nanophysics and nanotechnology ppt and different types of nanotechnology
Prof. J. Raynien Kwo
Department of Physics
National Tsing Hua University
Feb. 21, 2013
What is the size for a “nano” ?
One (nm) equals to 1/1000000000 (10 ) meter
10 m , Macro
10 m , Micro
10 m , Meso
1 R. Feymann Already Knew about this
“ There’s plenty of
room at the bottom ”
2 Physicists noticed the “Nano ”
as early as …..
• 4th Century, Roman glassmaker: the color of glasses can be
changed by mixing in metal particles
• In 1883, Films containing silver halides for photography were
invented by George Eastman, founder of Koda.k
• 1908, Gustay Mie first provided the explanation of the size
dependence of color.
• Vision from Feynman in 1959: “There is plenty room at the
bottom”, and also recognized there are plenty of nature-given
nanostructures in biological systems.
• 1950-1960, small metal particles were investigated by physicists.
• 1957, Ralph Landauer realized the importance of quantum
mechanics plays in devices with small scales.
• Before 1997 = mesoscopic (or low dimensional) physics :
quantum dots, wells, wires…..are known already.
3 Major Topics of Nanoscience and Technology
Nanoproducts Nano Processing
(Devices and and
4 What is the Nano Technology?
Science and Technology Down scaling to size
Via the “Top-down” lithographic pattering.
Manipulate the atomic and molecular
structures：“Bottom-up” nano materials, growth
Feymann: There’s plenty of room at the bottom
5 Major Driving Force pushing for Nano
Is due to the bottle neck met in Microelectronics
Moore‘s Law :
A 30% decrease in the size of
printed dimensions every two years.
6 Metal-Oxide-Feld Effect Transistor
1960 Kahng and Atalla, First MOSFET
1970 First IC, 1 kbit, 750 khz microprocessor
8 Bottom-up Nano systems & Self-Assembly
enabling of designing large molecules and nano materials
11 The First Lesson :
12 Ex: size-dependence of melting temperature
Ph. Buffat and J-P. Borel, Phys. Rev. A13, 2287 (1976)
13 Ex: size-dependence of color
powered cadmium selenide
14 Ex: size-dependence of magnetism
A. J. Cox et al. Phys. Rev. B49, 12295 (1994)
15 The Second Lesson :
• The ability of growing the nano scale
materials and structures
• The ability of detecting and manipulating
on the nano scale.
16 (I) Advance in thin film growth:
Such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy, atomic layer
depostion, laser MBE, etc…
For Nano electronics in metals, oxides, and
(II) Detection at nano scale : STM, AFM,
MFM, STEM, Cs-TEM
In 1982, Binning, and Rohrer in IBM invented
scanning tunneling microscope.
In 1986, Binning, Quate, and Gerber invented the
atomic force microscope AFM.
17 Integrated MBE Multi-chamber System
Now located in the Nano
Technology Center, ITRI,
Hsin Chu, Taiwan
For Metal, Oxide and
On the Nano scale
18 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)