thinking Cognitive dissonanceƒƒ ƒƒ Social Influence Conformity adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Normative Social Influence influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapprovalƒ Social Influence Asch’s conformity experimentsƒ ƒ Social Influence Informational Social Influence influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about realityƒ Social Influence Milgram’s followup obedience experimentƒ Social Influence Some individuals resist social coercionƒƒƒ ƒƒ Social Influence Social Facilitation improved performance of tasks in the presence of others occurs with simple or welllearned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered Social Loafing tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountableSocial Facilitationƒ ƒ Social Influence Deindividuation loss of selfawareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymityƒƒ ƒƒ Social Influence Group Polarization enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group Groupthink mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides realistic appraisal of alternativesƒ Social Influence If a group is likeminded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinionsƒƒ ƒ Social Relations Prejudice an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory actionƒƒ ƒƒ Social Relations Stereotype a generalized (sometimes accurate, but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its membersƒ Social Relations Does perception change with race ƒ Social Relations Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice ƒƒ ƒƒ Social Relations Ingroup “Us” people with whom one shares a common identity Outgroup “Them” those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroupƒƒƒƒ ƒƒƒ Social Relations Ingroup Bias tendency to favor one’s own group Scapegoat Theory theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame JustWorld Phenomenon tendency of people to believe the world is just people get what they deserve and deserve what they getƒ Social Relations Vivid cases (9/11 terrorists) feed stereotypesƒƒ ƒƒ Social Relations Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy FrustrationAggression Principle principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggressionSocial Relationsƒ Social Relations Men who sexually coerce womenƒƒ ƒƒ Social Relations Conflict perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas Social Trap a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their selfinterest, become caught in mutually destructive behaviorƒ ƒ Social Relations Person 1 Social trap Choose A Choose B by pursuing Optimal outcome our self interest and not trusting others, we can Probable end up losers outcome Person 2 Choose B Choose Aƒ ƒƒ Social Relations Attractiveness Mere Exposure Effect repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them Conceptions of attractiveness vary by cultureƒƒƒ ƒƒ Social Relations Passionate Love an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning of a love relationship Companionate Love deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwinedƒƒƒ ƒƒƒ Social Relations Equity a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it SelfDisclosure revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of othersƒ ƒ Social Relations Bystander Effect tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are presentƒ Social Relations The decisionmaking process for bystander interventionƒƒ ƒƒ Social Relations Social Exchange Theory the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs Superordinate Goals shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperationƒƒ ƒ ƒ Social Relations Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in TensionReduction (GRIT) a strategy designed to decrease international tensions one side announces recognition of mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act opens door for reciprocation by other party