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THE AMA HANDBOOK OF BUSINESS WRITINGThis page intentionally left blank The AMA Handbook of Business Writing The Ultimate Guide to Style, Grammar, Usage, Punctuation, Construction, and Formatting KEVIN WILSON and JENNIFER WAUSON AMERICAN MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION New York • Atlanta • Brussels • Chicago • Mexico City • San Francisco Shanghai • Tokyo • Toronto • Washington, D. C.Bulk discounts available. For details visit: www.amacombooks.org/go/specialsales Or contact special sales: Phone: 800-250-5308 Email: specialslsamanet.org View all the AMACOM titles at: www.amacombooks.org This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data AMA handbook of business writing : the ultimate guide to style, grammar, usage, punctuation, construction, and formatting / Kevin Wilson and Jennifer Wauson. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-8144-1589-4 Isbn-10: 0-8144-1589-x 1. Commercial correspondenceHandbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Business writing— Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. English language—Business English—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Wilson, K. (Kevin), 1958– II. Wauson, Jennifer. III. American Management Association. HF5726.A485 1996 808'.06665—dc22 2009050050 © 2010 Kevin Wilson and Jennifer Wauson. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of AMACOM, a division of American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. About AMA American Management Association (www.amanet.org) is a world leader in talent development, advancing the skills of individuals to drive business success. Our mission is to support the goals of individuals and organizations through a complete range of products and services, including classroom and virtual seminars, webcasts, webinars, podcasts, conferences, corporate and government solutions, business books and research. AMA’s approach to improving performance combines experiential learning—learning through doing—with opportunities for ongoing professional growth at every step of one’s career journey. Printing number 10987654321C O NTE NTS INTRODUCTION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS S ECTION 1 The Writing Process Audience Analysis, 3 Proofreading, 19 Brainstorming, 4 Document Review, 22 Research, 7 Revisions, 23 Interviewing, 9 Documenting Sources, 24 Outlining, 10 Footnotes and Endnotes, 24 Writing a Draft, 12 Bibliographies, 26 Business Writing Style, 12 Global Communications, 26 Using Visuals, 13 Collaborative Writing, 28 Page Design, 15 Promotional Writing, 29 Publication Design, 16 Editing, 17 vvi Contents S ECTION 2 The Business Writer’s Alphabetical Reference A, An, 33 A.D., 53 Abbreviations, 33 Adjectival Noun, 53 Titles Before and After Names, 34 Adjectival Opposites, 53 Names, 35 Adjective Phrase, 54 Mathematical Units and Adjectives, 54 Measurements, 35 Placement of Adjectives in a Long Phrases, 36 Sentence, 54 Words Used with Numbers, 36 Use of Multiple Adjectives, 56 Common Latin Terms, 36 Degrees of Adjectives, 56 States and Territories, 39 Irregular Form Adjectives, 57 Things You Should Not Abbreviate, 39 A-Adjectives, 57 Spacing and Periods for Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts, 58 Abbreviations, 39 Adverbial Clause, 59 Guidelines for Using Abbreviations Adverbial Phrase, 59 in Your Writing, 40 Adverbs, 59 Abbreviations for Measurements, 41 Prepositional Phrases Acting as Abbreviations for Numbers, 42 Adverbs, 62 Above, Below, 43 Infinitive Phrases Acting as Adverbs, 62 Absolute Form of an Adjective, 43 Adverbs in a Numbered List, 62 Absolute Phrase, 43 Adverbs to Avoid, 62 Absolutely, 43 Positioning Adverbs in a Sentence, 62 Abstract Nouns, 44 Order of Adverbs, 64 Accent Marks, 44 Inappropriate Adverb Order, 64 Viewpoint Adverbs, 65 Accept, Except, 45 Focus Adverbs, 65 Access, Excess, 45 Negative Adverbs, 65 Acronyms, 45 Advice, Advise, 65 Action Verbs, 46 Affect, Effect, 66 Active Voice, 52Contents vii Affixes, 66 Antonyms, 78 African-American, 66 Any, Either, 78 Age, 67 Any, Some, 78 Agents, 67 Apart, A Part, 79 Agreement, 68 Apodosis, 79 Aid, Aide, 68 Apostrophe, 79 Alike, 96 Appears, Displays, 81 A Little, 264 Appendix, 81 Allegories, 68 Apposition, 82 Alliteration, 69 Appositives, 82 All Right, Alright, 69 Articles, 83 Allusion, Illusion, 69 As, Like, 261 Alone, Lonely, 70 Assure, Insure, Ensure, 184 A Lot, Alot, Allot, 70 Asterisks, 84 Already, All Ready, 71 As to Whether, 84 Altogether, All Together, 71 As Well As, 85 Ambitransitive Verbs, 71 Autoantonyms, 75 American English, British English, 72 Auxiliary Verbs, 85 Among, Between, 91 Average, Mean, Median, 86 Ampersand, 73 A While, Awhile, 87 A.M., P.M., 74 Awful, Awfully, 87 An, 33 Bad, Badly, 88 Anadiplosis, 74 Back-Channeling, 88 Anaphora, 74 Backslash, Slash, 88 And Also, 75 Back up, Backup, 89 And/Or, 75 Base Form of a Verb, 89 Angry, Mad, 268 Basically, Essentially, Totally, 89 Animate Nouns, 75 B.C., 89 Antagonyms, 75 Because, Since, As, 90 Antecedent, 77 Been, Gone, 90 Anti-, 77 Being That, Being As, 90 Antimetabole, 77 Below, 43viii Contents Beside, Besides, 91 Cannot, 105 Between, Among, 91 Can’t Seem, 105 Bias, Biased, 92 Canvas, Canvass, 105 Biased or Sexist Language, 92 Capital Letters, 106 Bibliography, 94 Capital, Capitol, 106 Billion, 94 Capitalization, 106 Acts of Congress, 106 Biweekly, Bimonthly, Semiweekly, Semimonthly, 95 Associations, 107 Book Titles and Their Subdivisions, 107 Blind, 417 Railroad Cars and Automobile Blog, Weblog, 95 Models, 107 Bold Fonts, 96 Churches and Church Dignitaries, 107 Bored, Boring, 96 Cities, 107 Both, Alike, 96 Clubs, 108 Both, Each, 97 Legal Codes, 108 Brackets, 97 Compass Points Designating a Specific Changes to Quoted Material, 97 Region, 108 Digressions within Parentheses, 97 Constitutions, 108 Corporations, 108 Brake, Break, 97 Courts, 109 Brand Names, 98 Decorations, 109 Breath, Breathe, 98 Degrees (Academic), 109 Bring, Take, 99 Districts, 109 British English, 72 Educational Courses, 109 Bulleted List, 99 Epithets, 110 Bushel, 99 Fleets, 110 Business, Right, 100 Foundations, 110 Buzzwords, 100 Geographic Divisions, 110 Government Divisions, 110 By, Bye, Buy, 100 Historical Terms, 110 By, Until, 102 Holidays, 111 Call Back, Callback, 103 Libraries, 111 Call Out, Callout, 103 Localities, 111 Callouts, 103 Military Services, 111 Came By, 104 Nobility and Royalty, 112 Can, May, 104 Oceans and Continents, 112Contents ix Parks, Peoples, and Tribes, 112 Colon, 124 Personification, 112 Emphasis or Anticipation, 125 Planets and Other Heavenly Bodies, 113 Time, 125 Rivers, 113 Titles, 125 Sports Stadiums, Teams, and Terms, 113 Combination, 125 Captions, 113 Comma, 125 Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, 114 Compound and Complex Sentences, 126 Case, 114 Introductory Expressions, 127 Cataphora, 115 Other Transitional Words, 127 Causative Verbs, 116 Prepositional Phrases, 128 Caution Notice, 286 Contrasting Phrases, 128 CD, DVD, 116 Nonrestrictive Modifiers, 128 Censor, Censure, Sensor, Censer, 117 Infinitive Phrases, 129 Champaign, Champagne, 117 Designating Dialogue, 129 Check, Control, 117 Repeated Words, 129 Word Omission, 130 Chiasmus, 118 Transposed Adjective Order, 130 Chicano, Latino, Hispanic, 118 Numbers, 130 Choose, Chose, 118 Addresses, 131 Cite, Site, Sight, 119 Titles, 131 Citing Publications, 119 Company Names, 132 Clauses, 120 Common Adjectives, 132 Cleanup, Clean Up, 120 Common Nouns, 132 Cleft Sentences, 120 Company and Product Names, 133 Clichés, 121 Comparatives, 133 Click, 333 Compared to, Compared with, 134 Click and Drag, 279 Complement, Compliment, 134 Click On, 279 Complements, 134 Closed Compounds, 138 Complex Prepositions, 135 Coleman-Liau Index, 123 Compound Nouns, 135 Collective Adjectives, 123 Compound Predicates, 326 Collective Nouns, 123 Compound Sentences, 136 Collocations, 124 Compounding Sentence Elements, 136 Colloquial, 124x Contents Compound Words, 137 Could of, Might of, 272 Open Compounds, 137 Council, Counsel, Consul, 151 Closed Compounds, 138 Count Nouns, 152 Hyphenated Compounds, 138 Credible, Credulous, 152 Comptroller, Controller, 139 Cross-Reference, 152 Concord, 139 Cut-and-Paste, 152 Concrete Nouns, 139 Danger Notice, 286 Conditional Perfect, 139 Dangling Modifiers, 153 Conditionals, 140 Characteristics of Dangling Conjunctions, 141 Modifiers, 153 And, 141 Revising Dangling Modifiers, 154 But, 142 Dangling Participles, 154 Or, 142 Dash, 155 Punctuation for Coordinating Data, 156 Conjunctions, 143 Dates, 156 Other Conjunctions, 144 Deaf or Hard of Hearing, 157 Subordinating Conjunctions, 145 Deal, 158 Correlative Conjunctions, 145 Decimals, 158 Conjunctive Adverbs, 146 Declarative Mood, 159 Conjuncts, 146 Declarative Sentence, 159 Connote, Denote, 146 Defining Relative Clause, 160 Considered to Be, 146 Definite Article, 160 Consonants, 147 Defuse, Diffuse, 160 Continuous Verbs, 147 Degree Adverbs, 161 Contractions, 147 Degree Titles, 161 Contranyms, 75 Deixis, 162 Control, 117 Demonstrative Adjectives, 162 Convince, Persuade, 150 Demonstrative Pronouns, 162 Cooperate, 150 Denominal Adjectives, 163 Coordinated Adjectives, 54 Denote, Connote, 146 Coordinating Conjunctions, 150 Dependent Clauses, 163 Copula Verbs, 150 Descriptive Writing, 164 Copyright, 151 Desert, Dessert, 164 Correlative Conjunction, 145Contents xi Determiners, 164 Each Other, One Another, 178 Device, Devise, 166 Each, Their, 178 Diacritic, 166 Effect, Affect, 66 Different from, Different than, 166 Eggcorn, 178 Diffuse, Defuse, 160 e.g., i.e., 179 Dimensions, 167 Either, Neither, 179 Direct Objects, 167 Elicit, Illicit, 179 Disability, 214 Ellipses, 179 Disc, Disk, 168 Elliptical Clauses, 180 Discreet, Discrete, 168 Email, 180 Disease Names, 168 Embedded Questions, 181 Disjuncts, 169 Em Dash, 155 Display, Monitor, Screen, 169 Emigrate, Immigrate, 181 Disyllabic, 169 Eminent, Imminent, Immanent, 182 Ditransitive Verbs, 169 Emoticons, 182 Ditto Marks, 170 Empathic Forms, 182 Do, Does, Did, 170 Empathy, Sympathy, 183 Dollars and Cents, 171 En Dash, 155 Dollar and Cent Signs, 172 Endnotes, 203 Decimal Points, 173 End Result, 183 Don’t, Doesn’t, 173 Endophora, 183 Do’s and Don’ts, 174 Engine, Motor, 183 Dot-Com, 174 Enough, Not Enough, 184 Double Negatives, 174 Enquire, Inquire, 184 Double Possessives, 175 Ensure, Assure, Insure, 184 Double-Click, 175 Enthuse, Enthusiastic, 184 Download, Upload, 175 Entitled, 399 Downtoners, 175 Envelop, Envelope, 185 Drag-and-Drop, 176 Epanadiplosis, 185 Due to the Fact That, 176 Epanalepsis, 185 DVD, 116 Epistemic Modality, 185 Dynamic Adjectives, 177 Epistrophe, 186 Dynamic Verbs, 177 Epizeuxis, 186xii Contents Equally as Important, 186 Figuratively, 264 Equations, 186 Figure of Speech, 198 Ergative Verbs, 187 Figures, 199 Essentially, 89 Finite Verbs, 200 et al., 188 First Conditional, 200 etc., 188 Fix, Situation, 200 Euphemisms, 189 Flair, Flare, 201 Everyday, 189 Flesch-Kincaid Index, 201 Everyone, Every One, 189 Flier, Flyer, 201 Every Time, 189 Focus Adverb, 201 Except, Unless, 190 Fog Index, 202 Excess, Access, 45 Font, Typeface, 202 Exclamation Point, 190 Foot, Feet, 203 Exclamatory Sentence, 191 Footnotes, Endnotes, 203 Exclusive Adverbs, 191 Forego, Forgo, 203 Existential There, 191 Foreign Words and Phrases, 203 Exit, 344 Forever, For Ever, 204 Exophoric, 192 For, Fore, Four, 204 Expect, 192 Formatting, 204 Expletive Constructions, 193 Formulas, 205 Expository Writing, 193 Forward, Forwards, Foreword, 205 Extranet, 243 Fractions, 206 Extraposition, 194 Fragments, 362 Factitive Verbs, 195 Full Time, Full-time, 206 Faint, 197 Further, 196 Fair, Fare, 195 Fused Sentences, 207 FANBOYS, 196 Future Perfect, 208 Farther, Further, 196 Future Perfect Progressive, 208 Faze, Phase, 196 Future Progressive, 208 Feint, Faint, 197 Gage, Gauge, 209 Female, Woman, 198 Gender, 209 Fewer, Less, 259 Genitive Marker, 209 Few, A Few, 198 Gerund, 210Contents xiii Gigabyte, 210 Hypophora, 229 Gigahertz, 211 Hypothetical Questions, 229 Glossary, 211 Hysteron Proteron, 229 Gone, Went, 212 Idiolect, 230 Good, Well, 212 Idioms, 230 Got, Gotten, 212 i.e., e.g., 179 Grammatical Hierarchy, 213 If, When, Whether, 230 Gray, Grey, 213 Illicit, Elicit, 179 Guess, 213 Illusion, Allusion, 69 Handicap, Disability, 214 Illustrations, 199 Hard Disk, Hard Drive, 214 I, Me, Myself, 231 Headings and Subheadings, 214 Immanent, Eminent, 182 Helping Verbs, 261 Immigrate, Emigrate, 181 Hendiatris, 216 Imperative Mood, 233 Heteronyms, 217 Imply, Infer, 233 Highlighting, 221 Inanimate Nouns, 233 Hispanic, Latino, Chicano, 118 Inaugurate, 234 Hit, 222 Inchoative Verbs, 234 Homographs, 222 Indefinite Articles, 234 Homonyms, 222 Indefinite Pronouns, 234 Homophones, 224 Independent Clauses, 235 Hypallage, 224 Index, 236 Hyperbaton, 224 Indicative Mood, 238 Hyperbole, 224 Indirect Objects, 238 Hyperlinks, 225 Indirect Speech, 239 Hyphens, 225 Inductive Antonomasia, 239 Line Breaks, 225 Infinitives, 239 Substitute Words, 226 Infinitive Phrase, 240 Pronunciation, 226 Inflection, 241 Compound Adjectives, 226 Inherent and Noninherent Hyphenated Compound Words, 227 Adjectives, 241 Hyphenated Numbers, 228 Initialisms, Acronyms, 45 Hyponyms, 229 Innuendo, 242xiv Contents In Order to, 242 Latitude, Longitude, 255 Inquire, Enquire, 184 Lay, Lie, 256 In-Sentence Lists, 262 Lay Out, Layout, 257 Inside of, Within, 242 Lead, Led, 258 Insure, Ensure, Assure, 184 Learn, Teach, 258 Intensive Pronouns, 243 Leave, Let, 259 Interjections, 243 Led, Lead, 258 Internet, Intranet, Extranet, 243 Lend, Loan, 265 Interrogative Pronouns, 244 Lessen, Lesson, 259 Interrogative Sentences, 245 Less, Fewer, 259 Intranet, 243 Let, Leave, 269 Intransitive Verbs, 245 Lets, Let’s, 260 Introductory Modifier, 327 Lexical Density, 260 Invite, 246 Liable, Likely, 260 Irony, 246 Lie, Lay, 256 Irregular Plurals, 246 Lighted, Lit, 261 Irregular Spelling, 246 Like, As, 261 Irregular Verbs, 248 Line, 261 Isocolon, 248 Linking Verbs, 261 Italics, 249 Lists, 262 In-Sentence Lists, 262 Its, It’s, 249 Vertical Lists, 263 Jargon, 250 Numbered Lists, 263 Job Titles, 250 Bulleted Lists, 264 Joint Possessives, 250 Multicolumn Lists, 264 Jr., Sr., 251 Literally, Figuratively, 264 Kenning, 252 Lit, Lighted, 261 Keyboard Terminology, 252 Litotes, 264 Kilobyte, 253 Little, A Little, 264 Kilohertz, 254 Loan, Lend, 265 Kind, Kinds, 254 Log On, Log Off, Logon, Logoff, 265 Kind of, Sort of, 254 Lonely, Alone, 70 Latino, Hispanic, Chicano, 118 Longitude, Latitude, 255 Latin Terms, 36Contents xv Loose, Lose, 266 Monosyllabic, 277 Lost, Lost Out, 266 Mood, 277 Lots, 267 More Than, Over, 278 Mad, Angry, 268 Morpheme, 278 Margin Notes, 268 Most of All, Almost, 278 Mass Nouns, 268 Motor, Engine, 183 Mathematical Equations, 186 Mouse Terminology, 279 Maybe, May Be, 269 Multicolumn Lists, 264 May, Can, 269 Myself, Me, 231 May, Might, 269 Names, 341 Mean, Median, Average, 86 Negative Adverbs, 280 Megabyte, 270 Negative Formations, 280 Megahertz, 270 Negative Pronouns, 282 Meiosis, 271 Neither, Either, 179 Me, Myself, I, 231 Neologism, 283 Metaphor, 271 Never, 283 Metonymy, 272 Nominal Adjectives, 283 Mfr., Mfg., 272 Nominative Absolutes, 284 Might Could, 272 Nominative Case, 114 Might, May, 269 Nominative Possessives, 284 Might of, Should of, Would of, Noncount Nouns, 268 Could of, 272 Nondefining Relative Clause, 285 Minimal Pairs, 272 Nonfinite Verbs, 285 Misplaced Modifiers, 273 Noninherent Adjectives, 241 Mixed Conditionals, 273 Nonrestrictive Clauses, 286 Mixed Metaphor, 271 Notices, 286 Mnemonics, 274 Noun Case, 287 Modifiers, 274 Noun Clause, 288 Initial Modifiers, 275 Noun Phrase, 288 Midsentence Modifiers, 276 Noun Plurals, 290 Terminal Modifiers, 276 Nouns, 290 Combining Modifiers, 276 Nouns of Address, 291 Misplaced Modifiers, 276 Number Abbreviations, 48 Monitor, 169xvi Contents Paragraph Transitions, 304 Numbered List, 292 Parallel Construction, 304 Numbers or Words, 292 Printed Text and Prose Text, 292 Paraphrasing, 304 At the Beginning of a Sentence, 293 Parentheses, 305 Legal Documents, 293 Parenthetical Elements, 306 Round Numbers, 293 Participle, 306 Sets of Numbers, 293 Participial Phrase, 306 Large Numbers, 294 Parts of Speech, 307 Separating Digits, 294 Party, 307 Object, 296 Passed, Past, 307 Object Complement, 134 Passive Voice, 308 Objective Case, 376 Past Perfect Progressive Tense, 309 Off, 297 Past Perfect Tense, 309 Offline, 298 Past Progressive Tense, 309 On Account of, 297 Past Simple Tense, 310 One, 297 People, 310 One Another, Each Other, 178 Per, 310 Online, Offline, 298 Percent, 310 Only, 299 Percentage, 311 Onomatopoeia, 299 Perfect Aspect, 311 Open, 299 Perfect Infinitive, 239 Open Compounds, 137 Perfect Tense, 312 Ordinal Numbers, 299 Period, 312 Over, More Than, 278 Person, 313 Oxford Comma, 300 Personal Pronouns, 313 Oxymoron, 300 Personification, 315 Page Breaks, 301 Persuade, Convince, 150 Page Numbering, 301 Phase, Faze, 196 Page Number Formats, 301 Phatic Speech, 315 Palindromes, 302 Phrasal Verbs, 316 Paragraphs, 302 Phrases, 316 Elements of a Paragraph, 302 Phrases and Words to Omit, 317 Paragraph Development, 303 When to Start a New Paragraph, 304 Pidgin, 318Contents xvii Plagiarism, 318 Present Progressive Tense, 332 Pleonasm, 318 Present Simple Tense, 333 Pluperfect, 309 Press, Type, Click, Strike, Hit, Select, 333 Plurals, 319 Previous, 334 Plurals of Numbers, 321 Principal, Principle, 334 Plus, 321 Problem Pronouns, 334 I: Nominative Case, Never an P.M., 74 Object, 335 Point in Time, 322 She, He: Nominative Case, Never an Polyptoton, 322 Object, 335 Polyseme, 322 They: Nominative Case, Never an Polysyllabic, 322 Object,335 Possessive Adjectives, 322 We: Nominative Case, Never an Object, 336 Possessive Case, 114 Me, Us, Her, Him, Them: Objective Case, Possessive Pronouns, 323 Never a Subject, 336 Possessives, 323 Proceed, Precede, 324 Posted, Informed, 324 Progressive Verbs, 337 Postmodifier, 324 Pronouns, 338 Precede, Proceed, 324 Pronouns and Antecedent Predeterminers, 325 Agreement, 339 Predicates, 325 Proper Adjectives, 341 Preface, 326 Proper Nouns, 341 Prefixes, 326 Protatis, 341 Premodifier, 327 Quantifiers, 342 Prepositional Phrase, 327 Question Mark, 342 Prepositions, 328 Question Types, 343 Time: At, On, In, For, and Since, 328 Quitclaim, 344 Place: At, On, In, 329 Quit, Exit, 344 Location: At, On, In, 329 Quotation Marks, 344 Movement: To, Toward, 330 Quotations within Quotations, 345 Combinations, 330 Quotations for Titles, 345 Present Infinitive, 239 Quotation Marks and Punctuation, 345 Present Participle, 332 Raise, Rise, 347 Present Perfect Tense, 332 Rational, Rationale, 347xviii Contents Real, 347 Sensor, Censor, 117 Reciprocal Pronouns, 348 Sentence, 362 Recur, Reoccur, 348 Sentence Fragments, 362 Redundancy, 348 Sentence Subject, 363 Reflexive Pronouns, 349 Sentence Types, 364 Regard, Regards, 350 Sentence Variety, 365 Regular Verbs, 350 Setup, Set Up, 367 Relative Adverbs, 351 Sexist Language, 407 Relative Clauses, 351 Shall, Will, 367 Relative Pronouns, 352 Shape, 368 Reoccur, 348 Should, Must, 368 Reported Speech, 353 Should of, 272 Restrictive Clauses, 353 Should, Would, 368 Resultative Adjective, 354 Shut Down, Shutdown, 369 Resumptive Modifier, 354 Sic, 369 Rhetorical Question, 354 Sign In, Sign Out, Sign On, Sign Up, 370 Rhyme, 355 Simile, 370 Right, Business, 100 Since, Because, 90 Right-click, 279 Singular, 370 Rise, Raise, 347 Sit, Set, 370 Roman Numerals, 355 Site, Sight, Cite, 119 Root, Rout, Route, 357 Slang, 371 Run, 357 Slash, 371 And/Or Combinations, 371 Run-On Sentences, 207 Indicating Other Relationships, 372 Same, 358 Small Caps, 373 Sarcasm, 358 So, 373 Satire, 358 Software Menus and Commands, 373 Screen, 169 Solidus, 374, 371 Screen Terminology, 359 Some, Any, 78 Second Conditional, 361 Sometime, Some Time, 374 Select, 333 Sort of, Kind of, 254 Semicolon, 361 Spaces After Periods, 374 Semiweekly, Semimonthly, 95Contents xix Split Infinitive, 374 Than I, Than Me, 395 Sr., Jr., 251 Than, Then, 396 Stative Adjective, 375 That, Which, 396 Stative Verb, 338 There, Their, They’re, 397 Subheadings, 214 Third Conditional, 397 Subject, 375 Time, 398 Dates, 398 Subject Complement, 134 Time Zones, 399 Subjective Case, 376 Titled, Entitled, 399 Subjective Pronouns, 376 Titles, 400 Subject-Verb Agreement, 376 Formatting the Title of a Subject-Verb Inversion, 380 Manuscript, 400 Subjunctive, 380 Tmesis, 401 Submittal, Submission, 381 To, At, 401 Subordinate Clause, 381 Tone, 401 Subordinating Conjunctions, 382 Topic Sentence, 402 Suffix, 382 Totally, 89 Summative Modifier, 385 Toward, Towards, 402 Superlative, 385 Transitions, 402 Syllable, 385 Transitional Expressions, 403 Symbols and Special Characters, 386 Repeating Key Words, 404 Sympathy, Empathy, 183 Pronoun Reference, 404 Synecdoche, 387 Parallelism, 405 Synonyms, 387 Transitive Verb, 405 Table of Contents, 388 Try and, Come and, Be Sure and, 405 Tables, 390 Type, Enter, 406 Tag Question, 391 Typeface, Font, 202 Take, Bring, 99 Unbiased Language, 407 Tautology, 391 Sexist Language, 407 Teach, Learn, 258 Uncountable Noun, 408 Telephone Numbers, 392 Underlining, 409 Temperature, 392 Understatement, 409 Tense, 393 Until, By, 102 Terabyte, 395 Upload, Download, 175