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Designing Business Documents

Designing Business Documents 6
busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 1 Monotype Designing Business Documents Adapted by Chris Burke from the Monotype Desktop Solutions series by Alison Black, Paul Stiff, and Robert Wallerbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 2 Editor First published in 1992 Andrew Boag Monotype Typography Ltd Monotype Typography Inc (Monotype Typography Ltd) Perrywood Business Park Suite 504 American consultant Salfords 53 West Jackson Boulevard Dwayne Overmyer Redhill Chicago (University of Michigan, USA) Surrey RH1 5JP Illinois 60604 England USA Copyright © 1992 Monotype Typography Ltd All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani cal, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publishers. Designing Business Documents ISBN 0900763256 This publication is adapted from the Monotype Desktop Solutions series: Monotype Desktop Solutions: Designing Reports and Presentations ISBN 090076306X Monotype Desktop Solutions: Designing Forms and Catalogues ISBN 0900763078 Monotype Desktop Solutions: Designing Newsletters and Booklets ISBN 0900763086 Software The text for this publication was written in Microsoft Word 4.0. Pages were madeup using QuarkXPress 3.0. Illustrations were made in QuarkXPress 3.0, and Adobe Illustrator 3.0. Typefaces The main text is set in 8.8 on 12.3 point Nimrod. Captions are set in 7 on 9.5 point Arial Light. Cover design Roundel Design Group Text design Chris Burke Printed in England by The Midas Press Trademarks and registered names Monotype is a registered trademark of The Monotype Corporation plc. Arial, Monotype Baskerville, Monotype Bodoni, Nimrod, Rockwell, and Times New Roman are registered trademarks of The Monotype Corporation plc. Century Gothic and Monotype Sorts are trademarks of The Monotype Corporation plc. Microsoft Word is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. QuarkXPress is a registered trademark of Quark Inc. Adobe Illustrator is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Inc.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 3 3 Contents 1 Introduction 5 Reports and proposals 1.1 The purpose of typography 5 6 Planning 19 2 Planning and checking 7 6.1 Page size 19 2.1 Budget 7 6.2 Margins 19 2.2 Schedule 7 6.3 A page grid 20 2.3 Designing within your capabilities 7 2.4 Matching software to document 7 Document organization 21 preparation tasks 8 7.1 Cover and preliminary material 21 2.5 Testing out your design work 9 7.2 Headers, footers, and page 2.6 Checking 9 numbers 21 7.3 Section headings 22 3 Content and structure 11 3.1 Access structure 11 8 Problems of page layout 23 3.2 Numbering systems 11 8.1 Page breaks 23 3.3 Using styles and tags to format 8.2 Placing illustrations and tables 23 text 12 9 Making your message clear 25 4 Principles of legibility 13 9.1 Using type to show hierarchy 25 4.1 Typeface 13 9.2 Using space to show hierarchy 25 4.2 Type size, line length, 9.3 Visual identity 26 and leading 13 4.3 Text alignment and hyphenation 15 10 Alternatives to text 27 4.4 Paragraphs 17 10.1 Lists 27 10.2 Tables 28 5 Typography is not typing 18 10.3 Graphs and charts 30 5.1 Office practice versus printing practice 18 5.2 Aspects of typographic style 18 Letters, memos, and faxes 11 Setting standards 32 11.1 Stationery 32 12 Layout 34 12.1 Are grids relevant 34 12.2 Space after address 34 13 Points of information 35 14 Technology and type 36 14.1 Consider your decisions 36busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 4busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 5 5 Section 1 Introduction 1.1 The purpose of typography Typography is designing with type in order to com municate a message. Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you the facilities to use type in many sizes and styles to achieve a professional look. You might easily be tempted to ‘jazzup’ your documents with all the special effects you can muster – if you do this, you may end up having more fun than your readers. Restraint is essential, so that the content of documents is clearly understood. Typography should not call attention to itself – its purpose is to make work easier for the reader. When designing, you should put yourself in the reader’s place. Try to think through everything you do from the reader’s point of view. You cannot force anyone to read anything, but you can make a docu ment clear, accessible, and adaptable, to help read ers navigate their way around the text for any purpose. There are certain principles of legibility and perception which should be followed to help achieve this (see Section 4 Principles of legibility). Readers will have preconceptions about the size and general layout of a company report, or even an 1.1 Readers begin to identify a document by its physical appear official letter, based on their past experience with ance: format, size, apparent com that kind of document. Before reading at a ‘word’ plexity. They will already have level, they may have started reading on a global recognized different kinds of information before they begin to level, flicking through and picking up structural read the text. jocjou joujun THE WOMAN jockey joke m jockey jockey joke m jockey joie gwa f joy, joindre gwedr vt (59) jogging dgogn m jogging dgogn m gladness, delight; mettre ensemble join, Typography is designing with type in order to communicate a faire du, go jogging faire du, go jogging avec, with delight; put together; link, Readers will have preconceptions about the size and general lay OF THE message. Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you the facilities to use out of a company report, or even an of cial letter, based on their joie gwa f joy, joie gwa f joy, d’une débordante, connect (à, to); relier type in many sizes and styles to achieve a professional look. You past experience with that kind of document. Before reading at a might easily be tempted to jazzup your documents with all the word level, they may have started reading on a global level, gladness, delight; gladness, delight; overjoyed; sauter de les mains, join hands special effects you can muster — if you do this, you may end up icking through and picking up structural cues and features. LEADER having more fun than your readers. Restraint is essential, so that Apart from novels, users rarely read documents from beginning WORLD avec, with delight; avec, with delight; jump for joy. insérer enclose, the content of documents is clearly understood. Typography to end: they have their own purposes and tasks, which the docu d’une débordante, d’une débordante, jockey joke m jockey annex contacter get should not call attention to itself — its purpose is to make work ment must accommodate. easier for the reader. Even in correspondence, like letters, memos, and faxes, overjoyed; sauter de overjoyed; sauter de jogging dgogn m in touch with, contact When designing, you should put yourself in the reader s where there cannot be much deviation from the norm, simple place. Try to think through everything you do from the reader s graphic features can mark out different kinds of information. jump for joy. jump for joy. faire du, go jogging tel. get through to Fig. point of view. You cannot force anyone to read anything, but you The rest of this booklet gives some guidance on the design of can make a document clear, accessible, and adaptable, to help reports and correspondence. You may want the reader to follow Wednesday 15 July 1992 Manchester and London 30p joindre gwedr vt (59) jockey joke m jockey joie gwa f joy, l’utile agréable, readers navigate their way around the text for any purpose. instructions, or compare totals of research ndings, for example. mettre ensemble join, jogging dgogn m gladness, delight; combine business with There are certain principles of legibility and perception Lists, tables, graphs, and charts can give a more distinct repre which should be followed to help achieve this (see Section 4 sentation of this kind of information, and will also add variety to put together; link, faire du, go jogging avec, with delight; pleasure; les deux Principles of legibility).Readers will have preconceptions about the layout of your documents. It helps to list collections of relat the size and general layout of a company report, or even an ed ideas. Where items are referred to individually in the follow connect (à, to); relier joie gwa f joy, d’une débordante, bouts, make(both) ends of cial letter, based on their past experience with that kind of ing text, or when they describe a sequence of actions, they can be document. Before reading at a word level, they may have start numbered, but otherwise it is simpler just to use bullets (¥) or les mains, join hands gladness, delight; overjoyed; sauter de meet — vpr se à, join ed reading on a global level, icking through and picking up dashes (—). These can be found in all typefaces, but if you want to insérer enclose, avec, with delight; jump for joy. (qqn). structural cues and features. Apart from novels, users rarely read make more impact you can use the Monotype Sorts font (nlu). documents from beginning to end: they have their own purpos Be careful not to overuse lists: there must always be enough es and tasks, which the document must accommodate. conventional text to lead your readers through your argument. annex contacter get d’une débordante, jockey joke m jockey jockey joke m jockey Even in correspondence, like letters, memos, and faxes, Otherwise it s like giving them selfassembly furniture with no SAILORS IN in touch with, contact overjoyed; sauter de jogging dgogn m jogging dgogn m where there cannot be much deviation from the norm, simple assembly instructions: everything they need is there, but graphic features can mark out different kinds of information. they don t know what it s for.DTP allows great exibility for the tel. get through to Fig. jump for joy. faire du, go jogging faire du, go jogging The rest of this booklet gives some guidance on the design of design of tables, but they take a bit of skill and practice. There are reports and correspondence. You may want the reader to follow several ways of setting tables: if you see tables you nd particu l’utile agréable, joindre gwedr vt (59) joie gwa f joy, joie gwa f joy, instructions, or compare totals of research ndings, for example. larly clear you could copy the way they are designed. However, Lists, tables, graphs, and charts can give a more distinct repre combine business with mettre ensemble join, gladness, delight; gladness, delight; always bear in mind that your text is different and may need spe sentation of this kind of information, and will also add variety to cial treatment. Remember to put the user rst, not your own pleasure; les deux put together; link, avec, with delight; avec, with delight; the layout of your documents. It helps to list collections of relat design preferences. Here one system is recommended that is ed ideas. Where items are referred to individually in the follow These days vertical rules are usually left out of tables because the bouts, make(both) ends connect (à, to); relier d’une débordante, d’une débordante, ing text, or when they describe a sequence of actions, they can be data in the columns is well enough aligned to allow the space numbered, but otherwise it is simpler just to use bullets (¥) or between the columns to do the same job. If many of the cells are meet — vpr se à, join les mains, join hands overjoyed; sauter de overjoyed; sauter de dashes (—). These can be found in all typefaces, but if you want to left blank, though, vertical rules might be needed. You should (qqn). insérer enclose, jump for joy. jump for joy. 88 89 SCURVY The purpose of typography company report, or even an official Rushey Systems 7 April 1992 letter, based on their past experience SCARE Readers will quickly Typography is designing with type with that kind of document. Before pick up the ‘norm’ in in order to communicate a message. reading at a ‘word’ level, they may memo Production schedule for April Shiver me tembers and hoist the main a document. In Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you have started reading on a global to December reports and propos the facilities to use type in many level, flicking through and picking sail First recorded case in 100 years als, this is likely sizes and styles to achieve a profes up structural cues and features. to be continuous sional look. You might easily be from Jennifer Wells x678 There are certain princi their past experience with Apart from novels, users rarely read OOH WHAT text. tempted to ‘jazzup’ your documents ples of legibility and per that kind of document. documents from beginning to end: to Michael Balcon, Adam Barnes, Georgina Pompidou, Alan with all the special effects you can they have their own purposes and Tanner, Louis Marseillaise ception which should be Before reading at a ‘word’ Brain Perrain fax 071 634 5670 A PICTURE muster – if you do this, you may end followed to help achieve level, they may have start tasks, which the document must Margaret Anouilh fax 010 1 345 897 0756 up having more fun than your read There are certain prin this ed reading on a global accommodate. ers. Restraint is essential, so that the Readers will have pre level, flicking through Typography is designing with type in order to communicate a ciples of legibility and When designing, content of documents is clearly message. Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you the facilities perception which conceptions about the size and picking up structural you should put understood. Typography should not to use type in many sizes and styles to achieve a should be followed to and general layout of a legibility and perception yourself in the ‘professional look’. You might easily be tempted to ‘jazz call attention to itself – its purpose is help achieve this (see company report, or even which should be followed reader’s place. up’ your documents with all the special effects you can to make work easier for the reader. muster – if you do this, you will have more fun than your an official letter, based on to help achieve this will Try to think When designing, you should put readers. Restraint is essential, so that the content of through every yourself in the reader’s place. Try to documents is clearly understood. Typography should not call thing you do from think through everything you do attention to itself – its purpose is to make work easier for the reader’s point the reader. from the reader’s point of view. You of view. When designing, you should put yourself in the reader’s cannot force anyone to read any place. Try to think through everything you do from the thing, but you can make a document reader’s point of view. You cannot force anyone to read clear, accessible, and adaptable, to anything, but you can make a document clear, accessible and help readers navigate their way The pros and coms of adaptable, to help readers navigate their way around the text for any purposes. There are certain principles of around the text for any purpose. doing it yourself legibility and perception which should be followed to achieve this (see Section 4 Principles of legibility). Even in correspondence, like letters, Readers will have preconceptions about the size and How it works memos, and faxes, where there can general layout of a company report, or even an official not be much deviation from the letter, based on their past experience of that kind of There are certain principles of legi document. Before reading at a ‘word’ level, they may have norm, simple graphic features can bility and perception which should started reading on a global level, flicking through and mark out different kinds of informa be followed to help achieve this (see picking up structural cues and features. Apart from novels, tion. users rarely read documents from beginning to end: they have Section 4 Principles of legibility). The rest of this booklet gives some their own purposes and tasks, which the document must Readers will have preconceptions guidance on the design of reports accommodate. about the size and general layout of a and correspondence. You may want 9 8busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 6 6 Designing Business Documents cues and features. Apart from novels, users rarely read documents from beginning to end: they have their own purposes and tasks, which the document must accommodate. Readers will quickly pick up the ‘norm’ in a document. In reports and proposals, this is likely to be continuous text. Therefore any graphic fea ture that is different from this norm will be taken as significant, giving the designer the opportunity to emphasize elements and attract attention, with headings of different sizes and styles, or charts and tables. Even in correspondence, like letters, memos, and faxes, where there cannot be much deviation from the norm, simple graphic features can mark out different kinds of information. The rest of this booklet gives some guidance on the design of reports and correspondence. Even if you are only concerned with the design of company reports, you may find some points of interest in the sections on letters, memos, and faxes – and vice versa. For more information on designing and producing your documents see the Monotype Desktop Solutions series: Designing Reports and Presentations, Designing Forms and Catalogues, and Designing Newsletters and Booklets, Salfords and Chicago, Monotype Typography, 1991.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 7 7 Section 2 Planning and checking 2.1 Budget If you are producing a report, the budget can affect the length of the document, how many are produced, and the way it is produced. Will you produce mul tiple copies by photocopying pages output on your laser printer, or have them professionally printed from the highresolution output of a typesetting machine (see Section 14 Technology and type). Budget will also affect how the report is bound. If you cannot afford preprinted headed notepaper for letters, you may want to set up a template design on screen, with a letterhead that works in black and white, and is printed with each letter (see Section 11.1 Stationery). 2.1 Choosing a binding method will depend on the kind of docu ment you are producing (what it will be used for, its length) and your budget. Some alternatives to office stapling or ring binding are plastic comb binding, wire spiral binding (more expensive but more durable than plastic), saddle stitching (used for this booklet), or perfect binding. Saddle stitching should only be used for documents of up to 64 pages, and you need at least 32 plastic comb binding perfect binding wire spiral binding pages for perfect binding. Doublecheck with your binders that you have allowed 2.2 Schedule a wide enough back margin for the binding method you have A production schedule should be worked backwards chosen. from the deadline for delivery, taking into account the schedules of other people involved, such as sup pliers and printers. Make certain you allow for sev eral stages of proofing, and remember to keep fre quent backup copies of your work. 2.3 Designing within your capabilities The design of a text must cater for the content: if there are three levels of heading, the design must cater for them; if there are likely to be illustrations and captions, they must be catered for; and so on. However, the design must be geared to what you can do with your software – it’s no good planning a multicolumn document if you don’t have the softbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 8 8 Designing Business Documents ware to produce one (see Section 2.4 Matching soft ware to document preparation tasks). And at the other extreme, you should avoid the temptation to design documents that show off the different facil ities of your software, such as text running around illustrations, just because you have them – they may not be appropriate to your document. 2.4 Matching software to document preparation tasks There are three different classes of desktop publish ing software: wordprocessing, drawing, and page makeup software. You will probably use wordprocessing software for correspondence, and page makeup software for the more complex layout of a report: before page makeup, you should still use wordprocessing soft ware to finalize the text, so that you are not distract ed by problems of page layout when trying to concentrate on writing. Your choice of software may depend on the nature of your document. If your report is simple, you may Wordprocessing Should provide tools that help you software work with text (such as routines to mainly for search the whole text for particular originating text. words or letter combinations and spelling checkers that allow you to create your own dictionaries of accept able spellings). Drawing software Should include a wide range of tools for originating for drawing different kinds of shapes, drawings, charts, lines, and curves, and for moving and diagrams; them about on the page, either singly can be good for or as groups. tables. Page makeup Should take text and illustrations software from wordprocessing and drawing for assembling software into different fields on the the different page (such as main and subsidiary elements of columns); should allow fine adjust documents (text ments to the typography of the text and illustrations) and the sizing and positioning into pages. of illustrations.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 9 Section 2 Planning and checking 9 only need a word processor. If you are preparing a poster or chart that combines pictures with small amounts of text, it may make sense to type your text directly into page makeup software. A complex table may be best treated like a drawing, and pro duced with drawing software, which allows you to move the different elements relatively easily. If you are combining software, check carefully for compatibility: make sure your page makeup software will take in text and illustrations from your wordprocessing and drawing software. 2.5 Testing out your design work Remember you are producing paper documents, so be sure to test out your design work on paper, rather than just looking at it on your computer screen, where its appearance will be very different. The appearance of documents will alter consider Year Men Women ably with changes in resolution. For example, type 1970 103 78 and rules have sharper definition at higher resolu 1980 119 85 tion, and the contrast between bold and plain text is 1990 98 99 more distinct (see Section 14 Technology and type). So if your document is to be typeset, rather than Type and rules output at 300 dpi. laserprinted, ask your typesetters to produce a sam Year Men Women ple page, so you can see how it looks at high resolu tion. 1970 103 78 Remember, too, that your readers will be using 1980 119 85 documents they can hold, with pages they can flick 1990 98 99 through, rather than the flat pages you produce, or Type and rules output at 2540 lpi. look at on screen. So make up sample documents that match the look and feel of final copies. These 2.2 The relative weights of bold should help you check things such as whether there and light type, and the apparent thickness of rules, depends on is a wide enough back margin for binding (see the resolution of your output. Section 6.2 Margins), whether page numbers and (Rule is the printer’s term for a running heads will be clearly visible, and so on. line, to avoid confusion when referring to a line of type). Whenever you can, try to get people who might use your document to comment on its design, as well as making judgements yourself. 2.6 Checking You should check the text of your document as often as possible. If you have been working on a text for some time, it is a good idea to have someone else proofread it, as you can easily overlook errors in a text you are accustomed to. When you have finalized the pagelayout of a re port, print out all the pages and stick them together so that they resemble the finished document. Thebusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 10 10 Designing Business Documents following list should jog your memory for things to check: • Is the text correct Is spelling, punctuation, and use of the ‘housestyle’ consistent (See Section 5.2 Aspects of typographic style). Don’t forget to check headings, captions, footnotes, text in illustrations, running heads, contents lists, and indexes, as well as the main text. • Have the correct headings been given for the text And the correct running heads Do the headings in the text match the headings given in the contents list And are the page numbers in the contents list correct Is the numbering system for parts, chap ters, sections, and subsections consistent • Is the content of the illustrations correct Are they the right size, the right way around, has the cor rect part of the illustration been used Do the illus trations match the captions Is the numbering of illustrations correct • Are the crossreferences within the text and between text and illustrations correct • Are the page numbers in the index correctbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 11 11 Section 3 Content and structure Consider what your readers need from a particular document. Often they will want to find out quickly what it’s about, and then read the text, or sections of it, in detail. They will perform these reading tasks by using the document’s access structure. 3.1 Access structure 28 Norreys Avenue Ashworth Press Beansheaf  + Slough SL9 2UZ Telephone (0726) 654439 Fax (0726) 654286 This refers to the contents list, headings, and other Graham Blake Monotype Typography Ltd Perrywood Park Salfords Redhill things that help people to find out what a document Surrey RH1 5JP 18 June 1992 is about or who it is from. Even official correspond Dear Mr Blake Estimate for production of booklet according to your specification. We suppose that you will be supplying cameraready artwork. We now offer an output service: we have most Macintosh applications, including Quark ence will benefit from subheadings, simply to divide XPress and PageMaker. Format A5. 16 pages. 4page cover. it into manageable chunks. In longer documents, try Paper 115 gms matt coated. 250 gms art board cover. Colours to relate all the elements of the access structure to Two colours throughout. Binding Stitched with two wires. one another – so they make sense to someone flick Illustrations 4 halftones: b/w prints supplied. 8 line illustrations. £1500 for run of 1000 ing through the report. Notice how the contents list £1700 for runon of 500 This estimate can only be guaranteed until 30 April 1993. Please get in touch if you have any queries. and headings have been designed to help you access Yours sincerely Calvin Ashworth information in this booklet. Calvin Ashworth 3.1 Letters are better with sub 3.2 Numbering systems headings. Some correspondence is traditionally organized into All documents that are more than a couple of pages headed sections, like the estim long should have page numbers, and a contents list ate shown here. linking page numbers to sections of the text. Long letters, memos, or faxes will also need page num bers. In reports, you may also need numbering systems for sections and subsections within the text, illus trations, and footnotes. Try to keep the systems dis tinct from one another: for example, if you are using numbers for headings, consider using letters for illustrations (though not if you have more than 26 illustrations). Avoid roman numerals (xxiii, xxiv, xxv), especially for long series, as many people find them difficult to understand. Numbered sections will also provide quick access when you are discussing the report with somebody, who may ask you to look at a specific section. Remember that the page numbers you use while originating your text and illustrations may not be the same as the final page numbers in your assem bled document. If you make crossreferences to page numbers, it may be best to give them a temporary placemarker (such as ‘00’), filling in the real page number when the document has been assembledbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 12 12 Designing Business Documents after page makeup. When you think you have filled them all in, run a search for the marker: it’s easy to miss one or two. 3.3 Using styles and tags to format text You can save a huge amount of time when you come to format text if you use the style facilities in word processors and page makeup programs. These allow you to store all the style attributes (such as typeface name, type size, space between lines, line length, indents, and tabs) for individual elements of text (headings, main text, footnotes) under a short name, called a tag. Then you can apply the styles quickly and consistently to appropriate parts of the text by calling up the relevant style names. If you need to change some attribute of a style then you can do so after you have created it, and all the parts of the text tagged with that style name will automatically be altered to fit the new style. You can tag text with style names as you write, without thinking about what the styles are. Then, as you assemble the document, you can give the style names the attributes planned when the document was designed, and the text will take on its intended appearance. You can copy styles between documents produced with the same software, and so maintain consistent formatting across a series of documents. In most page makeup programs you can take in styles, along with text and illustrations, from word processing and drawing programs. So once text has been tagged it can keep its tag throughout produc tion, unless you decide to change it. Main heading style font = Rockwell Extra Bold size = 10 point; leading = 12 point tag Aheading First subheading style font = Arial Black size = 7point; leading = 14 point 4 point space before tag Bheading 3.2 Styles and tags.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 13 13 Section 4 Principles of legibility 4.1 Typeface SHAPE Shape Typefaces can be divided into seriffed and sans serif. 4.1 Because they have ascend Serifs are the small strokes at the end of main strokes ers and descenders (on h and p in this example), words in small of characters, which give a horizontal emphasis to a letters have a more distinctive line of type. Seriffed typefaces are therefore best for shape than those in capitals. large amounts of continuous text. Sans serif type We read by recognizing word faces have characters which tend to look similar to shapes, rather than letter by let ter, so text mainly in small letters each other and are best reserved for headings, cap will be more legible. tions, and short pieces of text. Sans serif typefaces give an impression sans serif of clarity, and are often used for tech kid nical texts. But they are best reserved for Arial headings or short passages of text. bracketed serif Most common seriffed typefaces have kid bracketed serifs. Times New Roman d hairline serif Hairline serifs are distinctive, but reproduce kid poorly at medium resolution. Monotype Bodoni Bold Condensed d slab serif Slab serifs are robust and give the kid typeface a sturdy impression. Rockwell d 4.2 Sans serif and seriffed typefaces. 4.2 Type size, line length, and leading These three factors are interrelated. If you increase the type size, for example, you might also have to increase the space between lines to maintain legibil ity. The rules of thumb are these: space between let ters should be less than word space, and word space less than the space between lines. 4.3 To maintain horizontal cohe Opinions will differ as to the real importance sion and so reduce disruptions to of withdrawal for the other products listed, because the flow of reading, the space between letters should be less it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable than word space, and word goods for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time space less than the space between lines. Opinions will differ as to the real importance of with top letters, words, and lines are drawal for the other products listed, because it is in the poorly spaced bottom letter, word, and line nature of markets for highly perishable goods for un space are balanced. saleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and it is notbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 14 14 Designing Business Documents In text designed for continuous reading, lines should be between 50 and 70 characters in length (including letters, numerals, spaces, and punctua tion). If there are fewer than that, there may be too many awkward linebreaks; if there are more, it can get difficult for the reader to find the beginning of the next line. For the main text of a report, a type size of 10 or 11 point is a good starting size. Try 12 or 13 point ‘leading’ (interline spacing) – but if your lines are more than 70 characters long, more leading might be needed. If you are using two columns, your type size can be smaller, to correspond to the shorter line length. You can therefore reduce the leading. Do not be tempted to use a very large type size for continuous text to fill out long lines with the 50–70 characters – you don’t have to make your lines fill the page width. Research shows that type sizes between 9 and 11 point are most comfortable for sus tained reading. However, don’t rely on these figures – different typefaces may vary in visible appearing size at the same ‘point’ size. You should make trials with samples of your text, tuning the type size, line length, and leading so that the text is comfortable to read, in the circumstances in which it is likely to be read. ascender line capital height capital line xheight xline Hxkp baseline k–p distance descender line 4.4 Typefaces have different proportions; some may have large xheights and therefore relatively short ascenders, as in the above example, which shows Times New Roman. desktop desktop desktop desktop Arial Times New Century Monotype Roman Gothic Baskerville 4.5 The nominal type size (‘point’ size) is therefore not always a reli able guide to appearing size. The example above shows four typefaces at 10 point. For further guidance on legibility: For further guidance on how to use typefaces: Herbert Spencer, The visible word, 2nd edition, Alison Black, Typefaces for desktop publishing: a London, Lund Humphries, 1969. user guide, London, Architecture Design and Technology Press, 1990 James Hartley, Designing instructional text, 2nd edition, London, Kogan Page, 1985. Paul Luna, Understanding type for desktop publish ing, London, Blueprint, 1992.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 15 Section 4 Principles of legibility 15 4.3 Text alignment and hyphenation There are two main alignments to choose from for text: justified and ranged left. Justified text Justified text has straight lefthand and righthand edges. Because readers may be familiar with seeing justified text in books (and newspapers), the assump tion is that this gives a formal appearance to text. It does not improve legibility, however, and it is diffi cult to achieve a satisfactory result: for justified text to look good, words at line endings may have to be hyphenated and the spaces between words controlled. If you accept the default ‘hyphenation and justi fication’ (h j) settings in many page makeup pro grams, few or no hyphenation breaks are made, and the system will often spread out the words on a line to fill a column, by varying the width of word spaces and even by putting extra space between letters, 4.6 The justified version (below left) may seem superficially neat, which ruins the evenness of the text. You should do but the word spacing is con some trials to achieve goodlooking text, allowing spicuously uneven from line to hyphenation, and controlling the minimum and line, which disrupts horizontal reading. Because there is no maximum word spaces. If possible, specify zero worddivision by hyphenation at letterspacing. You should aim for an even appear the ends of lines, space has even ance to each line of text. been added between the letters in some lines to achieve justifica Do not use justified setting for your letters, memos, tion. This destroys the coherence and faxes. Whatever the style of your letterhead, it is of word shapes. not worth making the text justified, as the brevity of The justified version (below correspondence, often made up of short paragraphs, right) allows hyphenation and has wordspace settings of: mini does not sufficiently define a straight righthand mum 60; optimum 85; maxi edge. More importantly, some wordprocessing mum 150. The overall effect is programs do not allow you to alter the default set of an evenlybalanced texture. tings for word spaces and hyphenation, which may (This illustration was created using QuarkXPress). result in justified text with an uneven appearance. It might also be protested that, as far as British consumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put It might also be protested that, as far as British grow that consumer prices of fruit and vegetables would be growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum forward by nearly all consumer associations: they ers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum impor very much lower if there was no intervention. Yet importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer tance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn what they do not say is that stable retail prices cannot withdrawn in the UK, the market interlinkages prices of fruit and vegetables would be very much in the UK, the market interlinkages within the Euro be achieved unless the provision of fruit and veget within the European Community, particularly after lower if there was no intervention. Yet what they do pean Community, particularly after ‘1992’, must not ables is adequate. Provision, however, will not be ade ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European not say is that stable retail prices cannot be be forgotten. In a Single European Market a domino quate unless producers have a continuing incentive to Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal achieved unless the provision of fruit and vegetables effect prevails, and withdrawal mechanisms help sup produce and maintain high supply levels. On the other mechanisms help support British market prices as is adequate. Provision, however, will not be port British market prices as well as market prices in hand, without intervention arrangements many pro well as market prices in the countries in which adequate unless producers have a continuing the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. ducers would often be left without profits or income, withdrawal actually takes place. incentive to produce and maintain high supply The UK does not have to produce peaches for its with the longterm risk that the incentive to produce The UK does not have to produce peaches for levels. On the other hand, without intervention horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC with would wane and supply levels fall, thus leading to its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC arrangements many producers would often be left drawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of increased consumer prices. withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the without profits or income, with the longterm risk such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in the past it Doing away with the intervention facilities would absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred that the incentive to produce would wane and is conceivable that larger quantities of lowerpriced consequently lead to lower prices only in the short run, in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of supply levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the while in the long run consumer prices would rise lowerpriced peaches could appear in British shops, prices. market for other fresh produce in season at the time. owing to falling production and supply levels. Further eroding the market for other fresh produce in Doing away with the intervention facilities would In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament more, the proportion of consumer income accounted season at the time. consequently lead to lower prices only in the short challenged the view that withdrawal supported market for by food has fallen continually ever since the com In 1989, a Committee of the European run, while in the long run consumer prices would prices to the detriment of consumer interests. In par mon market has been in existence. Moreover, it has Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal rise owing to falling production and supply levels. ticular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of price and been shown time and again that consumer prices are supported market prices to the detriment of Furthermore, the proportion of consumer income income support, there might be a temptation to view almost invariably or to a large extent inelastic to consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that accounted for by food has fallen continually ever the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and vegeta changing producer prices.Consequently, a fall in pro they are a form of price and income support, there since the common market has been in existence. bles as being against consumer interests. Indeed, this is ducer prices is hardly ever matched by a correspond might be a temptation to view the arrangements for Moreover, it has been shown time and again that the argument put forward by nearly all consumer ing fall in consumer prices, instead, the difference is withdrawal of fruit and vegetables as being against consumer prices are almost invariably or to a large associations: they attempt to impress upon consumers swallowed up by transport costs, marketing margins, In 1989, a Committee of the European In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal challenged the view that withdrawal supported market supported market prices to the detriment of prices to the detriment of consumer interests. In par consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that ticular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of price andbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 16 16 Designing Business Documents It might also be protested that, as far as British consumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put It might also be protested that, as far as British grow Indeed, this is the argument put forward by nearly growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum forward by nearly all consumer associations: they ers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum impor all consumer associations: they attempt to impress importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer tance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is with upon consumers that consumer prices of fruit and withdrawn in the UK, the market interlinkages prices of fruit and vegetables would be very much drawn in the UK, the market interlinkages within vegetables would be very much lower if there was no within the European Community, particularly after lower if there was no intervention. Yet what they do the European Community, particularly after ‘1992’, intervention. Yet what they do not say is that stable ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European not say is that stable retail prices cannot be must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market retail prices cannot be achieved unless the provision Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal achieved unless the provision of fruit and vegetables a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mechan of fruit and vegetables is adequate. Provision, how mechanisms help support British market prices as is adequate. Provision, however, will not be isms help support British market prices as well as ever, will not be adequate unless producers have a well as market prices in the countries in which adequate unless producers have a continuing market prices in the countries in which withdrawal continuing incentive to produce and maintain high withdrawal actually takes place. incentive to produce and maintain high supply actually takes place. supply levels. On the other hand, without interven The UK does not have to produce peaches for levels. On the other hand, without intervention The UK does not have to produce peaches for tion arrangements many producers would often be its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC arrangements many producers would often be left its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC left without profits or income, with the longterm risk withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the without profits or income, with the longterm risk withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the ab that the incentive to produce would wane and supply absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred that the incentive to produce would wane and sence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer prices. in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of supply levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of Doing away with the intervention facilities would lowerpriced peaches could appear in British shops, prices. lowerpriced peaches could appear in British shops, consequently lead to lower prices only in the short eroding the market for other fresh produce in Doing away with the intervention facilities would eroding the market for other fresh produce in season run, while in the long run consumer prices would season at the time. consequently lead to lower prices only in the short at the time. rise owing to falling production and supply levels. In 1989, a Committee of the European run, while in the long run consumer prices would In 1989, a Committee of the European Parlia Furthermore, the proportion of consumer income Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal rise owing to falling production and supply levels. ment challenged the view that withdrawal supported accounted for by food has fallen continually ever supported market prices to the detriment of Furthermore, the proportion of consumer income market prices to the detriment of consumer interests. since the common market has been in existence. consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that accounted for by food has fallen continually ever In particular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of Moreover, it has been shown time and again that they are a form of price and income support, there since the common market has been in existence. price and income support, there might be a tempta consumer prices are almost invariably or to a large might be a temptation to view the arrangements for Moreover, it has been shown time and again that tion to view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit extent inelastic to changing producer prices. Con withdrawal of fruit and vegetables as being against consumer prices are almost invariably or to a large and vegetables as being against consumer interests. sequently, a fall in producer prices is hardly ever In 1989, a Committee of the European In 1989, a Committee of the European Parlia Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal ment challenged the view that withdrawal supported supported market prices to the detriment of market prices to the detriment of consumer interests. consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that In particular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of 4.7 The ranged left version Ranged left text above left has no hyphenation, which results in a very ragged Ranged left (or ‘flush left’) text has a ragged right righthand edge. The ranged left hand edge. This is a safer option than justified version above right allows text and legibility is not impaired: it may even be hyphenation, and the word improved, since word spaces are kept constant. In space has been changed from the default value to 85. The page makeup programs, if you have the hyphen result is more even line endings ation option switched off, very ragged line endings and greater definition of lines as may result, so you may want to accept some hyphen coherent, graphic units. ation. Space between lines should appear greater than word space (Figure 4.3): this preserves horizontal cohesion and assists the ‘flow’ of reading. In all DTP programs, the default word space is usually large, but in page makeup programs you can reduce the word space throughout. Wordprocessing programs do not allow you to change these settings, so you may try to compensate for this by increasing the leading: for 10 point type try 14, 15, and 16 point leading. Ranged right and centred text Your DTP program also offers you these other choices for text alignment. They are both fine for 4.8 Rangedright setting (below left) is unsuitable for most text short items such as titles but they make longer pas but may be useful in some tables. sages of text difficult to read. Ranged right is useful Centred text (below right) may for captions to tables or graphs, and for sidehead be appropriate for headings or a few lines of text, but not for long ings appearing in the lefthand margin. passages. 1990 1991 1992 Marketing opportunities for the coming decade Standard lamps 8769 9671 10567 How we can be market leaders within Accesories 5689 6754 7856 three years, with a reputation for innovatory products at competitive Deluxe lamps 690 540 590 prices.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 17 Section 4 Principles of legibility 17 4.4 Paragraphs There are two common ways of indicating the start of a new paragraph: by indenting the first line or inserting extra space above the first line. If you insert extra space, it should be at least half of your normal line space: so with 10 point leading, add an extra 5 points between paragraphs (making 15 points in all). If you use this method, be aware that a para graph end may not be clear at the bottom of a page. If you indent the first line, a rule of thumb is to set the indent to the same value as your type size. If you have a short line length, a smaller indent may look better. Indenting first lines is the better option if you want to save space. 4.9 You can use indention to dis Opportunities in Europe after 1992 tinguish the beginning of para graphs. Use a shorter indent than It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are con is traditional in typewritten docu cerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true ments. There is no need to indent that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market interlink the first line of a section – the fact ages within the European Community, particularly after 1992 , that it follows a heading makes its must not be forgotten. status clear enough. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, and with drawal mechanisms help support British market prices as well as market prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural producers to bene t from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have 4.10 Extra space between para Opportunities in Europe after 1992 graphs is an alternative to inden tion, but is less economical with It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are con space. cerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market interlink ages within the European Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, and with drawal mechanisms help support British market prices as well as market prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural pro ducers to benet from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as havebusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 18 18 Designing Business Documents Section 5 Typography is not typing 5.1 Office practice versus printing practice not "inch" or ’feet’ signs but real quotation When all office documents were typewritten, the marks , or ˙guillemets¨ conventions of typing were appropriate for the and ¨Anf hrungszeichen˙ details of text: the typewriter typeface conveyed a certain level of formality, and the limited flexibility hyphens for word division of the typewriter was acceptable. There are usually and compound words like imitation typewriter typefaces available on most frostbitten systems, and some people prefer to use them for cor en dashes — spaced like respondence to preserve the impression of a docu this — for parenthetical ment less formal than, for example, a bound report. remarks, and unspaced for Using typewriter typefaces will also save time spans, such as: 1992— 93 because you will not need to worry about the typo em dashes unspaced like graphic details necessary when you use the profes this can also be used for sional typefaces available on DTP systems (e.g. Times parenthesis New Roman, Arial, etc.). However, if you do choose 5.1 Conventions in professional to use more formal typefaces traditionally only typesetting differ from those used available from typesetters, you should use typeset in typing. ters’, not typists’, conventions. fixer fixer 5.2 Aspects of typographic style afloat afloat Certain basic features of typing style have never fi fi been current in professional typesetting and should be avoided in your documents: fl fl • Do not use a double word space after full stops, only use one. 5.2 Ligatures for fcombinations. The letters are designed together • Straight inch marks (") and feet marks (') should rather than crashing into each not be used for true ‘curly’ quotation marks. other. • For the character combinations fi and fl, use ligatures. don t underline type • Use proper en and em dashes when appropriate. don t underline type • Don’t underline type. In DTP, you can use italic or bold for emphasis. Italic is most often used to 5.3 Underlining cuts through distinguish titles of publications. the descenders of letters: use These are basic features; you may also wish to italic instead. define a ‘housestyle’ so that you ensure consistency of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, etc. in your organization. Some of the best known guides to text presentation The Chicago manual of style, 13th edition, Chicago, come from the large university presses. But they are University of Chicago Press, 1982. used widely, not just for academic books: Xerox publishing standards: a manual of style and design, New York, Watson Guptill, 1988. J. Butcher, Copyediting: the Cambridge handbook, 2nd edition, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 19 19 Section 6 Reports and proposals Planning ‘Reports and proposals’ covers a wide range of docu ments used in business and other organizations, including: • sales reports • progress reports • grant proposals • procurement proposals • position papers • procedural manuals. For shorthand, the word ‘report’ is used here to cover them all. 6.1 Page size There may already be some restrictions on the page size you choose depending on your method of pro duction and distribution. If you aim to output pages on a desktop printer and produce multiple copies by photocopying, then a standard size like A4 (297 × 210 mm) or US letter (11 × 8½ inches) is advisable. If you are having your report professionally printed, any page size is possible, although it will be cheaper and easier for printers to work with standard sizes. You may also be restricted to a standard size by the envelopes you will use to send the report to your readers. Given that most company reports are A4 or US letter (and this is an expected ‘norm’), it would be hard to find a good reason for using an irregular doublepage spread page size. You should therefore accept this con page straint, so that you can concentrate on more im portant issues. foredge foredge head head 6.2 Margins Most DTP programs start by asking you to define your margins, the area between the text and the edge of the page. Most reports will be bound using the sort of office binding that can take up quite a bit of page space, so you should treat the inner 35 mm (1½ inches), the back margin, as out of bounds. back margins foot foot Your minimum margin for the outside edge of the page is dictated by the limits of your laser printer 6.1 The margins of a double page spread. (usually about 5 mm or ¼ inch), but for comfortable handling, you should leave at least 12 mm (½ inch)busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 20 20 Designing Business Documents and considerably more if you are using a single col umn layout on A4 paper (otherwise your line length will be too long – see Section 4.2 Type size, line length, and leading). Remember that by defining your margins you are effectively defining your line length. It may be easier to work backwards: decide a suitable line length and then calculate what the margins need to be. 6.3 A page grid A grid is the framework of guidelines (made visible on your screen in page makeup programs) to assist page layout. These guides allow you to systematic ally position headings, paragraphs, and pictures on a page, so that the document is consistently arranged over a series of pages. This consistency then helps readers find the information they need page after page. The kind of grid you need depends on what you want to put in your document. Reports normally use quite simple grids. Here are three welltried alterna tives. Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion sumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put for ward by nearly all consumer associations: they attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer In 1989, a Committee of the It might also be protested that, as far as British grow It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are con It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are prices of fruit and vegetables would be very much ers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum impor cerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true European Parliament chal concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst lower if there was no intervention. tance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is with that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market inter lenged the view that withdraw it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the drawn in the UK, the market interlinkages within Implications of ‘1992’ linkages within the European Community, particularly after al supported market prices to market interlinkages within the European Community, the European Community, particularly after ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market Provision, however, will not be adequate unless pro ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market a the detriment of consumer particularly after ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single ducers have a continuing incentive to produce and a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mecha interests. domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mechanisms help sup European Market a domino effect prevails, and withdraw nisms help support British market prices as well as maintain high supply levels. Moreover, it has been shown time and again that consumer prices are port British market prices as well as market prices in the coun al mechanisms help support British market prices as well market prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. almost invariably or to a large extent inelastic to tries in which withdrawal actually takes place. as market prices in the countries in which withdrawal changing producer prices.Consequently, a fall in actually takes place. The stanility of market prices producer prices is hardly ever matched by a corre The stanility of market prices sponding fall in consumer prices, instead, the differ The UK does not have to produce peaches for its The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural ence is swallowed up by transport costs, marketing The stanility of The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticul horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC margins, etc. To that extent, the consumer associa producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for market prices tural producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal mech withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the tions’ ‘promises’ that lower prices could be achieved absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have anisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy by doing away with intervention measures are great in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of occurred in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of withdrawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable ly unrealistic. On the contrary, after a brief period of lowerpriced peaches could appear in British shops, price instability caused by the slump in producer lowerpriced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the that larger quantities of lowerpriced peaches could appear eroding the market for other fresh produce in season prices, the laws of the market economy would market for other fresh produce in season at the time. in British shops, eroding the market for other fresh pro at the time. On the other hand, without intervention restore realistic and enforceable prices that the mar arrangements many producers would often be left In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged duce in season at the time. ket could accept. without profits or income, with the longterm risk the view that withdrawal supported market prices to the detri that the incentive to produce would wane and supply Action to be taken ment of consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that they Implications of ‘1992’ In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament chal levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer This statement is remarkable for a number of rea are a form of price and income support, there might be a tempta lenged the view that withdrawal supported market prices prices. Doing away with the intervention facilities sons: tion to view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and vege would consequently lead to lower prices only in the to the detriment of consumer interests. In particular it said: it appears to accept the view that, at least in the short run, while in the long run consumer prices short run, EEC policy mechanisms do raise pro tables as being against consumer interests. Indeed, this is the ‘Given that they are a form of price and income support, would rise owing to falling production and supply ducer prices; argument put forward by nearly all consumer associations: they there might be a temptation to view the arrangements for levels. Furthermore, the proportion of consumer it is premised on the view that the EEC should be attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer prices of fruit withdrawal of fruit and vegetables as being against con income accounted for by food has fallen continually selfsufficient in fruit and vegetables, a stance and vegetables would be very much lower if there was no inter sumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put forward ever since the common market has been in existence. which many would refute: the statement makes no vention. Yet what they do not say is that stable retail prices can allowance for imports and their stabilising by nearly all consumer associations: they attempt to Longterm consequences influence; not be achieved unless the provision of fruit and vegetables is impress upon consumers that consumer prices of fruit and In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament the distribution sectors are endowed with a mysti adequate. vegetables would be very much lower if there was no cal power, that of being able to determine prices, challenged the view that withdrawal supported mar intervention. ket prices to the detriment of consumer interests. In and hence profits, without reference to market cir Implications of ‘1992’ cumstances. Whilst it is true that the withdrawal Provision, however, will not be adequate unless pro particular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of price and income support, there might be a temptation to mechanism is likely to have only a marginal Provision, however, will not be adequate unless producers have ducers have a continuing incentive to produce and main impact on retail prices, it is disingenuous to sug view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and a continuing incentive to produce and maintain high supply lev tain high supply levels. On the other hand, without inter vegetables as being against consumer interests. gest that producer prices have no impact on retail prices; whilst suggesting that its analysis rests els. On the other hand, without intervention arrangements many vention arrangements many producers would often be left Indeed, this is the argument put forward by nearly all consumer associations: they attempt to impress upon upon “the laws of the market econo producers would often be left without profits or income, with the without profits or income, with the longterm risk that the The UK does not have to produce peaches for its consumers that consumer prices of fruit and vegeta longterm risk that the incentive to produce would wane and sup incentive to produce would wane and supply levels fall, bles would be very much lower if there was no horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC ply levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer prices. Doing withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the thus leading to increased consumer prices. Doing away sumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put for Single column grids are simplest Single column grids with side fea Double column grids can be used of all and are perfectly adequate tures allow you to put headings, for economy, because you can for a report consisting mostly of small illustrations, or sidenotes in use a smaller type size. They are straightforward text. Wordpro the margin so that they can be not common in reports or pro cessing software can handle this. easily scanned. When laying out posals because they can be more a document with sidebyside text difficult for readers to scan quickly. columns, you really need a page makeup program. These pro grams are less flexible for word processing, so you don’t want to do extensive editing once the pages are made up.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 21 21 Section 7 Reports and proposals Document organization 7.1 (right) Simple covers are The domestic vacuum cleaner market effective, so that the title is clearly Proposal for an extension conveyed. to the Chiropody Clinic Report of the 1990 market survey Elizabeth Zuckerman, April 1992 Report to the Development Committee John Anderson, Barbara Clegg, and Keith O’Donnell April 1992 7.2 (below) If your report has a simple structure, you could com bine the title page and contents list. The domestic vacuum cleaner market Market research XYZ Report of the 1990 market survey West Hospital, 138 North Avenue, Easton Elizabeth Zuckerman, April 1992 1 Introduction: foreign competition increasing 3 7.1 Cover and preliminary material 2 Analysis by area: the southern market boom 7 3 Technical developments: little innovation 23 4 Comparison with other sectors 31 The cover should identify what the report is about, who it is from, and the date of production. A simple cover will be most effective. Market research XYZ The title page usually contains the same informa tion as the cover. In a short report it may be best combined with the contents list. The contents list must work with the headings, running heads, and other features of the report to enable easy access to information (see Section 3.1 Access structure, and Section 9 Making your message clear). 7.3 Lining the page numbers up 1 Background 1 Background on the righthand edge of the col 1.1 History of the site 5 1.1 History of the site 5 1.2 Why move 7 1.2 Why move7 umn doesn’t help readers to 2 Criteria for selection 2 Criteria for selection access the information (right). If 2.1 Accommodation 9 2.1 Accommodation 9 2.2 Staff retention 10 2.2 Staff retention 10 you’re in doubt about this, think 2.3 Green eld site 11 2.3 Green eld site 11 about the way you read a con 3 Planning the move 3 Planning the move tents list: you don’t scan down the 3.1 Timescale 13 3.1 Timescale 13 3.2 Costs 14 3.2 Costs 14 column of page numbers to see what’s on page 13 – you scan down the headings for the one you want, then go to the page 7.2 Headers, footers, and page numbers number. This is easier to do if the number is close, not separated by Readers can find their way around more easily if a void of white space (far right). you repeat the section or chapter title in running heads (or ‘headers’) at the top of the page (or at the bottom, where they are known as ‘footers’). Page numbers should also be clear. They can go in the header or footer line, but they must go on the oppo site side to the bound edge, so people can see the numbers when flicking through the report. If there is enough room, they could go in the outside margin (there is no need for the word ‘page’). busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 22 22 Designing Business Documents The UK does not have to produce priced peaches could appear in shops, peaches for its horticultural producers eroding the market for other fresh pro 24 XYZ consultants Æ The European Market Section 4 Æ Longterm investment 25 On the other hand, without intervention arrangements to bene t from the EEC withdrawal duce in season at the time. On the many producers would often The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticul pro ts or income, with the longterm risk that the incentive mechanisms for peaches, for in the other hand, without the intervention be left without profit. tural producers to bene t from the EEC withdrawal mecha to produce would wane and supply levels fall, thus leading to absence of such heavy withdrawals as arrangements many producers would income, with the longterm risk nisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy with increased consumer prices. Doing away with the interven have occurred in the past it is conceiv often be left without pro ts or income, drawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable that tion facilities would consequently lead to lower prices only in able that larger quantities of lower with the longterm risk that the incen larger quantities of lowerpriced peaches could appear in the short run, while in the long run consumer prices would British shops, eroding the market for other fresh produce in rise owing to falling production and supply levels. Further 24 XYZ consultants · The European Market Section 4 · Long term investments 24 season at the time. On the other hand, without intervention more, the proportion of consumer income accounted for by arrangements many producers would often be left without food has fallen continually ever since the common market 7.4 You can separate the head You may want to repeat the title of the report on ers and footers from the main text simply by using space, or try each page, so if a page is photocopied its source is using thin rules. still clear. This isn’t information that readers need when searching through the report, so it can be quite small. You may want to put the section title and page number in the header and the publication title, and possibly the author’s name, in the footer. 13 7.3 Section headings 5 The European market To prevent your report from looking too monoton Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and aubergines, withdrawal is not an important outlet; where as for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and ous, and to provide visible landmarks for access, mandarins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real impor tance of withdrawal for the other products listed, because it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable goods for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and the you can make a feature of section headings by using gures reported in table b may simply re ect an institu tionalization of gluts which would in any case exist. 5.1 The 1991 survey a large, bold or italic style of type, highlighted fur It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the ther by leaving space around it. This will make UK, the market interlinkages within the European Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgot ten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, these pages stand out. If there is a limited amount and withdrawal mechanisms help support British market prices as well as market prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural producers to bene t of space, you may not be able to start a new page for from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of lower the beginning of each section; if you can, however, priced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the market for other fresh produce in season at the time. In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament chal lenged the view that withdrawal supported market prices it is a good idea. To make your headings stand out, to the detriment of consumer interests. In particular it said: Given that they are a form of price and income sup you could either leave a predefined space after the last line of the heading, or begin the following text at a fixed ‘drop’, regardless of the length of the sec The European market 5 tion heading. This means calculating the depth of Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and aubergines, the longest section heading, and fixing the space to withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and mandarins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real importance of withdrawal for the first line of text. Taken together, all your head the other products listed, because it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable goods for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and the figures reported in table b may simply reflect an institutionalization of gluts which would in any case ings should form a hierarchy (see Section 9 Making exist. 5.1 The 1991 survey your message clear), with section headings as the It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are con cerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market inter linkages within the European Community, particularly after first level. ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mechanisms help sup port British market prices as well as market prices in the coun tries in which withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of lowerpriced peaches 7.5 You can use prominent type could appear in British shops, eroding the market for other fresh produce in season at the time. In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged and graphic elements to make the view that withdrawal supported market prices to the detri ment of consumer interests. In particular it said: Given that they section headings stand out. are a form of price and income support, there might be a tempta tion to view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and vegeta 13 11 11 11 11 3 New beginnings 4 Open season: the effects 3 New beginnings 4 Open season: the effects of deregulation in the of deregulation in the Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and current climate current climate apples, withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and mandarins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real impor tance of withdrawal for the other products listed, because Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable goods apples, withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas apples, withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas apples, withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and the for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and gures reported in table b may simply re ect an institu mandarins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real impor mandarins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real impor mandarins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real impor tionalization of gluts which would in any case exist. tance of withdrawal for the other products listed, because tance of withdrawal for the other products listed, because tance of withdrawal for the other products listed, because it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable goods it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable goods it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable goods 5.1 The 1991 survey for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and the for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and the for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and the It might also be protested that, as far as British growers gures reported in table b may simply re ect an institu gures reported in table b may simply re ect an institu gures reported in table b may simply re ect an institu are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. tionalization of gluts which would in any case exist. tionalization of gluts which would in any case exist. tionalization of gluts which would in any case exist. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market interlinkages within the European 5.1 The 1991 survey 5.1 The 1991 survey 5.1 The 1991 survey Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgot It might also be protested that, as far as British growers It might also be protested that, as far as British growers It might also be protested that, as far as British growers ten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. and withdrawal mechanisms help support British market Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the prices as well as market prices in the countries in which UK, the market interlinkages within the European UK, the market interlinkages within the European UK, the market interlinkages within the European withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgot Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgot Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgot produce peaches for its horticultural producers to bene t ten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, ten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, ten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in and withdrawal mechanisms help support British market and withdrawal mechanisms help support British market and withdrawal mechanisms help support British market the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred prices as well as market prices in the countries in which prices as well as market prices in the countries in which prices as well as market prices in the countries in which in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of lower withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to priced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the produce peaches for its horticultural producers to bene t produce peaches for its horticultural producers to bene t produce peaches for its horticultural producers to bene t market for other fresh produce in season at the time. from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament chal the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of lower in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of lower in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of lower lenged the view that withdrawal supported market prices to the detriment of consumer interests. In particular it priced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the priced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the priced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the said: Given that they are a form of price and income sup market for other fresh produce in season at the time. In market for other fresh produce in season at the time. In market for other fresh produce in season at the time. In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged port, there might be a temptation to view the arrange 7.6 A fixed space follows these section headings 7.7 A fixed ‘drop’ is built in to the grid here, so the so that the text starting position changes. text always starts at the same position, no matter how long the heading.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 23 23 Section 8 Reports and proposals Problems of page layout 8.1 Page breaks When you divide your report into pages, it is impor tant to make sure that the page breaks occur at the right places – don’t allow single words or lines to appear at the top of a column. It looks better to have at least two lines of a para graph at the top or bottom of the page. And make sure that headings don’t appear as the last line of a page. They should have at least two lines following them, and more in the case of major headings. Reports often contain lists of numbered or bullet ed points. It’s best not to break short lists (say, six or fewer lines), but to start the list on a new page. 8.1 The lonely single word at the top of this page can be avoided Chapter 3 Reprographics Department Report 27 by forcing a page break early, so bound. that at least one more line of text appears at the top of the page. Most reports are printed on single sheets of paper (often using only one side of the paper) and are bound relatively cheaply. With all office binding systems you lose a propor tion of the page width. In the case of ring, comb, or wire 8.2 In this example, the heading lose relatively little. These systems clamp the paper flat at the should be forced on to the next edge, and make it difficult to open the report out, so we do page. Do not worry about pages not recommend them for the company’s technical manuals. having unequal depths. Storage problems Farley Library Annual report 8.2 Placing illustrations and tables Although most DTP programs allow the text to flow around illustrations (and diagrams and tables), it is best to place them between paragraphs. In a single column grid, an illustration can be placed anywhere on the page. However, if this means that only three or four lines of text would appear above or below it, you might as well align the illustration at the top or bottom. Leave at least one line space between the text and the illustration. In a double column grid, it is always best to place illustrations at the top or bottom of the page. Although illustrations can be effective in other positions, there is always a risk of the flow of text being broken up in inappropriate ways, making it difficult for the reader to follow the text in the way you intended.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 24 24 Designing Business Documents Clearly, for some products such as effect prevails, and withdrawal Clearly, for some products such as mechanisms help support British mechanisms help support British Clearly, for some products such as mechanisms help support British table grapes and aubergines, with mechanisms help support British table grapes and aubergines, with market prices as well as market market prices as well as market table grapes and aubergines, with market prices as well as market drawal is not an important outlet; market prices as well as market drawal is not an important outlet; prices in the countries in which prices in the countries in which drawal is not an important outlet; prices in the countries in which prices in the countries in which whereas for others, such as apples withdrawal actually takes place. withdrawal actually takes place. whereas for others, such as apples withdrawal actually takes place. withdrawal actually takes place. (a storable crop), peaches and man (a storable crop), peaches and man darins, it is. Opinions will differ as to Places to goto get drunk The final analysis darins, it is. Opinions will differ as to Places to goto get drunk the real importance of withdrawal The UK does not have to produce The UK does not have to produce the real importance of withdrawal The UK does not have to produce The final analysis for the other products listed, because peaches for its horticultural produc peaches for its horticultural produc for the other products listed, because peaches for its horticultural produc The UK does not have to produce Clearly, for some products such as peaches for its horticultural produc it is in the nature of markets for ers to bene t from the EEC with ers to bene t from the EEC with it is in the nature of markets for ers to bene t from the EEC with table grapes and aubergines, with highly perishable goods for unsale drawal mechanisms for peaches, for drawal mechanisms for peaches, for highly perishable goods for unsale drawal mechanisms for peaches, for ers to bene t from the EEC with drawal is not an important outlet; able gluts to emerge from time to in the absence of such heavy with in the absence of such heavy with able gluts to emerge from time to in the absence of such heavy with drawal mechanisms for peaches, for time, and the gures reported in drawals as have occurred in the past whereas for others, such as apples drawals as have occurred in the past time, and the gures reported in drawals as have occurred in the past in the absence of such heavy with (a storable crop), peaches and man table b may simply re ect an institu it is conceivable that larger quanti it is conceivable that larger quanti table b may simply re ect an institu it is conceivable that larger quanti drawals as have occurred in the past darins, it is. Opinions will differ as to whereas for others, such as apples it is conceivable that larger quanti tionalization of gluts which would ties of lowerpriced peaches could ties of lowerpriced peaches could tionalization of gluts which would ties of lowerpriced peaches could the real importance of withdrawal market for other fresh produce in to in any case exist. appear in British shops, eroding the appear in British shops, eroding the in any case exist. appear in British shops, eroding the ties of lowerpriced peaches could for the other products listed, because the real importance of withdrawal market for other fresh produce in It might also be protested that, as market for other fresh produce in appear in British shops, eroding the for the other products listed, because it is in the nature of markets for season at the time. far as British growers are concerned, season at the time. market for other fresh produce in highly perishable goods for unsale it is in the nature of markets for In 1989, a Committee of the withdrawal is of minimum impor In 1989, a Committee of the season at the time. able gluts to emerge from time to highly perishable goods for unsale In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged the tance. Whilst it is true that relatively European Parliament challenged the time, and the gures reported in able gluts to emerge from time to view that withdrawal supported little is withdrawn in the UK, the view that withdrawal supported European Parliament challenged the table b may simply re ect an institu time, and the gures reported in market prices to the detriment of market interlinkages within the market prices to the detriment of view that withdrawal supported table b may simply re ect an institu tionalization of gluts which would consumer interests. In particular it European Community, particularly consumer interests. In particular it market prices to the detriment of in any case exist. tionalization of gluts which would said: Given that they are a form of after 1992 , must not be forgotten. In said: Given that they are a form of consumer interests. In particular it in any case exist. said: Given that they are a form of price and income support, there a Single European Market a domino price and income support, there Longterm investment might be a temptation to view the effect prevails, and withdrawal might be a temptation to view the price and income support, there It might also be protested that, as far Longterm investment It might also be protested that, as market for other fresh produce in arrangements for withdrawal of might be a temptation to view the It might also be protested that, as far far as British growers are concerned, season at the time. as British growers are concerned, fruit and vegetables as being against arrangements for withdrawal of withdrawal is of minimum impor as British growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum impor In 1989, a Committee of the consumer interests. Indeed, this is fruit and vegetables as being against tance. Whilst it is true that relatively withdrawal is of minimum impor consumer interests. Indeed, this is tance. Whilst it is true that relatively European Parliament challenged the the argument put forward by nearly little is withdrawn in the UK, the tance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the view that withdrawal supported all consumer associations: they the argument put forward by nearly market interlinkages within the little is withdrawn in the UK, the market interlinkages within the market prices to the detriment of attempt to impress upon consumers all consumer associations: they market interlinkages within the European Community, particularly consumer interests. In particular it European Community, particularly that consumer prices of fruit and attempt to impress upon consumers after 1992 , must not be forgotten. In European Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgotten. In said: Given that they are a form of vegetables would be very much that consumer prices of fruit and a Single European Market a domino after 1992 , must not be forgotten. In vegetables would be very much a Single European Market a domino price and income support, there lower if there was no intervention. effect prevails, and withdrawal a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal might be a temptation to view the Yet what they do not say is that sta 8.3 Be careful when positioning illustrations in will not know whether to read ‘over’ the illustration to doublecolumn grids. In the lefthand page (above the bottom of the first column, before progressing to left), a heading in the righthand column happens the next or whether to read both columns above the to align with the picture, which might make readers picture first. The example above right shows a bet think a new section has started. In the righthand ter layout: illustrations which span both columns are page (above left), the illustration divides the page best placed at the top or bottom of the page. into two clear, but inappropriate zones. The reader Runarounds Most DTP programs allow you to run text around illustrations, and you can define the distance between the text and the illustration. If you have a wide mar gin to your report, illustrations can go there and runarounds shouldn’t be necessary. If you do use runarounds, the illustration shouldn’t extend to more than halfway across the column. And be care ful with justified type: the narrower column left beside the illustration could have very uneven word spacing. The Data Set was developed and tested with Project members The Data Set was developed and tested with Project mem in late 1989. It was intended to be a starting point and a testbed bers in late 1989. It was intended to be a starting point for data collection, to be varied and augmented as the Project and a testbed for data collection, to be varied and aug gained experience. It was designed given the expectations for mented as the Project gained experience. It was designed data collection ability at the time and to encourage practices to given the expectations for data collection ability at the make full use of the computer systems. Additionally the items time and to encourage practices to make full use of the chosen were a mixture of those of immediate relevance within computer systems. Additionally the items chosen were a practices and mixture of those of immediate rele of interest to vance within practices and of interest the project to the project team. Data Set cards, team. Data Set listing the data items and of cards, listing a handy size, were issued as an aide the data items memoire, supported by a more de and of a handy tailed protocol containing the neces size, were sary criteria and de nitions. The issued as an detailed list is shown in Appendix 1. aide memoire, The extent of data recorded was supported by tested, together with the downloading a more methodology, in October detailed proto and again in December. These col containing demonstrated considerable variation the necessary between practices, some having most criteria and of the Data Set recorded, others very de nitions. little. A decision was taken to defer The detailed electronic postcoding until most list is shown in practices had been able Appendix 1. to check their downloaded registra The extent of data recorded was tested, together with the down tion lists for accuracy. This is a considerable task. On loading methodology, in October and again in December. the advice of practices electronic postcoding has been These demonstrated considerable variation between practices, deferred until March/April 1991 to ensure that accurate some having most of the Data Set recorded, others very little. A registration lists are processed. decision was taken to defer electronic postcoding until most There is already usable data available for a proportion of practices had been able to check their downloaded registration the Project population. This will increase over the next lists for accuracy. This is a considerable task. On the advice of months. Data will be downloaded every three months as practices electronic postcoding has been deferred until March a check on progress. In order to improve the range of ana or April 1991 to ensure that accurate registration lists are pro lysis possible, the data download software (ASCII les) are cessed. being augmented, e.g. to allow analysis by age bands, by the development of report generating software. The Data Set 23 The Data Set 23 8.4 Rather than reduce the illustration to fit in the A good solution is to make sure that the illustration margin, or increase it to fill the whole column, a takes up less than half the column of type. runaround can be a useful solution. However, used Don’t wrap text around the contour of an image. badly, runarounds can lead to illegibility in the nar This makes the text more difficult to read, distracting row column that results. attention from the message.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 25 25 Section 9 Reports and proposals Making your message clear 9.1 Using type to show hierarchy Aheading Items that are bigger or bolder are seen as more Bheading important than those that are smaller or lighter. Cheading This principle allows you to create a hierarchy of Text in a seriffed typeface headings which will help graphically express the works well with headings in organization of the text. Use changes of style (bold, sans serif. italic) and size to signal the relative importance of the headings: each heading in a hierarchy has to 9.1 Sans serif typefaces are dominate all those below it. Try to restrict the hier useful for headings when the text archy to three levels: section or chapter heading, is in a seriffed typeface. The two Aheading and Bheading. Readers may find it hard styles contrast and sans serifs often have a range of variants to keep track of any more. (bold, condensed, etc.), which can be used to signal different levels of heading. 9.2 Using space to show hierarchy Typographic distinction may not be enough to make a heading system clear in itself, so you will need to adjust the space between elements to group items together. Things that are closer together will be seen as related: a heading must be closer to the text it governs than to text at a higher level in the hier archy. be that graphic design problems (to the extent that they are seen 29 From bookshelf to desktop: what the reader tells the designer as problems at all) are held to be neither complex nor critical enough to require formal methods. readers have many different purposes for reading, that they engage in many different kinds of reading activity, and do it in 3.2 Arguments about creativity many different kinds of environment.  So for most graphic designers, feedback rst comes in the form of 3 Design method: the absent centre informal peer commentary (comments from colleagues while  All designers need feedback about the results of their work. Most work is in progress, much as writers ask friends to read their thoughtful designers think about how and when to get it, about drafts), and second (and often nally) from their client: If it looks the form in which it comes, and about how to assess its value. But few graphic designers engage in the kind of empirical testing that engineering designers, say, would do as a matter of course. No body would wish designers of bridges and aeroplane wings to be that graphic design problems (to the extent that they are seen adopt the methods of graphic designers.  as problems at all) are held to be neither complex nor critical 3.1 Objections to design methods research enough to require formal methods.  One strong disincentive to formal enquiries about the results of design decisions is the common folklore that testing or research 3.2 Arguments about creativity inhibits creativity and even common humanity. Despite the work of journals like Visible Language, to many graphic designers So for most graphic designers, feedback rst comes in the form of research appears to mean questionnaires in shopping malls, as informal peer commentary (comments from colleagues while in a recent cri de coeur: clients who have been persuaded ... to use market research instead of intuition ... need to be reeducated by work is in progress, much as writers ask friends to read their designers into thinking on a more human scale . Another disin drafts), and second (and often nally) from their client: If it looks centive may be that designers don t have the skills to conduct for mal enquiries. Another is that designers are often concerned primarily with personal style: The core of our philosophy is the belief that design is based on personal expression. Another may 9.2 Spacing of headings should be visually con be that graphic design problems (to the extent that they are seen as problems at all) are held to be neither complex nor critical trolled. Headings with equal space before and after enough to require formal methods.  appear to ‘float’ between preceding and following 3.2 Arguments about creativity  text (top). When there is clearly more space before So for most graphic designers, feedback rst comes in the form of informal peer commentary (comments from colleagues while than after, they attach to the following text (bottom). work is in progress, much as writers ask friends to read their drafts), and second (and often nally) from their client: If it looks terrif c, then that s all I care about. After the looks, and strictly of secondary importance, comes client approval. And this feedback 9.3 A controlled series of interline space values is assigned to these heading styles. Note the descend ing order of size from  to .busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 26 26 Designing Business Documents 9.4 The same spacing principle – that elements closer together Dry marker, black 0.50 Hilite pen, orange 0.30 are seen to belong together – applies to all elements. In this Dry marker, blue 0.50 Hilite pen, pink 0.30 price list the figures relating to the lefthand column are physi Dry marker, green 0.50 Hilite pen, yellow 0.30 cally closer to the goods in the Dry marker, orange 0.50 Pencil, black lead (10) 0.75 righthand column – readers could make mistakes. Dry marker, red 0.50 Pencil, blue (10) 0.75 Ballpoint pen, black 0.25 Fineline pen, black 0.55 Ballpoint pen, blue 0.25 Fineline pen, blue 0.55 Ballpoint pen, green 0.25 Fineline pen, red 0.55 Ballpoint pen, red 0.25 Fineline pen, green 0.55 Hilite pen, blue 0.30 Fineline pen, orange 0.55 9.3 Visual identity Different parts of a text can be assigned different styles which are not necessarily hierarchical. Summaries and sidenotes, for example, sit outside the main argument and comment on it: they can be in a different typeface, as if they are being spoken in a different voice. Even though they may be pages apart, they will be seen as belonging to the same cat egory of information because of their similarity. 9.5 A different typeface distin guishes these sidenotes as a separate category of information. 3 Management education  The 1963 Franks Report 3.1 Proliferation of courses was enthusiastic about the Although Franks recommended establishing a rela American model and was tively small number of centres of excellence, there largely responsible for the are now over 70 institutions conferring qualifica fact that MBA courses in tions in this area. They are competing for students the UK were modelled on as well as scarce teaching resources. their US counterparts 3.2 Priorities In many cases the establishment of a management course reflects the hope of high fee incomes rather than a genuine commitment to management edu cation. But there will soon be competition from continental business schools who will offer an international dimension that students will view busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 27 27 Section 10 Reports and proposals Alternatives to text Certain information is often much clearer if it is not buried in the flow of a sentence. You may want the reader to follow instructions, or compare totals of research findings, for example. Lists, tables, graphs, and charts can give a more distinct representation of this kind of information, and will also add variety to the layout of your document. 10.1 Lists 1 Switch on the computer 2 When the screen shows C, Numbers, bullets, and sorts insert Disk 1 It helps to list collections of related ideas. Where 3 Type COPYA:PROG.EXE items are referred to individually in the following C: text, or when they describe a sequence of actions, they can be numbered, but otherwise it is simpler just to use bullets (•) or dashes (–). These can be 10.1 Numbered lists should be found in all typefaces, but if you want to make more simple: don’t put the numbers in impact you can use the Monotype Sorts font (). brackets or punctuate them – Be careful not to overuse lists: there must always space is enough to separate them be enough conventional text to lead your readers from the words. For more impact you could put the number in bold through your argument. Otherwise it’s like giving type or a different typeface. them selfassembly furniture with no assembly instructions: everything they need is there, but they don’t know what it’s for. 10.2 If the items in your list are You can reach the airport single words or short phrases, you don’t need to use a capital  by cab letter at the beginning or punctu  by car ation at the end of each line.  by bus There are three ways to get to the airport.  The conference organizer can arrange for a cab to pick you up after the conference.  If you have rented a car from one of the major car rental firms, you can leave it at the airport.  The airport bus runs every 30 minutes from the Plaza Hotel. 10.3 If each item is a whole sentence, use conventional punctuation (capital letter at the beginning and full stop/period at the end). Turnover lines look better indented to align with the first word of the item.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 28 28 Designing Business Documents 10.2 Tables Some basic table terminology • Row headings: the headings that run down the left of a table. Each one defines the row to its right. • Column headings: the headings that run along the top of a table. Each one defines the column beneath it. • Cells: the spaces in the main body of the table in which the content (figures or text) is put. DTP allows great flexibility for the design of tables, but they take a bit of skill and practice. There are several ways of setting tables: if you see tables you find particularly clear you could copy the way they are designed. However, always bear in mind that your text is different and may need special treat ment. Remember to put the user first, not your own design preferences. Here one system is recommend ed that is easy to implement in most software and for most purposes. Vertical and horizontal rules These days vertical rules are usually left out of tables because the data in the columns is well enough aligned to allow the space between the columns to do the same job. If many of the cells are left blank, though, vertical rules might be needed. You should use horizontal rules to help people read 10.4 The horizontal space across tables. By varying the thickness of the rules between cells is almost always you can emphasize different sections. Vertical rules greater than the vertical space, so readers often need horizontal are usually more difficult to use in DTP software than rules to help them scan across horizontal ones, which can be anchored to the line rows (right), but may not need of type and so don’t have to be adjusted separately vertical rules to help them scan down columns. if the text above is edited. Income in 1991 (000) Income in 1991 (000) North South East North South East Networks Division 1,279 1,457 987 Management Services 3,908 2,341 1,067 Networks Division 1,279 1,457 987 Materials Handling 456 645 597 Management Services 3,908 2,341 1,067 Total 5,643 4,443 2,651 Materials Handling 456 645 597 Total 5,643 4,443 2,651 Column headings Write short headings for tables, and abbreviate Short heading A longer multiline where you can. If some column headings have to be heading split over more than one line, align the headings at the top. But because the headings will no longer 10.5 A long heading hung from form a distinct line, it is a good idea to use a hori the same point as a short one. zontal rule below them, to distinguish clearly Use a horizontal line underneath to divide headings from data. between the heading area and the table content.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 29 Section 10 Alternatives to text 29 10.6 The column headings in this table are evenly spaced, but Personnel Sales Regional offices Dealers look wrong. North 8 457,353 2 24 South 12 2,341,230 3 56 10.7 Because the data in one column is much longer than the Personnel Sales Regional Dealers data in the others, the table offices needs to be respaced by eye. North 8 457,353 2 24 The second column shows how the lefthand edge of the column South 12 2,341,230 3 56 heading should align with the left hand of the longest cell in the column. Estimating the width of columns If each table has a different number of columns and perhaps different kinds of data to go in the cells, you’ll have to treat each table as a separate design problem. The good thing about DTP is that you can easily try things out on screen and quickly proof your trials on paper. Set your headings with tabs between, and then adjust the tabs until the headings all fit on the page with the same amount of space between them. Once you’ve entered the data in the cells of the table, you’ll need to adjust it again so that there is a visual balance between the columns – the reader should see them as equally spaced even if the con tent varies in width. Aligning data with column headings Where the cells have text in them, they can line up on the left with the column heading above. Where they have figures that have to be aligned on the right, you can use right tabs and decimal tabs. But you will have to align them with the column head ing by eye. Row headings Write short headings, if you can. If you have to go to a second line, indent it slightly, or make sure there is more space between each row heading than between the lines in a single heading. 10.8 You can use typographic variation Tractors Cars Trucks and horizontal rules to under 2 2 litre + total under 20 20 tons + total set up a hierarchy of litre cars tons trucks column headings where necessary. 1988 340 6,386 3,592 9,978 2,386 1,187 3,573 1989 401 7,483 3,345 10,828 1,987 1,908 3,885Model A Model A 20 30 40 50 0 10 busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 30 30 Designing Business Documents 10.3 Graphs and charts There are numerous specialized graphs and charts, some of which are specific to particular subject areas. But for general purposes, most people want to do one of three things: they want to show trends, compare totals, or compare proportions. 5 Showing trends 4 A traditional graph is the best way of showing a trend over time. Time is always displayed on the ‘x’ 3 axis (horizontally) and the data points are joined by 2 straight lines. Readers can easily see if there is a 1 trend in the data. 0 1990 1991 1992 5 5 10.9 Graphs are best for show 4 ing how a situation changes over 4 time. 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1st qtr 2nd qtr 3rd qtr 4th qtr 1st qtr 2nd qtr 3rd qtr 4th qtr 10.10 Avoid stacked line If this represents the true picture, graphs. In this example, readers then the stacked line graph on can’t tell if the top line represents the left is very misleading – it orders for Model A, or if it is the implies that all is well, whereas total of Model A and Model B. actually Model A’s decline is hid den by the success of Model B. Small Comparing totals and proportions Bar or column charts are the simplest way of com Medium paring totals and proportions. Bar charts run hori zontally and should only be used for comparison of Large single bars. Column charts run vertically and are 10.11 A bar chart – good for ideal for both single columns and column clusters. single totals. 60 small medium large 50 25 40 20 30 15 20 10 10 5 0 0 1988 1989 1990 1991 1988 1989 1990 1991 10.12 A stacked column chart If it is important that readers compare the subtotals, you should use col shows the breakdown of a total umn clusters instead. The use of rules to define the scale all the way into subtotals. But because the across the chart provides a useful point of comparison to assess the different sections begin at differ totals of columns, especially those furthest from the axis. It may be ent points, it is difficult to make an helpful to repeat the yaxis on the righthand side too. accurate comparison. Model B Model Bbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 31 Section 10 Alternatives to text 31 Population Population each figure represents one million people a a a a a a a 1980 b b b b b b a b ab a a a a a a a a a a a 1990 1980 1990 b b b b b b b b b b 10.13 It is impossible to tell It is better to repeat the symbols, each one representing a set whether we are meant to com number of objects (this system is sometimes known as Isotype, pare the area or the height of after the Isotype Institute where it was first developed). these symbols. Area is not a good unit for comparison Bar and column charts allow a direct comparison because people aren’t good between lengths that start at the same base – some at judging surface area. thing the human eye is very good at. Avoid tech niques that don’t allow such a simple comparison – including stacked bar charts and different sized symbols. Use sidebyside bars or repeated symbols instead. Many spreadsheet programs offer a dazzling array of statistical graphics, including threedimensional effects and shadows. Be ultracritical – make sure that you really need the techniques offered and that they won’t just obscure your data. If you create your charts in a drawing program and then import them into a page makeup program, stretching can distort the chart (and distort the type contained in it). Sizing must be done carefully to preserve the proportions. 50 25 10.14 For more than one chart dealing with the same values 40 20 ensure that the graphic picture 30 15 of the data is reliable. This exam ple gives the false impression that 20 10 totals are similar in both charts, 10 5 because the yaxis is changed to fit the available space. 0 0 1988 1989 1990 1991 1988 1989 1990 1991 50 50 In this example, it is clear that the totals in the first chart are gener 40 40 ally higher, because the same 30 30 yaxis is maintained in each chart. 20 20 10 10 0 0 1988 1989 1990 1991 1988 1989 1990 1991 For a wide range of examples of welldesigned graphs and charts: Edward Tufte, The visual display of quantitative information, Cheshire, Connecticut, Graphics Press, 1983.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 32 32 Designing Business Documents Section 11 Letters, memos, and faxes Setting standards Correspondence to your customers or clients will 85 Rue de Verneuil · 75013 Paris Telephone (1) 47 81 34 57 mti Fax (1) 47 81 34 56 influence their everyday impression of your organ •• Elaine Matthews ization. Now that DTP offers the opportunity to make Giant Productions 28 Wilshire Boulevard Milton Keynes MK9 4LA United Kingdom •• your letters and faxes appear typeset (not typewrit 25 April 1992 Dear Ms Matthews ten) by the use of printers’ typefaces, you must make Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and aubergines, withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and man darins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real importance sure that details of layout and text design are corres of withdrawal for the other products listed, because it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable goods for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and the figures reported in table b may simply reflect an institutionalization pondingly professional. Even internal memos are of gluts which would in any case exist. It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market interlinkages within the European Community, particu important in communicating information to your larly after ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mechanisms help support British market prices as well as mar ket prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes colleagues clearly, so that business runs more place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horti cultural producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal mecha nisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of lowerpriced peaches could appear smoothly. in British shops, eroding the market for other fresh produce in season at the time. In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal supported market prices to the detri ment of consumer interests. In particular it said: Given that As correspondence may be produced by many they are a form of price and income support, there might be a temptation to view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and vegetables as being against consumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put forward by nearly all consumer asso people within an organization, it is important that a ciations: they attempt to impress upon consumers that con 1 standard style is set up, so that the image of a coher ent organization is presented. You could set up a 85 Rue de Verneuil Fax (1) 47 81 34 56 75013 Paris mti Telephone (1) 47 81 34 57 template file for each kind of document you produce. Fax to Elaine Matthews From Henri Pelvaux Company Giant productions Date 20 May 1992 Factors that should remain constant are: Fax no. 44 765 67897 Pages 4 • information about your organization Re Installation of address database France totally conquered all forms of printing in the late • typeface eighteenth century. The Chiswick Press began by using only Caslon capitals on a title page, but soon progressed to set ting whole texts in it, such as the celebrated Diary of Lady Willoughby. This use of an outmoded typeface was perhaps the • type size first consciously historicist revival, and Updike sees it as important for this reason. Whittingham and Pickering admired classic texts, and the fine printed form given to them in fifteenth century Italy and Sixteenthcentury France. They used Caslon only for poet • leading ic and literary works, which had mostly been first published before 1800. Some of their editions featured facsimilies of decorated initials first used by Geoffrey Tory in France in the 1520s. A concerted effort was therefore made to imitate the form of Renaissance literature, a natural step for those • text area interested in romantic and literary matters rather than the scientific and industrial concerns of the day, which are rep resented in the ultimate rationality of the modern face. Therefore, it was a literary, rather than scholarly • housestyle (see Section 5.2 Aspects of typographic revival: Whittingham himself said that he wished to revive ‘the old letters of Garamond and Jenson’ (p.96) This is a generic notion old face, taking in two different styles, which would admittedly not be historically and aesthetically separated until Morison. Caslon typified this notion, which style). is understandable, as it is the logical continuation of the Garamond style, taking into account the rational elements applied by the Dutch punchcutters in the seventeenth century, without the narrowing of character widths. As such, to late With a template file, all employees can simply type twentiethcentury eyes used to old face types, Caslon seems to be the ultimate, anonymous essay in this tradition, a reliable and sober workhorse. It has therefore fallen out of favour somewhat in these times of novelty in type design, althogh the recent Adobe revival is an excellent contemporary in the new information without worrying about the version. However, to noneteenthcentury eyes used to the aus 1 layout. This will benefit both you and your readers: 11.1 The text in these two docu you save valuable time and your readers will be able ments (a letter and a fax) con to concentrate on the content of your correspond forms to a standard of typeface, ence rather than being diverted by unnecessary type size, interline space, and line length. variety in its presentation. 11.1 Stationery Because letters and faxes are everyday documents, which need a stamp of identity, you will probably have a range of preprinted stationery. This bears the details of your organization, sometimes with a logo or namestyle. Page size Most headed paper will be of standard size (A4 or US letter): there is really no other choice, as you will have to feed the paper through your printer and probably use standard envelopes designed to accom modate these sizes.derain busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 33 Section 11 Setting standards 33 exhibition lighting 25 Letsby Avenue · York · YK9 7TG phone 0867 896345 fax 0867 896355 pierre If you are likely to use window envelopes, you our ref: der25/678/1 your ref: Y786G should check that your letterhead conforms to the 28 December 1991 •• Graham Blake relevant standards (e.g. British Standard or US Monotype Typography Ltd Perrywood Park Salfords Redhill Surrey RH1 5JP •• Postal Service Guide). These standards give guide Dear Graham lines for the areas to be left blank, so that the recipi Old face types are those which derive their essential characteristics from the humanistic minuscule, the formal script developed by Renaissance scholars in the fifteenth century. The first successful emulation of these letterforms in type occurred in the late 1460s. The italic style which settled in its role as a sec ent’s address will be visible through a window ondary variant to roman (upright letters) in the 1540s, was similarly based on the more cursive handwriting from the Papal chancery. Consequently, old face types display the influence of calligraphy, both from the Renaissance scribes, and from ancient Roman inscriptions, as the brushwritten monumental capitals of envelope. Your letterhead may have an indication the Romans were revived in the humanistic script. Today, the typefaces from this tradition are a cornerstone of our typographic repertoire, still being the most commonly used for text of all kinds. This promi nence is due to several conscious revivals by printers, scholars and manufactur ers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The figure of Stanley Morison has of this area to guide you in typing the address: if become almost mythical in this area, due to his rôle as typographical advisor to the Monotype Corporation in England. Morison’s scholarly obsession certainly centred on old face, and his research was influential, and often groundbreaking, in establishing the roots of the style. Before him, however, there was a more not, you could set up some guides on a template. It pragmatic, general swing towards true old face types, which had been mounting since the mid nineteenth century. In the 1840s, the publisher William Pickering and the printer Charles Whittingham at the Chiswick Press began to use the old face type of William is worth sending a copy of a letter to yourself to see Caslon (c.1720) for their collaborations. This late essay in the old face tradition had been popular in England and America until the pervasive influence of the modern face from Italy and France. Yours sincerely if the address is still visible after the rigours of the Pierre Derain Pierre Derain post, and to see what your letter looks like to a recipient. 11.2 This letterhead conforms to If in the course of your business, you use refer the British Standard recommen ence numbers on your letters, it may be difficult to dations. The lefthand margin is align a number that you are typing with an associ at least 20mm to allow users to ated heading on your preprinted stationery. A bet punch holes for filing without damaging the printed area. ter option might be to have the heading on your The area for the address is template file, so that you can align the reference indicated by some small marks, number with it directly. so that it remains visible when the letter is folded and inserted into a Similarly, if your headed paper does not indicate standard window envelope. You where you should begin the text of your letter, you should allow about 7mm for slip could define a specific point. You could mark the page between the address and the edge of the window. starting point in your template file or, if you are There is also a small mark on using a wordprocessing program, adjust the page the lefthand edge to guide fold setup parameters so that you always start typing at ing. the correct position. Faxes Faxes must include the same information about you as your letterhead. For this reason, you may want to use the same headed paper and even the same stand ard text style. However, beware of the effects faxing has on type: some of the essential information in a letterhead may be in quite small type, which may become illegible after faxing, so you may want to set up your own separate headed paper for faxing (see Section 14 Technology and type). Try them out to make sure they are legible after transmission. The following publications give guidance on formats for stationery and envelope sizes for mailing: BS 1808 : 1985 (1990) Specification for cut business forms and letter heads, London, British Standards Institution, 1990. A guide to business mail preparation, (Publication 25), Washington DC, US Postal Service, 1988. The Post Office Guide, London, The Post Office, 1986.busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 34 34 Designing Business Documents Section 12 Letters, memos, and faxes Layout Interactive systems analysis 209 West 23rd Street Interactive systems analysis 209 West 23rd Street Wilmington MA 02230 Wilmington MA 02230 Tel (508) 7698000 Tel (508) 7698000 visage visage Fax (508) 7698001 Fax (508) 7698001 Elaine Matthews Elaine Matthews Giant productions Giant productions 28 Wiltshire Boulevard 28 Wiltshire Boulevard Milton Keynes MK9 4LA Milton Keynes MK9 4LA United Kingdom United Kingdom 25 April 1992 25 April 1992 Dear Ms Matthews Dear Ms Matthews Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and Clearly, for some products such as table grapes and aubergines, aubergines, withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas for others, such as apples (a storable crop), peaches and withdrawal is not an important outlet; whereas for others, such mandarins, it is. Opinions will differ as to the real as apples (a storable crop), peaches and mandarins, it is. importance of withdrawal for the other products listed, Opinions will differ as to the real importance of withdrawal because it is in the nature of markets for highly for the other products listed, because it is in the nature of perishable goods for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time markets for highly perishable goods for unsaleable gluts to to time, and the figures reported in table b may simply reflect an institutionalization of gluts which would in any emerge from time to time, and the figures reported in table b case exist. may simply reflect an institutionalization of gluts which would It might also be protested that, as far as British in any case exist. growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. It might also be protested that, as far as British growers Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it the UK, the market interlinkages within the European Community, particularly after ‘1992’, must not be is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the forgotten. In a Single European Market a domino effect market interlinkages within the European Community, prevails, and withdrawal mechanisms help support British particularly after ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single market prices as well as market prices in the countries in European Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal which withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have mechanisms help support British market prices as well as market to produce peaches for its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal lowerpriced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy the market for other fresh produce in season at the time. withdrawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable that In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal supported market prices larger quantities of lowerpriced peaches could appear in to the detriment of consumer interests. In particular it British shops, eroding the market for other fresh produce in said: Given that they are a form of price and income season at the time. support, there might be a temptation to view the arrange 1 1 12.1 If your letterhead demands that you align the lefthand edge 12.1 Are grids relevant of your text with it, you don’t have to fill the page (above left). If you Complexities of column arrangement are not really do have a wide column (above applicable to letters. Despite the facilities offered by right), a larger type size will be DTP, the conventions of letter layout still dictate a necessary, which may look clum sier than a more typical text size. single column. If you produce a letter in two col umns, it simply won’t look like a letter. If you use a single column, you do not have to fill the width of the page: a moderate line length will mean that your type size can be within the desired range for text (9 to 11 point), whereas a longer line might require 12 point or more, so that the lines do not exceed 70 characters in length. 12.2 Space after address Dianne Westerley Daisy Chain Inc. 789 Addison Avenue The space between the address and the text of the Chicago letter should make it clear that they are separate Illinois 20309 units. If the date immediately follows the address, 29 April 1992 it should be separated by extra space, but the space between the date and ‘Dear Sir/Madam’ should be Dear Ms Westerley greater. This will separate the information into I acknowledge your request for groups, as elements close together are seen as greater control over the daily of the project. Unfortunately belonging to each other (See Section 9 Making your monitor the progress from the message clear).busdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 35 35 Section 13 Letters, memos, and faxes Points of information It may not seem that a planned structure is neces 85 Rue de Verneuil Fax (1) 47 81 34 56 75013 Paris mti Telephone (1) 47 81 34 57 sary for correspondence, with its very common Fax to From Company Date rules and conventions. But you should try to think Fax no. Pages of every possible use of the document and of any Re thing that could go wrong along the way. If a letter or fax has more than one sheet, for example, they may get separated: so you should include the name of the sender and a page number on each page. Pre printed headed paper, with special continuation sheets, usually contains abbreviated information. This is not so vital with faxes, as the fax machine includes the date and at least the fax number of the 1 sender, but page numbers are especially important. A fax might easily be sent to the wrong number. 13.1 The two pieces of informa tion you should feature most So however informal your communication, don’t be prominently on a fax are the tempted to leave out essential identifying informa recipient’s name and the send tion. The reader’s main priority is to find out what’s er’s identity. As faxes are often been said, by whom, when, and how they can reply. retrieved from a central machine, the recipient may find their fax An internal memorandum should feature the more easily if they spot their own word ‘memorandum’ or ‘memo’ as a heading, as it name or that of the organization needs to distinguish itself quickly from the other they are expecting to hear from. It is also essential to indicate kinds of documents that accumulate on a desk. how many pages you are faxing Identifying a memo immediately tells the reader in total, in case the transmission that this is internal communication. is not effective. As a documented record of a decision or policy which needs to be registered with the appropriate personnel, a memo often needs to be sent to many people. Their names are crucial, as they might be the only instruction to a secretary about who needs a copy of the memo. You might try setting all the identifying information in a different typeface or variant (e.g. bold, italic) to that of the main text: this will give the information a visibly different status. 13.2 In this memo, the identify ing information is highlighted in Rushey Systems 7 April 1992 bold and separated by space. memo Production schedule for April to December from Jennifer Wells x678 to Michael Balcon, Adam Barnes, Georgina Pompidou, Alan Tanner, Louis Marseillaise Brain Perrain fax 071 634 5670 Margaret Anouilh fax 010 1 345 897 0756 Typography is designing with type in order to communicate a message. Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you the facilities to use type in many sizes and styles to achieve a ‘professional look’. You might easily be tempted to ‘jazz up’ your documents with all the special effects you can muster – if you do this, you will have more fun than your readers. Restraint is essential, so that the content of documents is clearly understood. Typography should not callbusdocpagesquark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 36 36 Designing Business Documents Section 14 Letters, memos, and faxes Technology and type 14.1 The smooth outlines of typefaces are broken into digital images according to the resolution of the display or output device. This illustration shows bitmaps for a 12 point character at 72 dots per inch (far left) and 144 dots per inch (left). Sharper detail can be shown at higher resolution: if type is output from a typesetting machine working at 2450 lines per inch, the jagged ‘steps’ on the outline are so minute that they are not visible to the naked eye. 14.1 Consider your decisions Most typefaces are designed for highresolution 14.2 Samples of Monotype type faces printed at 300 dpi on a typesetting machines (e.g. 1270 lpi), and would not laser printer. normally reproduce well at medium resolution (e.g. 300 dpi). However typefaces for DTP are specially pro 10 pt Monotype Bodoni Bold grammed to look as good as possible at all resolu Condensed printed at 300 dpi tions. Some typefaces with very thin If your printer is of a low or medium resolution, elements are not suitable for mediumresolution output. you should choose your typeface carefully. Type faces with fine serifs, like Times New Roman or 10 pt Times New Roman Monotype Bodoni, can lose their elegance and, printed at 300 dpi worse, their legibility. Times New Roman is a standard Photocopying also has unpredictable effects on choice, but may also suffer due to type – sometimes it makes letters thinner, some its fine elements. times thicker. Faxing breaks type into coarse digital elements, a process as unpredictable as photocopy 10 pt Nimrod printed ing, but almost always worse. Letters can become at 300 dpi black blobs or even appear to transform into other Nimrod is a robust typeface letters due to the insensitivity of the process. designed specifically for adverse printing conditions. To avoid typeface degradation, especially when you cannot predict whether or not a document will 10 pt Arial printed at be photocopied or faxed: 300 dpi • Choose a robust and open typeface (not a con Arial’s wide proportions and stur densed style). Although it is tempting to use a dy weight survive well. ‘classical’ looking typeface, a bolder sans serif design might survive better. 10pt Courier • Avoid small typesizes, so that letters are better printed at 300 dpi defined before copying or transmission. Courier, designed for the rigours It is worth doing some trials of photocopying and of the typewriter, is also resilient faxing with different typefaces and sizes to see to mediumresolution output. which combination survives well. You only need to do it once, then stick to the choice you have made as a standard. With the careful use of type, clear structure, and careful planning, you can make the work of your readers a lot easier.
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