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Designing Business Documents

Designing Business Documents 6
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busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 1 Monotype Designing Business Documents Adapted by Chris Burke from the Monotype Desktop Solutions series by Alison Black, Paul Stiff, and Robert Wallerbusdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 2 Editor First published in 1992 Andrew Boag Monotype Typography Ltd Monotype Typography Inc (Monotype Typography Ltd) Perrywood Business Park Suite 504 American consultant Salfords 53 West Jackson Boulevard Dwayne Overmyer Redhill Chicago (University of Michigan, USA) Surrey RH1 5JP Illinois 60604 England USA Copyright © 1992 Monotype Typography Ltd All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani- cal, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publishers. Designing Business Documents ISBN 0-900763-25-6 This publication is adapted from the Monotype Desktop Solutions series: Monotype Desktop Solutions: Designing Reports and Presentations ISBN 0-900763-06-X Monotype Desktop Solutions: Designing Forms and Catalogues ISBN 0-900763-07-8 Monotype Desktop Solutions: Designing Newsletters and Booklets ISBN 0-900763-08-6 Software The text for this publication was written in Microsoft Word 4.0. Pages were made-up using QuarkXPress 3.0. Illustrations were made in QuarkXPress 3.0, and Adobe Illustrator 3.0. Typefaces The main text is set in 8.8 on 12.3 point Nimrod. Captions are set in 7 on 9.5 point Arial Light. Cover design Roundel Design Group Text design Chris Burke Printed in England by The Midas Press Trademarks and registered names Monotype is a registered trademark of The Monotype Corporation plc. Arial, Monotype Baskerville, Monotype Bodoni, Nimrod, Rockwell, and Times New Roman are registered trademarks of The Monotype Corporation plc. Century Gothic and Monotype Sorts are trademarks of The Monotype Corporation plc. Microsoft Word is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. QuarkXPress is a registered trademark of Quark Inc. Adobe Illustrator is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Inc.busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 3 3 Contents 1 Introduction 5 Reports and proposals 1.1 The purpose of typography 5 6 Planning 19 2 Planning and checking 7 6.1 Page size 19 2.1 Budget 7 6.2 Margins 19 2.2 Schedule 7 6.3 A page grid 20 2.3 Designing within your capabilities 7 2.4 Matching software to document 7 Document organization 21 preparation tasks 8 7.1 Cover and preliminary material 21 2.5 Testing out your design work 9 7.2 Headers, footers, and page 2.6 Checking 9 numbers 21 7.3 Section headings 22 3 Content and structure 11 3.1 Access structure 11 8 Problems of page layout 23 3.2 Numbering systems 11 8.1 Page breaks 23 3.3 Using styles and tags to format 8.2 Placing illustrations and tables 23 text 12 9 Making your message clear 25 4 Principles of legibility 13 9.1 Using type to show hierarchy 25 4.1 Typeface 13 9.2 Using space to show hierarchy 25 4.2 Type size, line length, 9.3 Visual identity 26 and leading 13 4.3 Text alignment and hyphenation 15 10 Alternatives to text 27 4.4 Paragraphs 17 10.1 Lists 27 10.2 Tables 28 5 Typography is not typing 18 10.3 Graphs and charts 30 5.1 Office practice versus printing practice 18 5.2 Aspects of typographic style 18 Letters, memos, and faxes 11 Setting standards 32 11.1 Stationery 32 12 Layout 34 12.1 Are grids relevant? 34 12.2 Space after address 34 13 Points of information 35 14 Technology and type 36 14.1 Consider your decisions 36busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 4busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 5 5 Section 1 Introduction 1.1 The purpose of typography Typography is designing with type in order to com- municate a message. Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you the facilities to use type in many sizes and styles to achieve a professional look. You might easily be tempted to ‘jazz-up’ your documents with all the special effects you can muster – if you do this, you may end up having more fun than your readers. Restraint is essential, so that the content of documents is clearly understood. Typography should not call attention to itself – its purpose is to make work easier for the reader. When designing, you should put yourself in the reader’s place. Try to think through everything you do from the reader’s point of view. You cannot force anyone to read anything, but you can make a docu- ment clear, accessible, and adaptable, to help read- ers navigate their way around the text for any purpose. There are certain principles of legibility and perception which should be followed to help achieve this (see Section 4 Principles of legibility). Readers will have preconceptions about the size and general layout of a company report, or even an 1.1 Readers begin to identify a document by its physical appear- official letter, based on their past experience with ance: format, size, apparent com- that kind of document. Before reading at a ‘word’ plexity. They will already have level, they may have started reading on a global recognized different kinds of information before they begin to level, flicking through and picking up structural read the text. joc-jou jou-jun THE WOMAN jockey joke m jockey jockey joke m jockey joie gwa f joy, joindre gwedr vt (59) jogging dgogn m jogging dgogn m gladness, delight; mettre ensemble join, Typography is designing with type in order to communicate a faire du, go jogging faire du, go jogging avec, with delight; put together; link, Readers will have preconceptions about the size and general lay- OF THE message. Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you the facilities to use out of a company report, or even an of cial letter, based on their joie gwa f joy, joie gwa f joy, d’une débordante, connect (à, to); relier type in many sizes and styles to achieve a professional look. You past experience with that kind of document. Before reading at a might easily be tempted to jazz-up your documents with all the word level, they may have started reading on a global level, gladness, delight; gladness, delight; overjoyed; sauter de les mains, join hands special effects you can muster — if you do this, you may end up icking through and picking up structural cues and features. LEADER having more fun than your readers. Restraint is essential, so that Apart from novels, users rarely read documents from beginning WORLD avec, with delight; avec, with delight; jump for joy. insérer enclose, the content of documents is clearly understood. Typography to end: they have their own purposes and tasks, which the docu- d’une débordante, d’une débordante, jockey joke m jockey annex contacter get should not call attention to itself — its purpose is to make work ment must accommodate. easier for the reader. Even in correspondence, like letters, memos, and faxes, overjoyed; sauter de overjoyed; sauter de jogging dgogn m in touch with, contact When designing, you should put yourself in the reader s where there cannot be much deviation from the norm, simple place. Try to think through everything you do from the reader s graphic features can mark out different kinds of information. jump for joy. jump for joy. faire du, go jogging tel. get through to Fig. point of view. You cannot force anyone to read anything, but you The rest of this booklet gives some guidance on the design of can make a document clear, accessible, and adaptable, to help reports and correspondence. You may want the reader to follow Wednesday 15 July 1992 Manchester and London 30p joindre gwedr vt (59) jockey joke m jockey joie gwa f joy, l’utile agréable, readers navigate their way around the text for any purpose. instructions, or compare totals of research ndings, for example. mettre ensemble join, jogging dgogn m gladness, delight; combine business with There are certain principles of legibility and perception Lists, tables, graphs, and charts can give a more distinct repre- which should be followed to help achieve this (see Section 4 sentation of this kind of information, and will also add variety to put together; link, faire du, go jogging avec, with delight; pleasure; les deux Principles of legibility).Readers will have preconceptions about the layout of your documents. It helps to list collections of relat- the size and general layout of a company report, or even an ed ideas. Where items are referred to individually in the follow- connect (à, to); relier joie gwa f joy, d’une débordante, bouts, make(both) ends of cial letter, based on their past experience with that kind of ing text, or when they describe a sequence of actions, they can be document. Before reading at a word level, they may have start- numbered, but otherwise it is simpler just to use bullets (¥) or les mains, join hands gladness, delight; overjoyed; sauter de meet — vpr se à, join ed reading on a global level, icking through and picking up dashes (—). These can be found in all typefaces, but if you want to insérer enclose, avec, with delight; jump for joy. (qqn). structural cues and features. Apart from novels, users rarely read make more impact you can use the Monotype Sorts font (nlu). documents from beginning to end: they have their own purpos- Be careful not to over-use lists: there must always be enough es and tasks, which the document must accommodate. conventional text to lead your readers through your argument. annex contacter get d’une débordante, jockey joke m jockey jockey joke m jockey Even in correspondence, like letters, memos, and faxes, Otherwise it s like giving them self-assembly furniture with no SAILORS IN in touch with, contact overjoyed; sauter de jogging dgogn m jogging dgogn m where there cannot be much deviation from the norm, simple assembly instructions: everything they need is there, but graphic features can mark out different kinds of information. they don t know what it s for.DTP allows great exibility for the tel. get through to Fig. jump for joy. faire du, go jogging faire du, go jogging The rest of this booklet gives some guidance on the design of design of tables, but they take a bit of skill and practice. There are reports and correspondence. You may want the reader to follow several ways of setting tables: if you see tables you nd particu- l’utile agréable, joindre gwedr vt (59) joie gwa f joy, joie gwa f joy, instructions, or compare totals of research ndings, for example. larly clear you could copy the way they are designed. However, Lists, tables, graphs, and charts can give a more distinct repre- combine business with mettre ensemble join, gladness, delight; gladness, delight; always bear in mind that your text is different and may need spe- sentation of this kind of information, and will also add variety to cial treatment. Remember to put the user rst, not your own pleasure; les deux put together; link, avec, with delight; avec, with delight; the layout of your documents. It helps to list collections of relat- design preferences. Here one system is recommended that is ed ideas. Where items are referred to individually in the follow- These days vertical rules are usually left out of tables because the bouts, make(both) ends connect (à, to); relier d’une débordante, d’une débordante, ing text, or when they describe a sequence of actions, they can be data in the columns is well enough aligned to allow the space numbered, but otherwise it is simpler just to use bullets (¥) or between the columns to do the same job. If many of the cells are meet — vpr se à, join les mains, join hands overjoyed; sauter de overjoyed; sauter de dashes (—). These can be found in all typefaces, but if you want to left blank, though, vertical rules might be needed. You should (qqn). insérer enclose, jump for joy. jump for joy. 88 89 SCURVY The purpose of typography company report, or even an official Rushey Systems 7 April 1992 letter, based on their past experience SCARE Readers will quickly Typography is designing with type with that kind of document. Before pick up the ‘norm’ in in order to communicate a message. reading at a ‘word’ level, they may memo Production schedule for April Shiver me tembers and hoist the main- a document. In Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you have started reading on a global to December reports and propos- the facilities to use type in many level, flicking through and picking sail First recorded case in 100 years als, this is likely sizes and styles to achieve a profes- up structural cues and features. to be continuous sional look. You might easily be from Jennifer Wells x678 There are certain princi- their past experience with Apart from novels, users rarely read OOH WHAT text. tempted to ‘jazz-up’ your documents ples of legibility and per- that kind of document. documents from beginning to end: to Michael Balcon, Adam Barnes, Georgina Pompidou, Alan with all the special effects you can they have their own purposes and Tanner, Louis Marseillaise ception which should be Before reading at a ‘word’ Brain Perrain fax 071 634 5670 A PICTURE muster – if you do this, you may end followed to help achieve level, they may have start- tasks, which the document must Margaret Anouilh fax 010 1 345 897 0756 up having more fun than your read- There are certain prin- this ed reading on a global accommodate. ers. Restraint is essential, so that the Readers will have pre- level, flicking through Typography is designing with type in order to communicate a ciples of legibility and When designing, content of documents is clearly message. Desktop publishing (DTP) offers you the facilities perception which conceptions about the size and picking up structural- you should put understood. Typography should not to use type in many sizes and styles to achieve a should be followed to and general layout of a legibility and perception yourself in the ‘professional look’. You might easily be tempted to ‘jazz- call attention to itself – its purpose is help achieve this (see company report, or even which should be followed reader’s place. up’ your documents with all the special effects you can to make work easier for the reader. muster – if you do this, you will have more fun than your an official letter, based on to help achieve this will Try to think When designing, you should put readers. Restraint is essential, so that the content of through every- yourself in the reader’s place. Try to documents is clearly understood. Typography should not call thing you do from think through everything you do attention to itself – its purpose is to make work easier for the reader’s point the reader. from the reader’s point of view. You of view. When designing, you should put yourself in the reader’s cannot force anyone to read any- place. Try to think through everything you do from the thing, but you can make a document reader’s point of view. You cannot force anyone to read clear, accessible, and adaptable, to anything, but you can make a document clear, accessible and help readers navigate their way The pros and coms of adaptable, to help readers navigate their way around the text for any purposes. There are certain principles of around the text for any purpose. doing it yourself legibility and perception which should be followed to achieve this (see Section 4 Principles of legibility). Even in correspondence, like letters, Readers will have preconceptions about the size and How it works memos, and faxes, where there can- general layout of a company report, or even an official not be much deviation from the letter, based on their past experience of that kind of There are certain principles of legi- document. Before reading at a ‘word’ level, they may have norm, simple graphic features can bility and perception which should started reading on a global level, flicking through and mark out different kinds of informa- be followed to help achieve this (see picking up structural cues and features. Apart from novels, tion. users rarely read documents from beginning to end: they have Section 4 Principles of legibility). The rest of this booklet gives some their own purposes and tasks, which the document must Readers will have preconceptions guidance on the design of reports accommodate. about the size and general layout of a and correspondence. You may want 9 8busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 6 6 Designing Business Documents cues and features. Apart from novels, users rarely read documents from beginning to end: they have their own purposes and tasks, which the document must accommodate. Readers will quickly pick up the ‘norm’ in a document. In reports and proposals, this is likely to be continuous text. Therefore any graphic fea- ture that is different from this norm will be taken as significant, giving the designer the opportunity to emphasize elements and attract attention, with headings of different sizes and styles, or charts and tables. Even in correspondence, like letters, memos, and faxes, where there cannot be much deviation from the norm, simple graphic features can mark out different kinds of information. The rest of this booklet gives some guidance on the design of reports and correspondence. Even if you are only concerned with the design of company reports, you may find some points of interest in the sections on letters, memos, and faxes – and vice versa. For more information on designing and producing your documents see the Monotype Desktop Solutions series: Designing Reports and Presentations, Designing Forms and Catalogues, and Designing Newsletters and Booklets, Salfords and Chicago, Monotype Typography, 1991.busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 7 7 Section 2 Planning and checking 2.1 Budget If you are producing a report, the budget can affect the length of the document, how many are produced, and the way it is produced. Will you produce mul- tiple copies by photocopying pages output on your laser printer, or have them professionally printed from the high-resolution output of a typesetting machine? (see Section 14 Technology and type). Budget will also affect how the report is bound. If you cannot afford pre-printed headed notepaper for letters, you may want to set up a template design on screen, with a letterhead that works in black and white, and is printed with each letter (see Section 11.1 Stationery). 2.1 Choosing a binding method will depend on the kind of docu- ment you are producing (what it will be used for, its length) and your budget. Some alternatives to office stapling or ring binding are plastic comb binding, wire spiral binding (more expensive but more durable than plastic), saddle stitching (used for this booklet), or perfect binding. Saddle stitching should only be used for documents of up to 64 pages, and you need at least 32 plastic comb binding perfect binding wire spiral binding pages for perfect binding. Double-check with your binders that you have allowed 2.2 Schedule a wide enough back margin for the binding method you have A production schedule should be worked backwards chosen. from the deadline for delivery, taking into account the schedules of other people involved, such as sup- pliers and printers. Make certain you allow for sev- eral stages of proofing, and remember to keep fre- quent back-up copies of your work. 2.3 Designing within your capabilities The design of a text must cater for the content: if there are three levels of heading, the design must cater for them; if there are likely to be illustrations and captions, they must be catered for; and so on. However, the design must be geared to what you can do with your software – it’s no good planning a multi-column document if you don’t have the soft-busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 8 8 Designing Business Documents ware to produce one (see Section 2.4 Matching soft- ware to document preparation tasks). And at the other extreme, you should avoid the temptation to design documents that show off the different facil- ities of your software, such as text running around illustrations, just because you have them – they may not be appropriate to your document. 2.4 Matching software to document preparation tasks There are three different classes of desktop publish- ing software: word-processing, drawing, and page make-up software. You will probably use word-processing software for correspondence, and page make-up software for the more complex layout of a report: before page make-up, you should still use word-processing soft- ware to finalize the text, so that you are not distract- ed by problems of page layout when trying to concentrate on writing. Your choice of software may depend on the nature of your document. If your report is simple, you may Word-processing Should provide tools that help you software work with text (such as routines to mainly for search the whole text for particular originating text. words or letter combinations and spelling checkers that allow you to create your own dictionaries of accept- able spellings). Drawing software Should include a wide range of tools for originating for drawing different kinds of shapes, drawings, charts, lines, and curves, and for moving and diagrams; them about on the page, either singly can be good for or as groups. tables. Page make-up Should take text and illustrations software from word-processing and drawing for assembling software into different fields on the the different page (such as main and subsidiary elements of columns); should allow fine adjust- documents (text ments to the typography of the text and illustrations) and the sizing and positioning into pages. of illustrations.busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 9 Section 2 Planning and checking 9 only need a word processor. If you are preparing a poster or chart that combines pictures with small amounts of text, it may make sense to type your text directly into page make-up software. A complex table may be best treated like a drawing, and pro- duced with drawing software, which allows you to move the different elements relatively easily. If you are combining software, check carefully for compatibility: make sure your page make-up software will take in text and illustrations from your word-processing and drawing software. 2.5 Testing out your design work Remember you are producing paper documents, so be sure to test out your design work on paper, rather than just looking at it on your computer screen, where its appearance will be very different. The appearance of documents will alter consider- Year Men Women ably with changes in resolution. For example, type 1970 103 78 and rules have sharper definition at higher resolu- 1980 119 85 tion, and the contrast between bold and plain text is 1990 98 99 more distinct (see Section 14 Technology and type). So if your document is to be typeset, rather than Type and rules output at 300 dpi. laser-printed, ask your typesetters to produce a sam- Year Men Women ple page, so you can see how it looks at high resolu- tion. 1970 103 78 Remember, too, that your readers will be using 1980 119 85 documents they can hold, with pages they can flick 1990 98 99 through, rather than the flat pages you produce, or Type and rules output at 2540 lpi. look at on screen. So make up sample documents that match the look and feel of final copies. These 2.2 The relative weights of bold should help you check things such as whether there and light type, and the apparent thickness of rules, depends on is a wide enough back margin for binding (see the resolution of your output. Section 6.2 Margins), whether page numbers and (Rule is the printer’s term for a running heads will be clearly visible, and so on. line, to avoid confusion when referring to a line of type). Whenever you can, try to get people who might use your document to comment on its design, as well as making judgements yourself. 2.6 Checking You should check the text of your document as often as possible. If you have been working on a text for some time, it is a good idea to have someone else proofread it, as you can easily overlook errors in a text you are accustomed to. When you have finalized the page-layout of a re- port, print out all the pages and stick them together so that they resemble the finished document. Thebusdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 10 10 Designing Business Documents following list should jog your memory for things to check: • Is the text correct? Is spelling, punctuation, and use of the ‘house-style’ consistent? (See Section 5.2 Aspects of typographic style). Don’t forget to check headings, captions, footnotes, text in illustrations, running heads, contents lists, and indexes, as well as the main text. • Have the correct headings been given for the text? And the correct running heads? Do the headings in the text match the headings given in the contents list? And are the page numbers in the contents list correct? Is the numbering system for parts, chap- ters, sections, and subsections consistent? • Is the content of the illustrations correct? Are they the right size, the right way around, has the cor- rect part of the illustration been used? Do the illus- trations match the captions? Is the numbering of illustrations correct? • Are the cross-references within the text and between text and illustrations correct? • Are the page numbers in the index correct?busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 11 11 Section 3 Content and structure Consider what your readers need from a particular document. Often they will want to find out quickly what it’s about, and then read the text, or sections of it, in detail. They will perform these reading tasks by using the document’s access structure. 3.1 Access structure 28 Norreys Avenue Ashworth Press Beansheaf  + Slough SL9 2UZ Telephone (0726) 654439 Fax (0726) 654286 This refers to the contents list, headings, and other Graham Blake Monotype Typography Ltd Perrywood Park Salfords Redhill things that help people to find out what a document Surrey RH1 5JP 18 June 1992 is about or who it is from. Even official correspond- Dear Mr Blake Estimate for production of booklet according to your specification. We suppose that you will be supplying camera-ready artwork. We now offer an output service: we have most Macintosh applications, including Quark- ence will benefit from subheadings, simply to divide XPress and PageMaker. Format A5. 16 pages. 4-page cover. it into manageable chunks. In longer documents, try Paper 115 gms matt coated. 250 gms art board cover. Colours to relate all the elements of the access structure to Two colours throughout. Binding Stitched with two wires. one another – so they make sense to someone flick- Illustrations 4 halftones: b/w prints supplied. 8 line illustrations. £1500 for run of 1000 ing through the report. Notice how the contents list £1700 for run-on of 500 This estimate can only be guaranteed until 30 April 1993. Please get in touch if you have any queries. and headings have been designed to help you access Yours sincerely Calvin Ashworth information in this booklet. Calvin Ashworth 3.1 Letters are better with sub- 3.2 Numbering systems headings. Some correspondence is traditionally organized into All documents that are more than a couple of pages headed sections, like the estim- long should have page numbers, and a contents list ate shown here. linking page numbers to sections of the text. Long letters, memos, or faxes will also need page num- bers. In reports, you may also need numbering systems for sections and subsections within the text, illus- trations, and footnotes. Try to keep the systems dis- tinct from one another: for example, if you are using numbers for headings, consider using letters for illustrations (though not if you have more than 26 illustrations). Avoid roman numerals (xxiii, xxiv, xxv), especially for long series, as many people find them difficult to understand. Numbered sections will also provide quick access when you are discussing the report with somebody, who may ask you to look at a specific section. Remember that the page numbers you use while originating your text and illustrations may not be the same as the final page numbers in your assem- bled document. If you make cross-references to page numbers, it may be best to give them a temporary place-marker (such as ‘00’), filling in the real page number when the document has been assembledbusdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 12 12 Designing Business Documents after page make-up. When you think you have filled them all in, run a search for the marker: it’s easy to miss one or two. 3.3 Using styles and tags to format text You can save a huge amount of time when you come to format text if you use the style facilities in word processors and page make-up programs. These allow you to store all the style attributes (such as typeface name, type size, space between lines, line length, indents, and tabs) for individual elements of text (headings, main text, footnotes) under a short name, called a tag. Then you can apply the styles quickly and consistently to appropriate parts of the text by calling up the relevant style names. If you need to change some attribute of a style then you can do so after you have created it, and all the parts of the text tagged with that style name will automatically be altered to fit the new style. You can tag text with style names as you write, without thinking about what the styles are. Then, as you assemble the document, you can give the style names the attributes planned when the document was designed, and the text will take on its intended appearance. You can copy styles between documents produced with the same software, and so maintain consistent formatting across a series of documents. In most page make-up programs you can take in styles, along with text and illustrations, from word- processing and drawing programs. So once text has been tagged it can keep its tag throughout produc- tion, unless you decide to change it. Main heading style font = Rockwell Extra Bold size = 10 point; leading = 12 point tag A-heading First subheading style font = Arial Black size = 7point; leading = 14 point 4 point space before tag B-heading 3.2 Styles and tags.busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 13 13 Section 4 Principles of legibility 4.1 Typeface SHAPE Shape Typefaces can be divided into seriffed and sans serif. 4.1 Because they have ascend- Serifs are the small strokes at the end of main strokes ers and descenders (on h and p in this example), words in small of characters, which give a horizontal emphasis to a letters have a more distinctive line of type. Seriffed typefaces are therefore best for shape than those in capitals. large amounts of continuous text. Sans serif type- We read by recognizing word faces have characters which tend to look similar to shapes, rather than letter by let- ter, so text mainly in small letters each other and are best reserved for headings, cap- will be more legible. tions, and short pieces of text. Sans serif typefaces give an impression sans serif of clarity, and are often used for tech- kid nical texts. But they are best reserved for Arial headings or short passages of text. bracketed serif Most common seriffed typefaces have kid bracketed serifs. Times New Roman d hairline serif Hairline serifs are distinctive, but reproduce kid poorly at medium resolution. Monotype Bodoni Bold Condensed d slab serif Slab serifs are robust and give the kid typeface a sturdy impression. Rockwell d 4.2 Sans serif and seriffed typefaces. 4.2 Type size, line length, and leading These three factors are interrelated. If you increase the type size, for example, you might also have to increase the space between lines to maintain legibil- ity. The rules of thumb are these: space between let- ters should be less than word space, and word space less than the space between lines. 4.3 To maintain horizontal cohe- Opinions will differ as to the real importance sion and so reduce disruptions to of withdrawal for the other products listed, because the flow of reading, the space between letters should be less it is in the nature of markets for highly perishable than word space, and word goods for unsaleable gluts to emerge from time space less than the space between lines. Opinions will differ as to the real importance of with- top letters, words, and lines are drawal for the other products listed, because it is in the poorly spaced bottom letter, word, and line nature of markets for highly perishable goods for un- space are balanced. saleable gluts to emerge from time to time, and it is notbusdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 14 14 Designing Business Documents In text designed for continuous reading, lines should be between 50 and 70 characters in length (including letters, numerals, spaces, and punctua- tion). If there are fewer than that, there may be too many awkward linebreaks; if there are more, it can get difficult for the reader to find the beginning of the next line. For the main text of a report, a type size of 10 or 11 point is a good starting size. Try 12 or 13 point ‘leading’ (inter-line spacing) – but if your lines are more than 70 characters long, more leading might be needed. If you are using two columns, your type size can be smaller, to correspond to the shorter line length. You can therefore reduce the leading. Do not be tempted to use a very large type size for continuous text to fill out long lines with the 50–70 characters – you don’t have to make your lines fill the page width. Research shows that type sizes between 9 and 11 point are most comfortable for sus- tained reading. However, don’t rely on these figures – different typefaces may vary in visible appearing size at the same ‘point’ size. You should make trials with samples of your text, tuning the type size, line length, and leading so that the text is comfortable to read, in the circumstances in which it is likely to be read. ascender line capital height capital line x-height x-line Hxkp baseline k–p distance descender line 4.4 Typefaces have different proportions; some may have large x-heights and therefore relatively short ascenders, as in the above example, which shows Times New Roman. desktop desktop desktop desktop Arial Times New Century Monotype Roman Gothic Baskerville 4.5 The nominal type size (‘point’ size) is therefore not always a reli- able guide to appearing size. The example above shows four typefaces at 10 point. For further guidance on legibility: For further guidance on how to use typefaces: Herbert Spencer, The visible word, 2nd edition, Alison Black, Typefaces for desktop publishing: a London, Lund Humphries, 1969. user guide, London, Architecture Design and Technology Press, 1990 James Hartley, Designing instructional text, 2nd edition, London, Kogan Page, 1985. Paul Luna, Understanding type for desktop publish- ing, London, Blueprint, 1992.busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 15 Section 4 Principles of legibility 15 4.3 Text alignment and hyphenation There are two main alignments to choose from for text: justified and ranged left. Justified text Justified text has straight left-hand and right-hand edges. Because readers may be familiar with seeing justified text in books (and newspapers), the assump- tion is that this gives a formal appearance to text. It does not improve legibility, however, and it is diffi- cult to achieve a satisfactory result: for justified text to look good, words at line endings may have to be hyphenated and the spaces between words controlled. If you accept the default ‘hyphenation and justi- fication’ (h & j) settings in many page make-up pro- grams, few or no hyphenation breaks are made, and the system will often spread out the words on a line to fill a column, by varying the width of word spaces and even by putting extra space between letters, 4.6 The justified version (below left) may seem superficially neat, which ruins the evenness of the text. You should do but the word spacing is con- some trials to achieve good-looking text, allowing spicuously uneven from line to hyphenation, and controlling the minimum and line, which disrupts horizontal reading. Because there is no maximum word spaces. If possible, specify zero word-division by hyphenation at letter-spacing. You should aim for an even appear- the ends of lines, space has even ance to each line of text. been added between the letters in some lines to achieve justifica- Do not use justified setting for your letters, memos, tion. This destroys the coherence and faxes. Whatever the style of your letterhead, it is of word shapes. not worth making the text justified, as the brevity of The justified version (below correspondence, often made up of short paragraphs, right) allows hyphenation and has word-space settings of: mini- does not sufficiently define a straight right-hand mum 60%; optimum 85%; maxi- edge. More importantly, some word-processing mum 150%. The overall effect is programs do not allow you to alter the default set- of an evenly-balanced texture. tings for word spaces and hyphenation, which may (This illustration was created using QuarkXPress). result in justified text with an uneven appearance. It might also be protested that, as far as British consumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put It might also be protested that, as far as British grow- that consumer prices of fruit and vegetables would be growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum forward by nearly all consumer associations: they ers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum impor- very much lower if there was no intervention. Yet importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer tance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn what they do not say is that stable retail prices cannot withdrawn in the UK, the market inter-linkages prices of fruit and vegetables would be very much in the UK, the market inter-linkages within the Euro- be achieved unless the provision of fruit and veget- within the European Community, particularly after lower if there was no intervention. Yet what they do pean Community, particularly after ‘1992’, must not ables is adequate. Provision, however, will not be ade- ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European not say is that stable retail prices cannot be be forgotten. In a Single European Market a domino quate unless producers have a continuing incentive to Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal achieved unless the provision of fruit and vegetables effect prevails, and withdrawal mechanisms help sup- produce and maintain high supply levels. On the other mechanisms help support British market prices as is adequate. Provision, however, will not be port British market prices as well as market prices in hand, without intervention arrangements many pro- well as market prices in the countries in which adequate unless producers have a continuing the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. ducers would often be left without profits or income, withdrawal actually takes place. incentive to produce and maintain high supply The UK does not have to produce peaches for its with the long-term risk that the incentive to produce The UK does not have to produce peaches for levels. On the other hand, without intervention horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC with- would wane and supply levels fall, thus leading to its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC arrangements many producers would often be left drawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of increased consumer prices. withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the without profits or income, with the long-term risk such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in the past it Doing away with the intervention facilities would absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred that the incentive to produce would wane and is conceivable that larger quantities of lower-priced consequently lead to lower prices only in the short run, in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of supply levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the while in the long run consumer prices would rise lower-priced peaches could appear in British shops, prices. market for other fresh produce in season at the time. owing to falling production and supply levels. Further- eroding the market for other fresh produce in Doing away with the intervention facilities would In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament more, the proportion of consumer income accounted season at the time. consequently lead to lower prices only in the short challenged the view that withdrawal supported market for by food has fallen continually ever since the com- In 1989, a Committee of the European run, while in the long run consumer prices would prices to the detriment of consumer interests. In par- mon market has been in existence. Moreover, it has Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal rise owing to falling production and supply levels. ticular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of price and been shown time and again that consumer prices are supported market prices to the detriment of Furthermore, the proportion of consumer income income support, there might be a temptation to view almost invariably or to a large extent inelastic to consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that accounted for by food has fallen continually ever the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and vegeta- changing producer prices.Consequently, a fall in pro- they are a form of price and income support, there since the common market has been in existence. bles as being against consumer interests. Indeed, this is ducer prices is hardly ever matched by a correspond- might be a temptation to view the arrangements for Moreover, it has been shown time and again that the argument put forward by nearly all consumer ing fall in consumer prices, instead, the difference is withdrawal of fruit and vegetables as being against consumer prices are almost invariably or to a large associations: they attempt to impress upon consumers swallowed up by transport costs, marketing margins, In 1989, a Committee of the European In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal challenged the view that withdrawal supported market supported market prices to the detriment of prices to the detriment of consumer interests. In par- consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that ticular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of price andbusdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 16 16 Designing Business Documents It might also be protested that, as far as British consumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put It might also be protested that, as far as British grow- Indeed, this is the argument put forward by nearly growers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum forward by nearly all consumer associations: they ers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum impor- all consumer associations: they attempt to impress importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer tance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is with- upon consumers that consumer prices of fruit and withdrawn in the UK, the market inter-linkages prices of fruit and vegetables would be very much drawn in the UK, the market inter-linkages within vegetables would be very much lower if there was no within the European Community, particularly after lower if there was no intervention. Yet what they do the European Community, particularly after ‘1992’, intervention. Yet what they do not say is that stable ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European not say is that stable retail prices cannot be must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market retail prices cannot be achieved unless the provision Market a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal achieved unless the provision of fruit and vegetables a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mechan- of fruit and vegetables is adequate. Provision, how- mechanisms help support British market prices as is adequate. Provision, however, will not be isms help support British market prices as well as ever, will not be adequate unless producers have a well as market prices in the countries in which adequate unless producers have a continuing market prices in the countries in which withdrawal continuing incentive to produce and maintain high withdrawal actually takes place. incentive to produce and maintain high supply actually takes place. supply levels. On the other hand, without interven- The UK does not have to produce peaches for levels. On the other hand, without intervention The UK does not have to produce peaches for tion arrangements many producers would often be its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC arrangements many producers would often be left its horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC left without profits or income, with the long-term risk withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the without profits or income, with the long-term risk withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the ab- that the incentive to produce would wane and supply absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred that the incentive to produce would wane and sence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred in levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer prices. in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of supply levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of Doing away with the intervention facilities would lower-priced peaches could appear in British shops, prices. lower-priced peaches could appear in British shops, consequently lead to lower prices only in the short eroding the market for other fresh produce in Doing away with the intervention facilities would eroding the market for other fresh produce in season run, while in the long run consumer prices would season at the time. consequently lead to lower prices only in the short at the time. rise owing to falling production and supply levels. In 1989, a Committee of the European run, while in the long run consumer prices would In 1989, a Committee of the European Parlia- Furthermore, the proportion of consumer income Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal rise owing to falling production and supply levels. ment challenged the view that withdrawal supported accounted for by food has fallen continually ever supported market prices to the detriment of Furthermore, the proportion of consumer income market prices to the detriment of consumer interests. since the common market has been in existence. consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that accounted for by food has fallen continually ever In particular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of Moreover, it has been shown time and again that they are a form of price and income support, there since the common market has been in existence. price and income support, there might be a tempta- consumer prices are almost invariably or to a large might be a temptation to view the arrangements for Moreover, it has been shown time and again that tion to view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit extent inelastic to changing producer prices. Con- withdrawal of fruit and vegetables as being against consumer prices are almost invariably or to a large and vegetables as being against consumer interests. sequently, a fall in producer prices is hardly ever In 1989, a Committee of the European In 1989, a Committee of the European Parlia- Parliament challenged the view that withdrawal ment challenged the view that withdrawal supported supported market prices to the detriment of market prices to the detriment of consumer interests. consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that In particular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of 4.7 The ranged left version Ranged left text above left has no hyphenation, which results in a very ragged Ranged left (or ‘flush left’) text has a ragged right- right-hand edge. The ranged left hand edge. This is a safer option than justified version above right allows text and legibility is not impaired: it may even be hyphenation, and the word improved, since word spaces are kept constant. In space has been changed from the default value to 85%. The page make-up programs, if you have the hyphen- result is more even line endings ation option switched off, very ragged line endings and greater definition of lines as may result, so you may want to accept some hyphen- coherent, graphic units. ation. Space between lines should appear greater than word space (Figure 4.3): this preserves horizontal cohesion and assists the ‘flow’ of reading. In all DTP programs, the default word space is usually large, but in page make-up programs you can reduce the word space throughout. Word-processing programs do not allow you to change these settings, so you may try to compensate for this by increasing the leading: for 10 point type try 14, 15, and 16 point leading. Ranged right and centred text Your DTP program also offers you these other choices for text alignment. They are both fine for 4.8 Ranged-right setting (below left) is unsuitable for most text short items such as titles but they make longer pas- but may be useful in some tables. sages of text difficult to read. Ranged right is useful Centred text (below right) may for captions to tables or graphs, and for side-head- be appropriate for headings or a few lines of text, but not for long ings appearing in the left-hand margin. passages. 1990 1991 1992 Marketing opportunities for the coming decade Standard lamps 8769 9671 10567 How we can be market leaders within Accesories 5689 6754 7856 three years, with a reputation for innovatory products at competitive Deluxe lamps 690 540 590 prices.busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 17 Section 4 Principles of legibility 17 4.4 Paragraphs There are two common ways of indicating the start of a new paragraph: by indenting the first line or inserting extra space above the first line. If you insert extra space, it should be at least half of your normal line space: so with 10 point leading, add an extra 5 points between paragraphs (making 15 points in all). If you use this method, be aware that a para- graph end may not be clear at the bottom of a page. If you indent the first line, a rule of thumb is to set the indent to the same value as your type size. If you have a short line length, a smaller indent may look better. Indenting first lines is the better option if you want to save space. 4.9 You can use indention to dis- Opportunities in Europe after 1992 tinguish the beginning of para- graphs. Use a shorter indent than It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are con- is traditional in typewritten docu- cerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true ments. There is no need to indent that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market inter-link- the first line of a section – the fact ages within the European Community, particularly after 1992 , that it follows a heading makes its must not be forgotten. status clear enough. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, and with- drawal mechanisms help support British market prices as well as market prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural producers to bene t from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have 4.10 Extra space between para- Opportunities in Europe after 1992 graphs is an alternative to inden- tion, but is less economical with It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are con- space. cerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market inter-link- ages within the European Community, particularly after 1992 , must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market a domino effect prevails, and with- drawal mechanisms help support British market prices as well as market prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural pro- ducers to benet from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as havebusdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 18 18 Designing Business Documents Section 5 Typography is not typing 5.1 Office practice versus printing practice not "inch" or ’feet’ signs but real quotation When all office documents were typewritten, the marks , or ˙guillemets¨ conventions of typing were appropriate for the and ¨Anf hrungszeichen˙ details of text: the typewriter typeface conveyed a certain level of formality, and the limited flexibility hyphens for word division of the typewriter was acceptable. There are usually and compound words like imitation typewriter typefaces available on most frost-bitten systems, and some people prefer to use them for cor- en dashes — spaced like respondence to preserve the impression of a docu- this — for parenthetical ment less formal than, for example, a bound report. remarks, and unspaced for Using typewriter typefaces will also save time spans, such as: 1992— 93 because you will not need to worry about the typo- em dashes unspaced like graphic details necessary when you use the profes- this can also be used for sional typefaces available on DTP systems (e.g. Times parenthesis New Roman, Arial, etc.). However, if you do choose 5.1 Conventions in professional to use more formal typefaces traditionally only typesetting differ from those used available from typesetters, you should use typeset- in typing. ters’, not typists’, conventions. fixer fixer 5.2 Aspects of typographic style afloat afloat Certain basic features of typing style have never fi fi been current in professional typesetting and should be avoided in your documents: fl fl • Do not use a double word space after full stops, only use one. 5.2 Ligatures for f-combinations. The letters are designed together • Straight inch marks (") and feet marks (') should rather than crashing into each not be used for true ‘curly’ quotation marks. other. • For the character combinations fi and fl, use ligatures. don t underline type • Use proper en and em dashes when appropriate. don t underline type • Don’t underline type. In DTP, you can use italic or bold for emphasis. Italic is most often used to 5.3 Underlining cuts through distinguish titles of publications. the descenders of letters: use These are basic features; you may also wish to italic instead. define a ‘house-style’ so that you ensure consistency of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, etc. in your organization. Some of the best known guides to text presentation The Chicago manual of style, 13th edition, Chicago, come from the large university presses. But they are University of Chicago Press, 1982. used widely, not just for academic books: Xerox publishing standards: a manual of style and design, New York, Watson Guptill, 1988. J. Butcher, Copy-editing: the Cambridge handbook, 2nd edition, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983.busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 19 19 Section 6 Reports and proposals Planning ‘Reports and proposals’ covers a wide range of docu- ments used in business and other organizations, including: • sales reports • progress reports • grant proposals • procurement proposals • position papers • procedural manuals. For shorthand, the word ‘report’ is used here to cover them all. 6.1 Page size There may already be some restrictions on the page size you choose depending on your method of pro- duction and distribution. If you aim to output pages on a desktop printer and produce multiple copies by photocopying, then a standard size like A4 (297 × 210 mm) or US letter (11 × 8½ inches) is advisable. If you are having your report professionally printed, any page size is possible, although it will be cheaper and easier for printers to work with standard sizes. You may also be restricted to a standard size by the envelopes you will use to send the report to your readers. Given that most company reports are A4 or US letter (and this is an expected ‘norm’), it would be hard to find a good reason for using an irregular double-page spread page size. You should therefore accept this con- page straint, so that you can concentrate on more im- portant issues. foredge foredge head head 6.2 Margins Most DTP programs start by asking you to define your margins, the area between the text and the edge of the page. Most reports will be bound using the sort of office binding that can take up quite a bit of page space, so you should treat the inner 35 mm (1½ inches), the back margin, as out of bounds. back margins foot foot Your minimum margin for the outside edge of the page is dictated by the limits of your laser printer 6.1 The margins of a double- page spread. (usually about 5 mm or ¼ inch), but for comfortable handling, you should leave at least 12 mm (½ inch)busdocpages_quark 4/6/02 9:18 pm Page 20 20 Designing Business Documents and considerably more if you are using a single col- umn layout on A4 paper (otherwise your line length will be too long – see Section 4.2 Type size, line length, and leading). Remember that by defining your margins you are effectively defining your line length. It may be easier to work backwards: decide a suitable line length and then calculate what the margins need to be. 6.3 A page grid A grid is the framework of guidelines (made visible on your screen in page make-up programs) to assist page layout. These guides allow you to systematic- ally position headings, paragraphs, and pictures on a page, so that the document is consistently arranged over a series of pages. This consistency then helps readers find the information they need page after page. The kind of grid you need depends on what you want to put in your document. Reports normally use quite simple grids. Here are three well-tried alterna- tives. Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion sumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put for- ward by nearly all consumer associations: they attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer In 1989, a Committee of the It might also be protested that, as far as British grow- It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are con- It might also be protested that, as far as British growers are prices of fruit and vegetables would be very much ers are concerned, withdrawal is of minimum impor- cerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst it is true European Parliament chal- concerned, withdrawal is of minimum importance. Whilst lower if there was no intervention. tance. Whilst it is true that relatively little is with- that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the market inter- lenged the view that withdraw- it is true that relatively little is withdrawn in the UK, the drawn in the UK, the market inter-linkages within Implications of ‘1992’ linkages within the European Community, particularly after al supported market prices to market inter-linkages within the European Community, the European Community, particularly after ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market Provision, however, will not be adequate unless pro- ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single European Market a the detriment of consumer particularly after ‘1992’, must not be forgotten. In a Single ducers have a continuing incentive to produce and a domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mecha- interests. domino effect prevails, and withdrawal mechanisms help sup- European Market a domino effect prevails, and withdraw- nisms help support British market prices as well as maintain high supply levels. Moreover, it has been shown time and again that consumer prices are port British market prices as well as market prices in the coun- al mechanisms help support British market prices as well market prices in the countries in which withdrawal actually takes place. almost invariably or to a large extent inelastic to tries in which withdrawal actually takes place. as market prices in the countries in which withdrawal changing producer prices.Consequently, a fall in actually takes place. The stanility of market prices producer prices is hardly ever matched by a corre- The stanility of market prices sponding fall in consumer prices, instead, the differ- The UK does not have to produce peaches for its The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticultural ence is swallowed up by transport costs, marketing The stanility of The UK does not have to produce peaches for its horticul- horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC margins, etc. To that extent, the consumer associa- producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal mechanisms for market prices tural producers to benefit from the EEC withdrawal mech- withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the tions’ ‘promises’ that lower prices could be achieved absence of such heavy withdrawals as have occurred peaches, for in the absence of such heavy withdrawals as have anisms for peaches, for in the absence of such heavy by doing away with intervention measures are great- in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of occurred in the past it is conceivable that larger quantities of withdrawals as have occurred in the past it is conceivable ly unrealistic. On the contrary, after a brief period of lower-priced peaches could appear in British shops, price instability caused by the slump in producer lower-priced peaches could appear in British shops, eroding the that larger quantities of lower-priced peaches could appear eroding the market for other fresh produce in season prices, the laws of the market economy would market for other fresh produce in season at the time. in British shops, eroding the market for other fresh pro- at the time. On the other hand, without intervention restore realistic and enforceable prices that the mar- arrangements many producers would often be left In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament challenged duce in season at the time. ket could accept. without profits or income, with the long-term risk the view that withdrawal supported market prices to the detri- that the incentive to produce would wane and supply Action to be taken ment of consumer interests. In particular it said: ‘Given that they Implications of ‘1992’ In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament chal- levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer This statement is remarkable for a number of rea- are a form of price and income support, there might be a tempta- lenged the view that withdrawal supported market prices prices. Doing away with the intervention facilities sons: tion to view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and vege- would consequently lead to lower prices only in the to the detriment of consumer interests. In particular it said: - it appears to accept the view that, at least in the short run, while in the long run consumer prices short run, EEC policy mechanisms do raise pro- tables as being against consumer interests. Indeed, this is the ‘Given that they are a form of price and income support, would rise owing to falling production and supply ducer prices; argument put forward by nearly all consumer associations: they there might be a temptation to view the arrangements for levels. Furthermore, the proportion of consumer - it is premised on the view that the EEC should be attempt to impress upon consumers that consumer prices of fruit withdrawal of fruit and vegetables as being against con- income accounted for by food has fallen continually self-sufficient in fruit and vegetables, a stance and vegetables would be very much lower if there was no inter- sumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put forward ever since the common market has been in existence. which many would refute: the statement makes no vention. Yet what they do not say is that stable retail prices can- allowance for imports and their stabilising by nearly all consumer associations: they attempt to Long-term consequences influence; not be achieved unless the provision of fruit and vegetables is impress upon consumers that consumer prices of fruit and In 1989, a Committee of the European Parliament - the distribution sectors are endowed with a mysti- adequate. vegetables would be very much lower if there was no cal power, that of being able to determine prices, challenged the view that withdrawal supported mar- intervention. ket prices to the detriment of consumer interests. In and hence profits, without reference to market cir- Implications of ‘1992’ cumstances. Whilst it is true that the withdrawal Provision, however, will not be adequate unless pro- particular it said: ‘Given that they are a form of price and income support, there might be a temptation to mechanism is likely to have only a mar-ginal Provision, however, will not be adequate unless producers have ducers have a continuing incentive to produce and main- impact on retail prices, it is disingenuous to sug- view the arrangements for withdrawal of fruit and a continuing incentive to produce and maintain high supply lev- tain high supply levels. On the other hand, without inter- vegetables as being against consumer interests. gest that producer prices have no impact on retail prices; whilst suggesting that its analysis rests els. On the other hand, without intervention arrangements many vention arrangements many producers would often be left Indeed, this is the argument put forward by nearly all consumer associations: they attempt to impress upon upon “the laws of the market econo producers would often be left without profits or income, with the without profits or income, with the long-term risk that the The UK does not have to produce peaches for its consumers that consumer prices of fruit and vegeta- long-term risk that the incentive to produce would wane and sup- incentive to produce would wane and supply levels fall, bles would be very much lower if there was no horticultural producers to benefit from the EEC ply levels fall, thus leading to increased consumer prices. Doing withdrawal mechanisms for peaches, for in the thus leading to increased consumer prices. Doing away sumer interests. Indeed, this is the argument put for- Single column grids are simplest Single column grids with side fea- Double column grids can be used of all and are perfectly adequate tures allow you to put headings, for economy, because you can for a report consisting mostly of small illustrations, or side-notes in use a smaller type size. They are straightforward text. Word-pro- the margin so that they can be not common in reports or pro- cessing software can handle this. easily scanned. When laying out posals because they can be more a document with side-by-side text difficult for readers to scan quickly. columns, you really need a page make-up program. These pro- grams are less flexible for word processing, so you don’t want to do extensive editing once the pages are made up.