Business Analysis investigation techniques

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Cadle, Paul, Turner BUSINESS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES business-analysis-techniques-artwork-ma_Layout 1 20/01/2010 11:34 Page 1 BUSINESS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 72 Essential Tools for Success BUSINESS James Cadle, Debra Paul and Paul Turner Business Analysis is the discipline of identifying business needs ANALYSIS A master class in and formulating workable solutions to business problems. The linking theory to development of business analysis as a profession has extended the role and responsibilities of the business analyst who now practice. Full of tips needs the widest possible array of knowledge, skills and tools to and examples that will be able to use each when and where it is needed. This excellent TECHNIQUES book provides a comprehensive single source of 72 possible lead to a significant techniques and applies them within a framework of stages. improvement in the 72 Essential Tools � 72 key techniques quality of Business � Practical advice to suit all situations Analysis. Put your � Of huge benefit to business analysts and managers for Success � Of great value to students of information systems and name in this book business strategy before someone ABOUT THE AUTHORS ‘borrows it’ James Cadle, James Cadle has been involved in the field of business systems James Archer for over thirty years. Debra Paul jointly edited the best-selling BCS Debra Paul and Business Analyst of the Year 2009 publication Business Analysis (2006). Paul Turner specialises in the provision of training and consultancy in the areas of Business Paul Turner Analysis and Business Change. You might also be interested in: BUSINESS ANALYSIS Second Edition Debra Paul, Donald Yeates and James Cadle (Editors) Business ManagementBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page i BUSINESS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 72 Essential Tools for SuccessBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page ii BCS THE CHARTERED INSTITUTE FOR IT BCS, The Chartered Institute for IT, (COMAS) promotes wider social and economic progress through the advancement of information technology, science and practice. We bring together industry, academics, practitioners and government to share knowledge, promote new thinking, inform the design of new curricula, shape public policy and inform the public. As the professional membership and accreditation body for IT, we serve over 70,000 members including practitioners, academics and students, in the UK and internationally. A leading IT qualification body, we offer a range of widely recognised professional and end-user qualifications. Joining BCS BCS qualifications, products and services are designed with your career plans in mind. We not only provide essential recognition through professional qualifications but also offer many other useful benefits to our members at every level. BCS Membership demonstrates your commitment to professional development. It helps to set you apart from other IT practitioners and provides industry recognition of your skills and experience. Employers and customers increasingly require proof of professional qualifications and competence. Professional membership confirms your competence and integrity and sets an independent standard that people can trust. Professional Membership (MBCS) is the pathway to Chartered IT Professional (CITP) Status. www.bcs.org/membership Further Information BCS The Chartered Institute for IT, First Floor, Block D, North Star House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1FA, United Kingdom. T +44 (0) 1793 417 424 F +44 (0) 1793 417 444 www.bcs.org/contactBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page iii BUSINESS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 72 Essential Tools for Success James Cadle, Debra Paul and Paul TurnerBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page iv © 2010 James Cadle, Debra Paul and Paul Turner The right of James Cadle, Debra Paul and Paul Turner to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted by him/her in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted by the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, except with the prior permission in writing of the publisher, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries for permission to reproduce material outside those terms should be directed to the publisher. All trade marks, registered names etc acknowledged in this publication are the property of their respective owners. BCS and the BCS logo are the registered trade marks of the British Computer Society charity number 292786 (BCS). Published by British Informatics Society Limited (BISL), a wholly owned subsidiary of BCS The Chartered Institute for IT, First Floor, Block D, North Star House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1FA, UK. www.bcs.org ISBN 978-1-906124-23-6 British Cataloguing in Publication Data. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available at the British Library. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this book are of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of BCS or BISL except where explicitly stated as such. Although every care has been taken by the authors and BISL in the preparation of the publication, no warranty is given by the authors or BISL as publisher as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained within it and neither the authors nor BISL shall be responsible or liable for any loss or damage whatsoever arising by virtue of such information or any instructions or advice contained within this publication or by any of the aforementioned. Typeset by Lapiz Digital Services, Chennai, India. Printed at CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham, UK. ivBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page v CONTENTS List of figures and tables vii Authors xi List of abbreviations xii Alphabetical list of techniques xiv Preface xix 1 BUSINESS STRATEGY AND OBJECTIVES 1 Introduction 1 Strategy analysis – external business environment 3 Strategy analysis – internal capability 9 Strategy definition 14 Strategy implementation 17 Performance measurement 21 References 24 Further reading 24 2 INVESTIGATE SITUATION 25 Introduction 25 Qualitative investigation 26 Quantitative investigation 42 Documenting the results 53 References 59 Further reading 60 3 CONSIDER PERSPECTIVES 61 Introduction 61 Stakeholder identification 63 Stakeholder analysis 66 Stakeholder management 81 References 90 Further reading 90 4 ANALYSE NEEDS 91 Introduction 91 Organisation modelling 92 Business process analysis 101 Business change identification 118 References 121 Further reading 122 vBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page vi CONTENTS 5 EVALUATE OPTIONS 123 Introduction 123 Identify options 124 Shortlist options 125 Prepare business case 133 Present business case 151 References 155 Further reading 155 6 DEFINE REQUIREMENTS 157 Introduction 157 Requirements elicitation 160 Requirements analysis 173 Requirements development 184 Requirements modelling 205 References 227 Further reading 227 7 MANAGE CHANGE 229 Introduction 229 Organisational change 230 People change 237 Benefits management and realisation 244 References 250 Further reading 251 Postscript – which techniques do I really need? 253 Index 257 viBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page vii LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1.1 Porter’s Five Forces framework 6 Figure 1.2 Resource Audit 11 Figure 1.3 The Boston Box 13 Figure 1.4 SWOT analysis 14 Figure 1.5 Ansoff’s matrix 16 Figure 1.6 The McKinsey 7-S model 18 Figure 1.7 The four-view model 20 Figure 1.8 Balanced Business Scorecard 23 Figure 2.1 The main stages of interviewing 26 Figure 2.2 The structure of an interview 27 Figure 2.3 Workshop process 30 Figure 2.4 The elements of a questionnaire 43 Figure 2.5 Activity sampling sheet (completed) 47 Figure 2.6 Sampling analysis summary sheet 48 Figure 2.7 Special-purpose record for complaints handling 50 Figure 2.8 Detailed weekly timesheet 51 Figure 2.9 Example of a document specification form 52 Figure 2.10 Example rich picture (of a sales organisation) 54 Figure 2.11 Example of a mind map 56 Figure 2.12 Context diagram 58 Figure 3.1 The stakeholder wheel 65 Figure 3.2 Power/interest grid 67 Figure 3.3 Extended power/interest grid 68 Figure 3.4 Business Activity Model for a high-street clothing retailer 78 Figure 3.5 RASCI chart 79 Figure 3.6 Thomas–Kilmann conflict mode instrument 85 Figure 4.1 Systemic analysis approach 91 Figure 4.2 Types of value proposition 94 Figure 4.3 Porter’s value chain 95 Figure 4.4 Partial value chain of primary activities – example 97 Figure 4.5 Value chain for an examination body 98 Figure 4.6 Organisation Diagram showing external environment 99 Figure 4.7 Completed Organisation Diagram 100 Figure 4.8 Context diagram supporting event identification 103 Figure 4.9 Business process notation set 106 Figure 4.10 Business process model with detailed steps 109 Figure 4.11 Business process model showing rationalised steps 109 Figure 4.12 Decision table structure 113 Figure 4.13 Example decision tree 117 viiBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page viii LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 5.1 The process for evaluating options 123 Figure 5.2 Options identification 125 Figure 5.3 Shortlisting options 126 Figure 5.4 Incremental options 127 Figure 5.5 Elements of feasibility 128 Figure 5.6 Force-field analysis 132 Figure 5.7 Types of cost and benefit 134 Figure 6.1 Storyboard for a travel agent 166 Figure 6.2 Hothousing process 173 Figure 6.3 Outer and inner timeboxes 174 Figure 6.4 Example of the structure of a typical timebox 177 Figure 6.5 Example requirements catalogue entry 189 Figure 6.6 Links between requirements and other development elements 204 Figure 6.7 Basic elements of a use case diagram 206 Figure 6.8 Additional use case notation 207 Figure 6.9 Use case description for ‘Assign resources’ 210 Figure 6.10 Examples of entities 212 Figure 6.11 One-to-many relationship between entities 212 Figure 6.12 Optional relationship 213 Figure 6.13 Many-to-many relationship 213 Figure 6.14 Resolved many-to-many relationship 213 Figure 6.15 Extended data model 214 Figure 6.16 Recursive relationship 214 Figure 6.17 Many-to-many recursive relationship 215 Figure 6.18 Exclusive relationship 215 Figure 6.19 Separated exclusive relationship 216 Figure 6.20 Named relationships 216 Figure 6.21 Subtypes and super-types 217 Figure 6.22 Example entity relationship model 218 Figure 6.23 Partial library model 218 Figure 6.24 An object class 220 Figure 6.25 Association between classes 221 Figure 6.26 Association class 222 Figure 6.27 Additional linked classes 223 Figure 6.28 Reflexive relationship 223 Figure 6.29 Generalisation 224 Figure 6.30 Example class model 225 Figure 7.1 Johnson and Scholes’s cultural web 233 Figure 7.2 Kurt Lewin’s model of organisational change 236 Figure 7.3 The SARAH model of change 238 Figure 7.4 Kolb’s learning cycle 240 Figure 7.5 Honey and Mumford’s learning styles 241 Figure 7.6 Conscious competence model 243 Figure 7.7 Benefits map 245 Figure 7.8 Bar chart showing changes and benefits against timeline 246 Figure 7.9 Benefits realisation approach 249 viiiBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page ix LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Table 3.1 Example of a stakeholder management plan 84 Table 4.1 Examples of business events 104 Table 4.2 Example hierarchical numbering system 108 Table 4.3 Condition stub in a decision table 113 Table 4.4 Decision table condition entries – one condition 114 Table 4.5 Decision table condition entries – two conditions 114 Table 4.6 Decision table condition entries – three conditions 114 Table 4.7 Action stub in a decision table 115 Table 4.8 Decision table with two conditions 115 Table 4.9 Decision table with three conditions 115 Table 4.10 Decision table with rationalised conditions 116 Table 4.11 Decision table with exclusive conditions 117 Table 4.12 Extended-entry decision table 117 Table 5.1 Payback or breakeven analysis 148 Table 5.2 Discounted cash flow / net present value calculation 149 Table 6.1 Scenario analysis by user population 163 Table 6.2 Scenario analysis by environment 163 Table 6.3 Scenario analysis by frequency of use 163 Table 6.4 Content of a typical requirements specification 185 Table 6.5 Considerations for verification and validation 193 Table 6.6 Example of a CRUD matrix (partial) 226 ixBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xi AUTHORS James Cadle has been involved in the field of business systems for over thirty years, first with London Transport, then with Sema Group and most recently with Assist Knowledge Development, of which he is a director. He has conducted methods studies and business improvement projects, and has led teams developing and maintaining corporate IT systems. James presents training courses in business analysis, consultancy skills and project management to a variety of public- and private-sector clients, as well as contributing to various publications. He is a Chartered Member of BCS and a member of the Association for Project Management. Debra Paul is the Managing Director of Assist Knowledge Development. Debra has extensive knowledge and experience of business analysis, business process improvement and business change. She was joint editor and author of the bestselling BCS publication, Business Analysis. Debra is a Chartered Fellow of the BCS. She is a regular speaker at business seminars and organisational forums. Debra is a founder member of the BA Management Forum, a group that has been formed to advance the business analysis profession and develop the BA internal consultant role. Paul Turner is a director of Business & IS Skills and of Assist Knowledge Development. He specialises in the provision of training and consultancy in the areas of business analysis and business change. He is an SFIA (Skills Framework for the Information Age) accredited consultant, and contributed the skills components related to business analysis in the latest release of this competency framework. Paul has a particular interest in the way the job role of the business analyst changes in an Agile development environment. He is a Fellow of BCS and has worked extensively with a range of organisations to raise the profile of professionalism within the business analysis discipline. xiBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BA business analyst BAM Business Activity Model BATNA Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement BBS Balanced Business Scorecard CASE computer-aided software engineering CATWOE customer, actor, transformation, Weltanschauung or world view, owner and environment (analysis) CBA cost–benefit analysis CRUD (matrix) create, read, update and delete (matrix) CSF critical success factor DCF discounted cash flow ERM entity relationship model HR human resources IRR internal rate of return IT information technology JAD Joint Application Development (workshop – IBM) KPI key performance indicator MoSCoW must have, should have, could have, want to have but won’t have this time MOST mission, objectives, strategy and tactics (analysis) (analysis) NPV net present value PESTLE political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal and (analysis) environmental (or ecological) (analysis) PIR post-implementation review xiiBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xiii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS RASCI responsible, accountable, supportive, consulted and informed (charts) ROI return on investment SARAH shock, anger, rejection, acceptance and hope (model) (model) SSADM Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method STROBE STRuctured Observation of the Business Environment SWOT strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (analysis) UML Unified Modeling Language xiiiBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xiv ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES Names and numbers of techniques in standard type indicate the main name that has been used in the book. Techniques shown in italics and with suffixes on the numbers (for example, 17c) indicate an alias or variant on the main name. Number Chapter Page Name 58 6 188 Acceptance criteria definition 17a 2 46 Activity sampling 7a 1 16 Ansoff’s Box 71 16 Ansoff’s matrix 29b 3 78 ARCI charts 24b 3 63 Background reading 24 3 63 Background research 12 1 22 Balanced Business Scorecard 28a 3 75 Business Activity Model (BAM) 44a 5 133 Benefit–cost analysis (BCA) 71 7 244 Benefits management 72 7 248 Benefits realisation 51 12 Boston Box 5a 1 12 Boston Consulting Group matrix 5b 1 12 BCG matrix 28 3 75 Business activity modelling 49 5 154 Business case presentation 48 5 151 Business case report creation 36 4 101 Business event analysis 37 4 105 Business process modelling 36b 4 101 Business process triggers xivBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xv ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES Number Chapter Page Name 38 4 110 Business rules analysis 27 3 71 CATWOE 64 6 219 Class modelling 21c 2 55 Concept maps 28b 3 75 Conceptual model 70 7 242 Conscious competence model 38a 4 110 Constraints analysis 22 2 57 Context diagram 44 5 133 Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) 10 1 21 Critical success factors 65 6 225 CRUD matrix 66 7 230 Cultural analysis 39 4 112 Decision tables and decision trees 19 2 51 Document analysis 63a 6 211 Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs) 63 6 211 Entity relationship modelling 15e 2 39 Ethnographic study 14a 2 30 Facilitated workshops 42 5 128 Feasibility analysis 43 5 132 Force-field analysis 91 20 Four-view model 40 4 118 Gap analysis 53 6 171 Hothousing 45 5 141 Impact analysis 26a 3 66 Influence/interest grid 13 2 26 Interviewing 47 5 146 Investment appraisal 14c 2 30 Joint Application Development Workshops (IBM) 14b 2 30 Joint requirements planning workshops 11 1 21 Key performance indicators 69a 7 239 Kolb cycle xvBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xvi ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES Number Chapter Page Name 67 7 235 Kurt Lewin’s model of organisational change 69 7 239 Learning cycle 69b 7 239 Learning styles 28c 3 75 Logical activity model 63b 6 211 Logical data modelling/models (LDM) 81 17 McKinsey’s 7-S 21 2 55 Mind maps 55 6 176 MoSCoW prioritisation 31 9 MOST analysis 64a 6 219 Object class modelling 15 2 39 Observation 41 5 124 Options identification 35 4 98 Organisation Diagram 35a 4 98 Organisation model 1a 13 PEST analysis 1b 13 PESTEL analysis 11 3 PESTLE analysis 1c 13 PESTLIED analysis 26b 3 66 P/I grid 26c 3 66 Power/impact grid 26 3 66 Power/interest grid 16 2 42 Questionnaires 27b 3 71 PARADE 21 6 Porter’s Five Forces framework 32 3 87 Principled negotiation 37b 4 105 Process maps 15d 2 39 Protocol analysis 52 6 167 Prototyping 29a 3 78 RACI charts 29 3 78 RASCI charts 17c 2 46 Record sampling xviBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xvii ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES Number Chapter Page Name 24a 3 63 Report analysis 57 6 184 Requirements documentation 60 6 198 Requirements management 56 6 180 Requirements organisation 61 6 203 Requirements traceability matrix 59 6 192 Requirements validation 4a 1 10 Resource analysis 41 10 Resource Audit 20 2 53 Rich pictures 46 5 143 Risk analysis 46b 5 143 Risk identification 46a 5 143 Risk management 27c 3 71 Root definition 17 2 46 Sampling 68 7 237 SARAH model 50 6 160 Scenarios 21a 2 55 Semantic networks 15c 2 39 Shadowing 18 2 49 Special-purpose records 30 3 81 Stakeholder management planning 30a 3 81 Stakeholder map 23 3 63 Stakeholder nomination 25 3 64 Stakeholder wheel 1d 13 STEEPLE analysis 51 6 165 Storyboarding 15b 2 39 STROBE 15a 2 39 Structured observation 16a 2 42 Surveys 37a 4 105 Swimlane diagrams 61 14 SWOT analysis 36a 4 101 System event analysis xviiBusiness Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 9:38 AM Page xviii ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES Number Chapter Page Name 31 3 84 Thomas–Kilmann conflict mode instrument 31b 3 84 Thomas–Kilmann conflict model 31a 3 84 Thomas–Kilmann instrument (TKI) 9a 1 20 Three-view model 54 6 173 Timeboxing 18a 2 49 Timesheets 6a 1 14 TOWS analysis 62 6 205 Use case diagrams and use case descriptions 34 4 95 Value chain analysis 33 4 92 Value proposition analysis 3a 19 VMOST analysis 27a 3 71 VOCATE 21b 2 55 Webs 17b 2 46 Work measurement 14 2 30 Workshops xviii