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Introduction to Robotics

Introduction to Robotics 15
Introduction to Robotics Vikram Kapila, Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering      Outline • Definition Types Uses History Key components Applications Future Robotics @ MPCRL  Robot Defined Word robot was coined by a Czech novelist Karel Capek in a 1920 play titled Rassum’s Universal Robots (RUR) Robot in Czech is a word for worker or servant Karel Capek Definition of robot: –Any machine made by by one our members: Robot Institute of America  –A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks: Robot Institute of America, 1979Types of Robots: I ManipulatorTypes of Robots: II Legged Robot Wheeled RobotTypes of Robots: III Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Unmanned Aerial VehicleRobot Uses: I Jobs that are dangerous for humans Decontaminating Robot Cleaning the main circulating pump housing in the nuclear power plantRobot Uses: II Repetitive jobs that are boring, stressful, or labor- intensive for humans Welding RobotRobot Uses: III Menial tasks that human don’t want to do The SCRUBMATE Robot     Laws of Robotics Asimov proposed three “Laws of Robotics” and later added the “zeroth law” Law 0: A robot may not injure humanity or through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law  History of Robotics: I The first industrial robot: UNIMATE 1954: The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol, who coins the term Universal Automation. He later shortens this to Unimation, which becomes the name of the first robot company (1962). UNIMATE originally automated the manufacture of TV picture tubesHistory of Robotics: II 1978: The Puma (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation with a General Motors design support PUMA 560 ManipulatorHistory of Robotics: III 1980s: The robot industry enters a phase of rapid growth. Many institutions introduce programs and courses in robotics. Robotics courses are spread across mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science departments. Barrett Technology Manipulator Adept’s SCARA robots Cognex In-Sight RobotHistory of Robotics: IV 1995-present: Emerging applications in small robotics and mobile robots drive a second growth of start-up companies and research 2003: NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers will launch toward Mars in search of answers about the history of water on Mars Knowledgebase for Robotics Typical knowledgebase for the design and operation of robotics systems –Dynamic system modeling and analysis –Feedback control –Sensors and signal conditioning –Actuators (muscles) and power electronics –Hardware/computer interfacing –Computer programming Disciplines: mathematics, physics, biology, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and computer scienceKey Components Power conversion unit Sensors Actuators Controller User interface Manipulat or linkage BaseRobot Base: Fixed v/s Mobile Robotic manipulators used in Mobile bases are typically manufacturing are examples of platforms with wheels or tracks fixed robots. They can not attached. Instead of wheels or move their base away from the tracks, some robots employ work being done. legs in order to move about.Robot Mechanism Mechanical Elements    Sensors Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell provide us vital information to function and survive Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/condition and its environment and send such information to robot controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position, Accelerometer presence of toxic gas) Using Piezoelectric Effect Robots often need information that is beyond 5 human senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see) Flexiforce SensorVision Sensors Vision Sensor: e.g., to pick bins, perform inspection, etc. In-Sight Vision Sensors Part-Picking: Robot can handle work pieces that are randomly piled by using 3-D vision sensor. Since alignment operation, a special parts feeder, and an alignment pallete are not required, an automatic system can be constructed at low cost.Force Sensors Force Sensor: e.g., parts fitting and insertion, force feedback in robotic surgery Parts fitting and insertion: Robots can do precise fitting and insertion of machine parts by using force sensor. A robot can insert parts that have the phases after matching their phases in addition to simply inserting them. It can automate high- skill jobs.    Proximity Sensors Example Infrared Ranging Sensor KOALA ROBOT 6 ultrasonic sonar transducers to explore wide, open areas Obstacle detection over a wide range from 15cm to 3m 16 built-in infrared proximity sensors (range 5-20cm) Infrared sensors act as a “virtual bumper” and allow for negotiating tight spacesTilt Sensors Tilt sensors: e.g., to balance a robot Example Tilt Sensor Planar Bipedal Robot Actuators/Muscles: I Common robotic actuators utilize combinations of different electro-mechanical devices – Synchronous motor – Stepper motor – AC servo motor – Brushless DC servo motor – Brushed DC servo motor http://www.ab.com/motion/servo/fseries.htmlActuators/Muscles: II Pneumatic Cylinder Hydraulic Motor Stepper Motor DC Motor Pneumatic Motor Muscle Wire Servo MotorController Provide necessary intelligence to control the manipulator/mobile robot  Process the sensory information and compute the control commands for the actuators to carry out specified tasksStorage Hardware Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the control program and the state of the robot system obtained from the sensorsComputation Hardware Computational engine that computes the control commands RoboBoard Robotics Controller BASIC Stamp 2 ModuleInterface Hardware Interface units: Hardware to interface digital controller with the external world (sensors and actuators) Operational Amplifiers Analog to Digital Converter LM358 LM358 LM1458 dual operational amplifier             Robots in Industry Agriculture Automobile Construction Entertainment Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc. Laboratories: science, engineering , etc. Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc. Manufacturing Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc. Mining, excavation, and exploration Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc. Utilities: gas, water, and electric Warehouses        Industrial Applications of Robots Material handling Material transfer Machine loading and/or unloading Material Handling Manipulator Spot welding Continuous arc welding Spray coating Assembly Inspection Assembly Manipulator Spot Welding ManipulatorRobots in Space NASA Space StationRobots in Hazardous Environments HAZBOT operating in TROV in Antarctica atmospheres containing operating under water combustible gases Medical Robots Robotic assistant for micro surgeryRobots in Military PREDATOR SPLIT STRIKE: ISTAR Deployed from a sub’s hull, Manta could dispatch tiny mine-seeking AUVs or engage in more explosive combat. GLOBAL HAWK GOLDENEYERobots at Home Sony Aido Sony SDR-3X Entertainment RobotFuture of Robots: I Artificial Intelligence Cog KismetFuture of Robots: II Autonomy Robot Work Crews Garbage Collection CartFuture of Robots: III Humanoids HONDA Humanoid RobotRobotics @ MPCRL: Remote Robot Arm ManipulationRobotics @ MPCRL: Smart Irrigation SystemRobotics @ MPCRL: RoboDryRobotics @ MPCRL: 4-Legged HexapodRobotics @ MPCRL: Hexapod for Disaster RecoveryRobotics @ MPCRL: Hexapod for Disaster RecoveryRobotics @ MPCRL: Robotic Vacuum CleanerRobotics @ MPCRL: Automated DistinguisherRobotics @ MPCRL: Automated DistinguisherTo Explore Further Visit: http://mechatronics.poly.edu
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