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Convex Lens as Magnifying Glass

Convex Lens as Magnifying Glass
Interference I: Double Slit Physics 2415 Lecture 35 Michael Fowler, UVa Today’s Topics • First: brief review of optical instruments • Huygens’ principle and refraction • Refraction in fiber optics and mirages • Young’s double slit experiment Convex Lens as Magnifying Glass • The object is closer to the lens than the focal point F. To find the virtual image, we take one ray through the h// h d d center (giving ) and one through the focus io io 1 1 1  near the object ( ), again but h// h f f d  i o o d d f oi now the (virtual) image distance is taken negative. h h i i h o F d f d o o f d i Definition of Magnifying Power • M is defined as the ratio of the angular size of the image to the angular size of the object observed with the naked eye at the eye’s near point N, which is h /N. o • If the image is at infinity (“relaxed eye”) the object is at f, the magnification is (h /f )/(h /N) = N/f. (N = 25cm.) o o • Maximum M is for image at N, then M = (N/f ) + 1. h h i i h o F d f d o o f d i Astronomical Telescope: Angular Magnification • An “eyepiece” lens of shorter focal length is added, with the image from lens A in the focal plane of lens B as well, so viewing through B gives an image at infinity. • Tracking the special ray that is parallel to the axis between the lenses (shown in white) the ratio of the angular size image/object, the magnification, is just the ratio of the focal lengths f /f . A B A B f f f f A A B B Simple and Compound Microscopes • The simple microscope is a single convex lens, of very short focal length. The optics are just those of the magnifying glass discussed above. • The simplest compound microscope has two convex lenses: the first (objective) forms a real (inverted) image, the second (eyepiece) acts as a magnifying glass to examine that image. • The total magnification is a product of the two: the eyepiece is N/f , N = 25 cm (relaxed eye) the e objective magnification depends on the distance  between the two lenses, since the image it forms is in the focal plane of the eyepiece. Compound Microscope • Total magnification M = M m . e o • M = N/f e e  f e m • Objective magnification: o df oo d o  f f e e f f o o objective eyepiece This is the real image from the first lens Final virtual image at infinity Huygens’ Principle • Newton’s contemporary • . Christian Huygens believed light Huygens’ picture to be a wave, and pictured its of circular propagation propagation as follows: at any from a point instant, the wave front has source. reached a certain line or curve. From every point on this wave front, a circular wavelet goes Propagation of a plane out (we show one), the wave front. envelope of all these wavelets is the new wave front. Huygens’ Principle and Refraction • Assume a beam of light is • . traveling through air, and at some instant the wave front is at AB, B the beam is entering the glass,  1 A Air  1 corner A first.  D 2 Glass • If the speed of light is c in air, v in C  2 the glass, by the time the wavelet centered at B has reached D, that centered at A has only reached C, the wave front has turned The wave front AB is perpendicular to through an angle. the ray’s incoming direction, CD to the outgoing—hence angle equalities. Snell’s Law • . • If the speed of light is c in air, v in the glass, by the time the wavelet centered at B has reached D, that B centered at A has only reached C,  1 A Air  1 so AC/v = BD/c.  D 2 Glass • From triangle ABD, BD = ADsin . C 1  2 • From triangle ACD, AC = ADsin . 2 • Hence sin BD c 1  n sin AC v 2 The wave front AB is perpendicular to the ray’s incoming direction, CD to the outgoing—hence angle equalities. Fiber Optic Refraction • Many fiber optic cables have a refractive index that smoothly decreases with distance from the central line. • This means, in terms of Huygens’ wave fronts, a wave veering to one side is automatically turned back because the part of the wavefront in the low refractive index region moves faster: The wave is curved back as it meets the “thinner glass” layer Mirages • Mirages are caused by light bending back when it encounters a decreasing refractive index: the hot air just above the desert floor (within a few inches) has a lower n then the colder air above it: This is called an “inferior” mirage: the hot air is beneath the cold air. There are also “superior” mirages in weather conditions where a layer of hot air is above cold air—this generated images above the horizon. (These may explain some UFO sightings.) The wave is curved back by the “thinner air” layer Young’s Double Slit Experiment • We’ve seen how Huygens explained propagation of a plane wave front, wavelets coming from each point of the wave front to construct the next wavefront: • Suppose now this plane wave comes to a screen with two slits: • Further propagation upwards comes only from the wavelets coming out of the two slits… Young’s Own Diagram: This 1803 diagram should look familiar to you It’s the same wave pattern as that for sound from two speakers having the identical steady harmonic sound. BUT: the wavelengths are very different. The slits are at A, B. Points C, D, E, F are antinodes. Flashlet Interference of Two Speakers • Take two speakers Constructive: crests • . producing inphase add together harmonic sound. • There will be constructive interference at any point where the difference in distance from the two speakers is a whole number of wavelengths n, Destructive: crest destructive interference if meets trough, they annihilate it’s an odd number of half wavelengths (n + ½). Interference of Light from Two Slits • The pattern is identical to Waves from slits add constructively at central spot the sound waves from two • . speakers. • However, the wavelength of Flashlet light is much shorter than the distance between slits, First dark place from center: so there are many dark and firstorder minimum bright fringes within very small angles from the d center, so it’s bright where d sin d n Path length difference is half a wave length n is called the order of the (bright) fringe Interference of Light from Two Slits • Typical slit separations are • . less than 1 mm, the screen is meters away, so the light  going to a particular place d on the screen emerges from the slits as two essentially Path length difference is dsin parallel rays. • For wavelength , the phase difference d sin  2 Measuring the Wavelength of Light • For wavelength , the phase difference • .  d sin  2 d  and  is very small in Path length difference is st dsin = d =  for 1 practice, so the firstorder bright band from center. bright band away from the center is at an angle  = /d. First bright band • If the screen is at distance  from center from the slits, and the first x  bright band is x from the center,  = x/, so   = d = xd/ Light Intensity Pattern from Two Slits • We have two equalstrength • . rays, phase shifted by d sin   2  d so the total electric field is Path length difference is E E sint E sint dsin  tot 0 0 11  2Et sin cos  We use the standard trig formula: 0 22 2 A B A B  sinAB  sin 2sin cos  E and the intensity is:  tot 22   d sin  22 I  I 0 cos I 0 cos   Flashlet 2 Actual Intensity Pattern from Two Slits • Even from a single slit, the waves spread out, as we’ll discuss later—the twoslit bands are modulated by the single slit intensity in an actual twoslit experiment.
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