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COMMUNICATION for HEALTH EDUCATION
COMMUNICATION for HEALTH EDUCATION 14
Assistant Prof., Deptt. of Community Medicine
GMCH ChandigarhWhat is communication
• Is it Transfer, Conveying or Exchange
• Communication is derived from ‘communis’
which means COMMONNESS or SHARING.What is Effective Communication
• When a sender elicits an intended response
from his/her receiver, communication is
• When a sender elicits intended response
repeatedly, he/she is not only an effective
communicator but also a successful and
influential communicator.Communication Process
Sender Message Channel Receiver
• Must know:
Audience: interests needs
Channels of communication
• Single person or Group of people
• Controlled audience
• Uncontrolled audienceMessage
• Must be:
In line with the objective(s)
Based on felt needs
Clear and understandable
Specific and accurate
Timely and adequate
Fitting the audience
Culturally and socially acceptableChannel
• Interpersonal communication
• Mass media
• Traditional or folk mediaFeedback
• Flow of information from the audience to
• Opportunity to the sender to modify his
messageObjective of Communication
• To form and establish a relationship
between a sender and a receiver.Steps to achieve the objective
1. Presentation of a stimulus
2. Perception of the stimulus by the receiver
3. Interpretation of the stimulus by the receiver
4. Trial response to the stimulus
5. Perception of the consequences of the trial
6. Re‐interpretation of the consequences, and the
making of further responses
7. Development of a stable stimulus‐response
15Diffusion of InnovationTypes of Communication
• One‐way communication (Didactic method)
• Two‐way communication (Socratic method)
• Verbal communication: direct and non‐direct
• Non‐verbal communication
• Formal and Informal communication
• Visual communication
• Telecommunication and InternetBarriers of Communication
• Physiological barriers
• Psychological barriers
• Environmental barriers
• Cultural barriersHealth Communication
• Raising morale
• Health development
• OrganizationHEALTH EDUCATION
“Health education is the process by which individuals
and group of people learn to “:
• Restore health.• Health education is defined as:
“Any combination of learning experiences designedto facilitate
voluntaryadaptation of behavior conducive to health”.
‐ The word “voluntary”is significant for ethical reasons.
(Educators should not force people to do what they don’t want to
i.e. All efforts should be done to help people make decisions and
have their own choices.
‐ The word “designed”refers to planned, integral, intended
activities rather than casual, incident, trivial experiences.HEALTH EDUCATION
• A process aimed at encouraging people
to want to be healthy,
to know how to stay healthy,
to do what they can individually and collectively to
maintain health, and
to seek help when needed.Aims Objectives
• To encourage people to adopt and sustain health
promoting life styles and practices.
• To promote the proper use of health services
available to them.
• To arouse interest, provide new knowledge, improve
skills and change attitudes in making rational
decisions to solve their own problems,
• To stimulate individual and community self reliance
and participation to achieve health development.Approach to Health Education
1. Regulatory Approach (Managed Prevention)
2. Service Approach
3. Health Education Approach
4. Primary Health Care Approach.
Models of Health Education
• Medical Model
• Motivational Model
• Social Intervention ModelContents of Health Education
1. Human biology
• Understanding health demands an understanding of
– Child spacing, breast feeding, safe motherhood, immunization,
weaning and child growth, diarrheal disease, respiratory
infections, house hygiene
To guide people to choose optimum and balanced diets.
Remove prejudices and promote good dietary habits.
• Personal Hygiene.
• Environmental Hygiene.
– Community.4. Family Health
• Health promotion, Disease prevention, Early diagnosis,
and Care of the sick.
5. Disease prevention and control:
• Education of the people about locally endemic
• Drugs alone can not solve the problem.6. Mental Health:
• To help people to keep mentally healthy and to
prevent a mental breakdown.
• Special situations: mother after child birth, decision
about a future career, starting a new family etc. 7. Prevention of accidents:
• Three main areas: the home, road and the workplace.
• Safety education.8. Uses of health services:
Availability of health services
When to seek medical services.Principles of Health Education
• Consistent and compatible with scientific knowledge,
local culture, educational system.
• Felt‐needs3. Participation:
• Based on the psychological principle of active
• Create a sense of involvement, personal acceptance
and decision making; provides maximum feedback.
• The need for incentives is a first step in learning to
• Carrot Stick approach
• Motivation is contagious.5. Comprehension:
• Always communicate in the language people
8. Learning by doing.9. Known to unknown:
• Start where the people are and with what they
understand and then proceed to new knowledge.
10. Good human relations.
11. Setting an example.12. Leaders:
• Agents of change.
• Try to penetrate the community through the local
leaders.Practice of Health Education
• Audiovisual Aids
Radio, tape‐recorder, microphone, amplifiers, earphones.
Not requiring projection: Chalk‐board, leaflets, posters,
charts, models etc.
Requiring projection: Slides, film strips.
3.Combined A‐V aids
Television, slide‐tape combination.Methods in Health Communication
• Individual approach
• Group approach
• Mass approachIndividual Approach
• Interpersonal communication (IPC)Group Approach
1. Chalk and talk (Lecture)
FlipchartsFlannel graph• Demonstrations
• Group discussion
• Panel discussion
• Role playing
• Conferences and Seminars2. Demonstration
3. Role play4. Group Discussion
Sociogram5. Panel discussion
8. Conferences and SeminarsMass approach
– www.mohfw.nic.in , www.who.int
• Printed material
• Direct mailing
• Posters, billboards and signs
• Health museums and exhibitions
• Folk mediaTHANKS for patience…