An introduction to Nanotechnology

nanophysics and nanotechnology ppt and different types of nanotechnology
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AbbieBenson,United States,Professional
Published Date:13-07-2017
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Introduction to Nanophysics Prof. J. Raynien Kwo Department of Physics National Tsing Hua University Feb. 21, 2013 What is the size for a “nano” ? -9 One (nm) equals to 1/1000000000 (10 ) meter -3 10 m , Macro -6 10 m , Micro -9 10 m , Meso 1 R. Feymann Already Knew about this “ There’s plenty of room at the bottom ” in 1959. 2 Physicists noticed the “Nano ” as early as ….. • 4th Century, Roman glassmaker: the color of glasses can be changed by mixing in metal particles • In 1883, Films containing silver halides for photography were invented by George Eastman, founder of Koda.k • 1908, Gustay Mie first provided the explanation of the size dependence of color. • Vision from Feynman in 1959: “There is plenty room at the bottom”, and also recognized there are plenty of nature-given nanostructures in biological systems. • 1950-1960, small metal particles were investigated by physicists. • 1957, Ralph Landauer realized the importance of quantum mechanics plays in devices with small scales. • Before 1997 = mesoscopic (or low dimensional) physics : quantum dots, wells, wires…..are known already. 3 Major Topics of Nanoscience and Technology Nano Materials Nano Science and Technology Nanoproducts Nano Processing (Devices and and Systems) Characterization 4 What is the Nano Technology?  Science and Technology Down scaling to size under100 nm: Via the “Top-down” lithographic pattering. Moore’s law  Manipulate the atomic and molecular structures:“Bottom-up” nano materials, growth and assembly. Feymann: There’s plenty of room at the bottom 5 Major Driving Force pushing for Nano Is due to the bottle neck met in Microelectronics Moore‘s Law : A 30% decrease in the size of printed dimensions every two years. 6 Metal-Oxide-Feld Effect Transistor 1960 Kahng and Atalla, First MOSFET 1970 First IC, 1 kbit, 750 khz microprocessor 8 Bottom-up Nano systems & Self-Assembly enabling of designing large molecules and nano materials 11 The First Lesson : Bulk-to-nano Transition 12 Ex: size-dependence of melting temperature Ag Ph. Buffat and J-P. Borel, Phys. Rev. A13, 2287 (1976) 13 Ex: size-dependence of color powered cadmium selenide larger smaller 14 Ex: size-dependence of magnetism A. J. Cox et al. Phys. Rev. B49, 12295 (1994) 15 The Second Lesson : • The ability of growing the nano scale materials and structures • The ability of detecting and manipulating on the nano scale. 16 (I) Advance in thin film growth: Such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy, atomic layer depostion, laser MBE, etc…  For Nano electronics in metals, oxides, and semiconductors (II) Detection at nano scale : STM, AFM, MFM, STEM, Cs-TEM  In 1982, Binning, and Rohrer in IBM invented scanning tunneling microscope.  In 1986, Binning, Quate, and Gerber invented the atomic force microscope AFM. 17 Integrated MBE Multi-chamber System Now located in the Nano Technology Center, ITRI, Hsin Chu, Taiwan For Metal, Oxide and Semiconductor Films On the Nano scale 18 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) 19