How to write a good assignment essay

how to write good assignment introduction and how to write a good assignment example
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W M Department of Library and Information Science P H du Toit Teaching Development Section Bureau of Academic Support Service University of Pretoria Copyright 1999 (Revised) Academic Information Service Botha OF WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATIONC O N T E N T S 1 1 LITERATURE STUDY ...1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 LANGUAGE USAGE SKILLS3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 ..6 3. THE COVER ..6 THE TABLE OF CONTENTS ..6 SCHEDULES OF TABLES, FIGURES AND APPENDICES ..6 THE SUMMARY (SYNOPSIS) ..6 THE TEXT ..6 REFERENCES .6 APPENDICES .6 4.6 L-OUT OF TEXT .6 6 7 ..7 GENERAL TECHNICAL ASPECTS ..7 ..7 ..7 7 7 ..7 ...............................................................Graphic presentations 4.2.3.2 ......................................................................................Tables 4.2.3.1 .................................................Tables and graphic presentations 4.2.3 ..............................................................................Numbering 4.2.2 ..............................................................................…Headings 4.2.1 ......................................................…4.2 ......................................................................…The conclusion 4.1.3 ...................................................Treatment of the subject matter 4.1.2 ....................................................................…..The Introduction 4.1.1 .........................…..............................................AY4.1 …........................... TECHNICAL PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS ...........................................................................…..3.7 .............................................................................…3.6 ................................................................................…3.5 ..........................................................…3.4 ……..........................3.3 ............................................................…3.2 ................................................................................3.1 ...........................................STRUCTURE OF THE ASSIGNMENT ......................................................................The writing process2.2.2.5 ...........…............................................................Language usage2.2.2.4 .................................................................................Conciseness2.2.2.3 .................................................................Systematic presentation2.2.2.2 ....................................................................................Objectivity2.2.2.1 ..............................................................................…Writing skills2.2.2 ......….......................................................................Reading skills2.2.1 ................................................................…2.2 .....................................….Cataloguing aids for information retrieval2.1.1.10 ............................................................................Electronic media2.1.1.9 .....................................................................Audio-visual material2.1.1.8 ..................................................................Ready reference works2.1.1.7 .........................................................…Monographs and textbooks2.1.1.6 .................................................................................Newspapers2.1.1.5 .......................................................................................Journals2.1.1.4 ............................................…reports .Research and development 2.1.1.3 ....................................................Institutional information sources 2.1.1.2 ….......................................................Human information sources 2.1.1.1 ........................................................Types of information sources 2.1.1 …...................................................................2.1 ……................................... .SKILLSUNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH 2. ..........................................................................INTRODUCTION1. ..............................................................................................MISSION ..........................................................................................FOREWORD 5. ..7 INTRODUCTION 7 EXAMPLES OF HOW SOURCES ARE REFERRED TO IN THE TEXT ..8 THE SOURCES ..8 ..8 ..9 ..9 ..9 ..9 9 ..9 9 ..9 .. .. .......... else . .. .. .. .. articles . .. .. .. EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT WAYS REFERENCES ARE USED IN THE TEXT ... .. .. else . 13 6... .. .......................................................................SOURCES 15 .........................................................................CONCLUSION 13………………………………………………………………. THE INTERNET5.5 ...............................................................................an author .. 13Reference to a source whose first descriptive element is not5.4.6 13text …..Reference to more than one author in a specific place in the 5.4.5 13........................................................................…someone Reference to an author’s contribution published in a work edited by5.4.4 12...........................…Reference to authors with the same surname 5.4.3 12......................Reference to an author published in different years 5.4.2 12............year .Reference to an author published more than once in a 5.4.1 12………5.4 12..................................................................................Internet 5.3.6 12....................................................................Sound recordings 5.3.5.4 12...............................................................................Microforms 5.3.5.3 12...................................................................................Letters 5.3.5.2 12........................................................................Reproduction .A 5.3.5.1 12..........................................................................sources .Other 5.3.5 12.................................named .An article/report where the author is 5.3.4.1 12........................................................Newspaper reports/5.3.4 12.........................................An article whose author is anonymous 5.3.3.4 12..........................................An article by more than two authors 5.3.3.3 11..........................................................authors .An article by two 5.3.3.2 11.............................................................An article by one author 5.3.3.1 11..........................................................................Journal articles 5.3.3 11...................................An article whose author is not mentioned 5.3.2.4 11..........................................An article by more than two authors 5.3.2.3 11..........................................................authors .An article by two 5.3.2.2 11............................................................author .An article by one 5.3.2.1 11..............................................................Encyclopaedia articles 5.3.2 11.............................................theses .Academic dissertations and 5.3.1.13 10............An author’s contribution in a book edited by someone 5.3.1.12 10.........................................appearing under individual titles A book forming part of a named series or publication comprising books5.3.1.11 10......................................................................…........translated A book whose original author is not mentioned, and which has been5.3.1.10 10author .A book translated by someone other than the original 5.3.1.9 10.........................................................A compiled or edited book 5.3.1.8 10.....................................Proceedings of conferences, and the like 5.3.1.7 …........................................A Government or official publication 5.3.1.6 ...............................................................................or the like .. Books authored by institutions, organisations, associations,5.3.1.5 .....................................Books whose authors are not mentioned 5.3.1.4 ................................................authors .Books by more than two 5.3.1.3 ...............................................................Books by two authors 5.3.1.2 .....................................................................Later edition (c) ...........................................................Book with a subtitle (b) ...........................................................Single-author books (a)5.3.1.1 .....................................................................................Books 5.3.1 ............................................................................5.3 .....................5.2 .............................................................................5.1 ..................................THE HARVARD REFERENCING METHODInformation specialists of the Academic Information Service have to contend daily with numerous requests for guidelines in the preparation of written assignments and bibliographies. With this in mind, the following guidelines have been compiled by Mr W M Botha, of the Department of Library and Information Science, and Mr P H du Toit, of the The aim of these guidelines is, firstly, to make students aware of the variety of information sources available to them, and the role each source can play in their studies. In addition, the reference technique accepted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) is emphasized. Correct notation of bibliographic data must become almost a way of life for the UP student, no matter what research he or she carries out. We trust that these guidelines will contribute in this regard. Pienaar Leader: Marketing Group ACADEMIC INFORMATION SERVICE A Teaching Development Section, at the request of the Academic Information Service. FOREWORDMISSION CODE OF CONDUCT According to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act No. 200 of 1993, Chapter 3 (Fundamental Rights), Article 23 every person has the right to access information in order to apply it The Academic information Service supports the principle of man being an autonomous person who is The Freedom to obtain information which implies the free flow of and free access to information. It also implies that the Academic Information Service undertakes to contribute to the accessibility of information by supporting value added processes such as the identification, organization and preservation of information, regardless of the form in which the information may appear. This gives § § § § § The Academic Information Service and students also acknowledge our social responsibility to the community which implies that we will, to the best of our ability and with the resources available to us, make information accessible and to preserve documents. This is vested in the value of communicability which accentuates mutual respect and caring for each other. This implies that each one of us is involved in the welfare of another and will not be the cause, by either damaging or The other role player, the user, is expected to undertake the following when making use of the § § § § when transgressing the prescribed code of conduct, the transgressor will be subjected to the _________ _________________________________________________________________________________ MOTIVATION monitoring channels created for transgressors honesty and transparency in communication with personnel and fellow-users will be maintained good relations and understanding will be maintained with my fellow-users services and facilities will not be abused services and facilities of the Academic Information Service: alienating information, that information is not available. that other users will be from formal partner institutions of the University of Pretoria students of the University of Pretoriabona fidethat the users will be that the confidentiality of personal information will be maintained that the privacy of the individual will be respected the academic and intellectual freedom of the individual which means that there is no censorship The Academic Information Service acknowledges: the user the opportunity to make his choices from all the information at his disposal. The following values apply: dependent on information to make meaningful decisions. As such man uses and adapts information. for his own needs. _________ _________________________________________________________________________________ We are the Information Service for students and personnel aiming for academic excellence.th On the 10 of February 1908, when the University of Pretoria made its modest beginning in Rosa, a residential house in Skinner Street, a core collection of books, which grew into what you see here before you today, was already in existence. Today we see a beautiful building with an excellent collection equipped with an electronic infrastructure and personnel willing to make all information in What do we have? The Academic Information Service made up of the Academic Information There are, in addition, six off-campus service units, geared to meet the specific information needs of secondly, through the unfailing considerate use of the collection and facilities by the students – like This code of conduct, accepted by yourself, is our guideline for behaviour to ensure that this valuable Thank you that you also care. treasure is not only protected for future generations, but also developed further as a national asset. Tukkies during the past 91 years.you – and lecturers of How do we achieve this? Firstly, with the support of the top executive of the University of Pretoria, but are being developed. Hammanskraal campuses, needs-driven collectionsWitbank and students on those campuses. At the Centre, with study facilities for 1200 students.filled with academic information material, and the Study Centre, Tukkies.the world accessible to all Kyaence system, how that material can One of the purposes of university These guidelines are intended to serve education is to mould the student to- wards a scholastically scientific way of mind whenever an assignment is to be thought. The University of Pretoria, in tackled. In addition, it is of critical its striving for greater excellence, is importance that students make a tho- committed to training its under rough study of specific regulations per- students in the practice of this science. taining to individual departments or This means that the underduate, with subjects. A defined set of evaluation a tutor’s guidance, will have the criteria is used by a tutor in his final opportunity, independently, to carry evaluation of an assignment; these through an assignment – which is, in criteria must seriously be taken into account during an assignment’s pro tion. If a tutor omits to list these criteria During their university years, students in advance, it is each student’s duty to must be exposed to the typically scien- obtain absolute clarity in this regard tific procedures if they are eventually to ment. scientific practitioners. Through the The preparation of an assignment offers medium of assignments, not only is the a splendid challenge to every under- student offered the challenge of venturing into the chosen subject literature, but is also stimulated to think critically, to make independent evaluations, and then to express his or her own interpretation in a clearly A high premium is placed on individualLITERATURE STUDY industry. Each student is expected to give full rein to his or her creativeA literature study is the first step in the abilities in dedicated commitment to theprocess of preparing an assignment, a preparation and production of assmall research project in itself. A liter- ments. The set of guidelines conature study is defined as a systematic, in this handbook will in fact contribute tocomprehensive search for published increasing self-reliance on the part ofmaterial on a specific subject. How UP students in the comthe undergraduate should take note that in addition to published material, any who can supply factual material, The aim of this handbook is to assistfor example, can also serve as an im- students in coping with the followingportant information source. Students should make use of such sources , Ÿthe search for, collection and re-such as at discussion sessions and conferences during which recent information is provided by subject spe- Ÿthe sifting and evaluation of suchcia material in order to differentiate between the essential, and that ofLandman (1980:35) points out that with- out a thorough literature study, on which adequate time has been spent, the Ÿresearch work in question can only be detail into logical overallconsidered superficial and naïve. curring with this, De Wet, , and (1981:39) call Ÿan accurate and proper account ofattention to the importance of a well- the origin of material used in theplanned and thorough literature study assignment and, by using a refer-whereby a clear perspective of the latest research results surrounding the specific VenterSteyn teithMonstructure; Con-bledsem the meaningful processing of as lesser importance to the subject; lists. cording of relevant factual material; whenever the opportunity presents itself requirements facing them: person ments. pletion of assign- ever, tained sign- 2.1 arranged and structured written format. SKILLS UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH2. responsibility it deserves graduate – accept the challenge with the side fellowtake their rightful places along before commencing an assign duc- reality, a research project in miniature. gra ategradu as broad, basic principles, to be borne in be retrieved by a reader. INTRODUCTION1.subject can be obtained, as well as thesubject field and contain primary most appropriate research methods Broadly speaking, a literature study canNewspapers generally provide recent in- formation in all fields in the form of news reports about local, national and in- Ÿternational events. Their reliability must be counterchecked against scientific Ÿgiving sense and meaning to factual material. Every student must be thoroughly con-Monographs contain information al versant with the most importantpublished in other sources and are, reference material and informationtherefore, classified as secondary systems at his or her disposal, in order to be able to locate relevant sources.development of a specific subject or The manner in which the student sortstopic and are considered very im through the literature is important to the interpretation of factual material, and reading skills are essential here. These aspects are explained in greater detailEncyclopaedia, statistical reviews, dic- later.tionaries, biographical sources, year- books, almanacs, directories and at- lases are all examples of reference ( multi-media, videos and A human information source is someslide programmes are being used as possessing specialist knowledge, for example a tutor, a researcher, or a consultant. A register of experts at UP, for example, is compiled annually, andInformation, such as journal articles, can Cataloguing aids for information These are primary information sources Examples of these types of secondary and are generally published by na information sources are bibliographies regional and local authorities. They (also accessible in electronic data- include amongst other things official bases), indexes, and abstracting jour- committee proceedings and re Knowledge possessed by individuals inLANGUAGE USAGE SKILLS organisations such as tertiary institu- tions, the CSIR, the HSRC and govern-Students must be competent in lan- ment departments can be accessedguage usage skills to be able to grasp either from the individual, or from finalthe sense and meaning of pre reports, interim reports, dissertations,information sources. Language com- petency is an integral facet of re because “…human beings are made to learn conversationally” (Lewis & Scientific journals are published peri1982:85) and “Language is a body of cally and usually contain specialist i-words; but it is also a subtle and formation written and reviewed bycomplicated instrument for com experts. The articles normally comwords to express our thoughts” (Du the latest developments in a specific 2 Orr, 1987:4).& Toitprise bining odi- Pask,Journals2.1.1.4 search,and theses. scribed 2.2 reports Research and development2.1.1.3 nual reports.statutes, court decisions, an nals. ports, tional, retrieval 2.1.1.10Institutional information sources2.1.1.2 Institutional Information sources2.1.1.2 also be accessed via computers.serves as a useful accession aid. Electronic media2.1.1.9 he information channels. one Increasingly, Human information sources2.1.1.1 Audio-visual material2.1.1.8 1988:4)et alBrassel works.Types of Information sources2.1.1 Ready reference works2.1.1.7 dents.information sources for stu antport sources. Textbooks provide the status of ready Monographs and textbooks2.1.1.6 research. the location of sources, and be divided into two phases: Newspapers2.1.1.5 used, and the topicality of the research. information.Critical reading is an intensive reading strategy aimed at evaluating the ideas with their subject literature criti (intent) of the author. Critical reading They must be sensitive to the languagefocuses on what the author is saying. An awareness of the author’s influ and analyse the text, which starts withupon the reader is critical – it must not reading competency. The reading course conducted by Student The following is important here: “The most important skill in critical reading, is asking questions” (Du Toit & “moet geleer word The most important questions to be lees, want daardeur word die answered, are as follows ( geprikkel” (Bischoff, 1987:6) (Readers must be taught to ready critically, be- cause this stimulates thought). Read ŸWho is the author? What is his with an understanding, which shows aprofession, status, qualification, ex- comprehensive approach, is essential toperience and competence to write on the habit of critical reading. Raygor & Wark (1980:154) point out that students must be contioned”…to discover the ŸWhat is the aim of the article or author’s purpose in writing a passage and try to think critically about what the author has written”. The student must ŸFor whom is the article written? Is it therefore be able to select and use those essentials in literature relevant topolicy makers, career pro his/her assignment. Du Toit & proach mirrored in (1987) mention four different readingthe writing style or language usage? skills, namely scanning, speed reading, comsive and critical reading. ŸIs the author objective or does he make assumptions which cannot be fact, or piece of intion” – a high-rationally justified and are not based speed reading method which focuses the attention on a specific word, phrase ŸWhat methods are used for data collection? Is information based on Speed reading is used when time ispersonal opinion or experience or limited. Not every word is read but thedoes it result from interviews, lit- reader is conditioned to identify ature studies, questionnaires, lab- paragraph’s core message. oratory experiments, case studies, (s.j.:33) suggests starting with a book’sstandardised personality tests, index or an excerpt of a journal article.? Speed reading should not be carried out without specific pre-de ŸWhat conclusions does the author draw? Do these conclusions agree with the results of research? If not, “Comprehensive reading is the kind of reading that you do when you need to have a thorough, detailed under ŸHow does the study compare with of a piece of writing” (Du Toit & similar work? Does it agree with 1987:14). This is slower and moreaccepted knowledge? Are there any careful reading in order to grasp thespecific studies, philosophical message in a portion of text. Theschools of thought, and such like, principal idea(s), supporting detail,with which the study agrees or examples, and illustrations are all 3 important in this regard. disagrees? Orr, ingstand why not? If so, why? questions in mind. minedter etcetera Botha era Orr, 1987:3)Toit & or fact (Du on research results? forma that you do in order to obtain the specific “Scanning” means ”…the kind of reading henpre If so, why? ? Is his apetceteraOrr sionals,fes aimed at the general public, scholars, research? di the subject? ing 1988:197): Engeldinger,denke tekrities om Lesers 1987:24).Reading skills2.2.1 Orr, uate.gradto every under Counselling should be of immense value be accepted without question. enceused. Students must be able to interpret cally. Students are expected to be able to dealŸAre there relevant annexures orCareful attention must be paid to the schedules, e.g. maps, photographs, surveys, questionnaires? If not, why -Spelling and sentence construction must comply with general language Although these questions cannot always all be answered they form guidelines-Thoughts must be expressed clearly, against which critical reading can be -The use of both pompous as well as -Direct translations should not be used. Words, concepts and techni- A scientific style of writing is required forcal jargon should be given meaning- such a writing style are the following-The assignment must be easily (Faculty of Economic and Managementstandable and should read In addition to the above, students must The content of an assignment mustascertain, using their depart avoid contentious and inaccurate sup-instructions, when they should use positions and assertions. It must alsoabbreviations and the International be free from suppositions based onStandards metric system; the writing of unknown or dubious sources. Sub-totals, symbols, foreign words; italics jective speculations or intuitions must be It is important to remember that for theAs far as the writing process itself is purposes of objectivity, the content mustconcerned, it is important to note the always be presented imperly.distinctions which Du Toit and References to “I” “my” and “our” must be(1987:154) make, namely the pre avoided. Editorial com ments, such astion phase, the drawing up of a (“my italics”) or (“my underlining”) areschedule, the compilation (draft), re- vision and editing. “The writing pro usually begins long before you ever sit down to start scribbling or typing” (Ibid.) The orderly presentation of content in aThis implies amongst other things systematic framework is indicative of amethods such as free writing, reading scientific aptitude. Sections or sub-and life experiences. After this a list can sections must be ordered logically andbe made of all the information collected follow a logical sequence. Thesethus far. The contents of this list can subsections are the subdivision of thenow be used in the writing of the first material into coherent units, and mustdraft. It is important to refine this first into its final form. Revision of the material is therefore essential and Every argument, sentence, word, should include attention to the era, must be evaluated in order toarrangement of paragraphs, examples, ascertain whether it says what is meantand a logical train of thought. Final and whether it is really necessary. It isediting and proof-reading can only be more difficult to provide a concarried out after a written draft has been summary than to give a comworked repeatedly; in the editing report. Conness demands thoroughphase the writer must concentrate on tion and inspelling, punctuation, lay-out, head The author’s use of language deter-The following method of material col- mines the extent to which the assign-lection can be particularly valuable in ment can be read and understood.ensuring that the above compilation 4 Language usage2.2.2.4 and the like. ingssight into the subject.prepara cise rehensivepre cise etcet- Conciseness2.2.2.3 draft so that it can ultimately be mouldedbe numbered. Systematic presentation2.2.2.2 cesstions to this rule.permissible excep para- Orrsonal The writing process2.2.2.5 clearly identified as such. and bold print, underlining and so on.) ment’s Objectivity2.2.2.1 smoothly.Sciences, 1987:11): under ful explanations.marks ofthe writing of assignments. Hall Writing skills2.2.2 vulgar language must be avoided. developed. unambiguously and intelligibly. rules not? following:process goes smoothly (the source material used and the other set listing the different phases (or sub-divisions) to be used in the ŸFirst consult general works in order This enables the researcher to put together a provisional frame which can change. A good en-Set 1: cyclopaedia can be useful. Gen ly a bibliography of works which can be consulted appears at the end of Political Violence in South Africa. Johan- articles. After coning general burg: South African Institute of Race reference works the writer can move to that literature which deals The Long Walk to Freedom: the ŸWherever possible, it is preferable to ŸThe arrangement of collected material can result in problems un- less the correct procedure is used. Index cards are a useful aid when Set 2: ŸLet us assume the theme is, Mandela, the making of a presi The first reference to be consulted, for example “, Nelson, The Long Walk to Freedom”, must be perused. The first card made will be part of the list of sources at the end of the assignment and contains the fol Specific instructions given out by De- ently. The following sections should form part From information gathered, various phases of Mandela’s life will be THE COVER In the absence of specific instructions from Departments concerning the cover of the assignment, the following For each of these phases a separ card will be made and descrip notes that will be used are jotted Ÿ down with a short indication of where ŸStudent particulars: initials and sur- name, student number, field of study, The next book to be read will be treated in the same way, for : Kane-Berman, J. 1993. THE TABLE OF CONTENTS nesburg: South African Insti The table of contents is a list of all the headings used in the text together with their numbering, as well as details of the There will now be two sets of cards: page numbers on which they appear. one set, listing in alphabetical order 5 of Race Relations. tutehan Political Violence in South Africa. Jo- 3.2 example and subject course. Mandela p.60).it was found (e.g. The title of the assignment tions or information should appear on the cover: ate Treason trial: 1956+ Johannesburg days: 1940+ A Country childhood: 1918+ 3.1 evident for example come of every assignment: partments must be followed consist TimminsFreedom. Cape Town: , N. 1996. The Long Walk toMandela STRUCTURE OF THE ASSIGNMENT3. ing information: low Treason trial 1956+ delaMan Johannesburg days 1940+ dent.” A Country Childhood 1918+ “Nelson making notes. Hamish Hamilton, 1997 biography. London: Mandela, a Nelson Meredith, M. consult the latest edition of a book. Abacus, 1995. autobiography. London: specifically with the theme. Mandela, N. Relations, 1993 nes sult Kane-Berman, J. eral- work, See the following examples: to get a broad overview of the theme. assignment. 1975:4-6): Duminy,(The contents page of this manual - SCHEDULES OF TABLES, FIGURES AND APPENDICES L-OUT OF TEXT If any tables, figures of appendices are included in the assignment, a com (Faculty of Economics and Manage contents. The numbering of the tables, figures of appendices, their headings, titles and the relevant page numbers must all be provided. The following may The introduction serves as the run-up to be used as headings: “Schedules of the treatment of the theme of the assignment. In the case of a strictly theoretical investigation of a specific theme, only the background for the theme should be sketched and the theme itself should be placed in per- spective, for example by highing its THE SUMMARY (SYNOPSIS) importance within the subject field or by explaining how it fits in with the broader This section which should come next in knowledge base, and so on. If an the assignment, summarizes its con empirical study is involved, an in less than 200 words. Although this explanation must be given as to what section is not an essential requirement led to the problem in question, why it is for all Departments, it does provide the in fact a problem and what is the aim of tunity, especially in longer assign- ments, for a brief description of the essence of the content. In addition, such a synopsis reinforces the scientific This part contains the exposition and discussion of the theme. It consists of THE TEXT structure of the specific features of the The text is the actual content of the assignment. The see must assignment relating to the subject. The directed towards a logical exposition of content should be divided into sections and subsections in order to ensure that its presentation is senlogical and able. (Refer to section Every assignment must be rounded off by a summing-up, deductions and/or REFERENCES recommendations. The logical line of ment which is followed in the treat- This following section includes the list of ment of the subject must be brought to a sources both used in the comtion of the content and to which reference is made in the text. (Refer to section 5 of GENERAL TECHNICAL ASPECTS Whatever procedures are followed in APPENDICES this regard, it is important to remem If any appendices are used in the assignment, they should be included as appendices usually consist of précis or results which would disrupt the text’s Sections and subsections must always flow and appendices readability if they 6 formulation will depend on the content of were included in the text itself. carry appropriate headings. Their actual Headings4.2.1 the last section of the assignment. Such out.always to be consistent through ber 3.7 this manual.) 4.2 meaningful conclusion. pila guar 3.6 4 of this manual.) standeasily under The conclusion4.1.3 sible, the subject. quenc sections and subsections dictated by the 3.5 character of the assignment. Treatment of the subject matter4.1.2 tion.the investiga oppor tent 3.4 light appendices”. The Introduction4.1.1 Sciences, 1987:4) listing must be provided after the table of ment plete AY4.1 ATIONSSIDER3.3 TECHNICAL PRODUCTION CON4. serves as such an example.)the section or subsection itself but relevancy and conciseness must remain the criteria. The following guidelines INTRODUCTION may be followed. Headings of sections should be written in capitals whilst Any document containing information headings of subsections should follow from other documents or information language rements, for example, a sources, or mention of these, must ack- capital letter at the beginning of the ledge or describe these sources in heading and for personal names; detail. This acknowledgement or re- ference can take different forms. Over the years, the search for uniform ity has been impeded by various study field, publishers and periodicals, all of whom Decimal notation is the most con developed different tradi to use. It means that sections can be conventions, and styles of refer numbered naturally, for example 1, 2 Individuals too, often have strong prefer- and so on, with the first level of the ences. For a long time, no inter subsection being numbered 1.1, 1.2 and standard existed against which literature so on; the second level with 1.1.1, 1.1.2, sulted in the compilation of scientific and so on; and the third level with ments should be referenced 1.1.1.1, 1.1.1.2, and so on. It is (Botha, 1980). The Inter preferable not to proceed with further Standards Organisation (ISO) has now sections, in order to ensure that the finalised such a standard: ISO 690: readability and the structure of the text tion – Bib references – Content, form and structure. (South Africa is represen on the world body by SABS, who also liaise with various interested organisations through the country in this The use of tables is aimed at present material in short, concise and easy-to- view fashion. Data used in tables must therefore be meaningfully inter-related, and must be carefully classified and arranged, to enable the table to be read “This International Standard specifies and understood without difficulty. In the the elements which must be included in interests of the text’s flow, it is advisable bibliographical references to pub to place a table at either the top or graphs and supplement bottom of the first page on which it is publications, and to chapters, articles etc in such publications. It provides a prescribed sequence for reference elements and lays down conventions for Data is often presented in graphic form the transcription and presentation of to provide a better holistic overview of information “borrowed” from the source- tendencies or specific features. It is publication. The standard is in important to remember that “They for use by authors and editors in should reinforce the written word, and compiling bibliographic references as addenda to texts, and also in the words alone” (Felt, 1981:102). The judi- wording of textual references to a bib- cious composition and use of graphic liography. The standard is designed to sentations is thus important. As in serve as a comprehensive specifi the case of a table, the graphic pre- for bibliographic description such as can sentation must be carefully ar be expected from libraries, analytical Graphic presentations, which include . graphs, sketches, diagrams and the like, are referred to as “Figure 1”, “Figure 2”, The standard encompasses published sources in both printed and form. It prescribes the two most cur referencing methods, one of which is 7 THE HARVARD REFERENCING5. rent unprinted etcetera. etceteradexers, bibliographers, in ranged. tionca pre nicate better thanmucan sometimes com tended Graphic presentations4.2.3.2 referred to. arymono lished this standard is formulated as follows: The scope and field of implementation of regard.) ing Tables4.2.3.1 Tables and graphic presentations4.2.3 ted can be kept simple. phicliogrataDocumen sub national docu con ional nat ence. tions, entveni Numbering4.2.2 otherwise small lettering. now quire 5.1 METHODalso sometimes known as the Harvard Ÿ EXAMPLES OF HOW SOURCES ARE Ÿtitle (in italics, bold type or under- REFERRED TO IN THE TEXTlined) The Harvard method holds that where Ÿ items are referred to in a bibliography, a shortened format should be used within Ÿ Ÿ Maltha (1977:3) asserts that a half century ago, all the researchers within a(The language the work is written in must be maintained in the references OR a specific area were known to each) : The reference between parenthesesWilliams. appears on page 3 of Maltha’s work as shown in the bibliography. Note where) the date is positioned – directly after the author’s name and before the title in Clarke. 1977. (c) . . ed. . According to one tradition the second and following lines of the reference must In accordance with the standard, where the names of more than one author appears in the work, the most prominent name must be indicated first. If equal .prominence is given to the names, then TSOURCES This is a list of publications and other information sources referred to in the text. It should be arranged alphabe- tically according to the first compo of the description (for example the Instead of using all three or more Hereafter follows how the comnames, the first author’s name can be of such a source must be written and inused, together with et al (e.a. may also what sequence. Different examples are Books whose authors are not The particulars of every entry for a book in the list of sources must be stated in Books authored by institutions, organisations, associations, or the Ÿauthor (surname and initials, in 8 Medical Research Council… capitals, separated by a comma) like 5.3.1.5 the following order: Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1970.1485-1945: a critical bibliography. Modern historians on British history: mentionedBooks5.3.1 5.3.1.4 provided after each item. be used to signify et al). nentspo author). & HIEMSTRA, L.W. 1975. BOSMAN D.B., VAN DER MERWE, I.W.nent Books by more than two authors5.3.1.3 & PRICE, T.D. 1992.G.M.FEINMAN, KHUMALO, V & THELA, T. 1995. HE 5.3 the name appearing first is used first: PudocWageningen: rapporteren.schriftelijk zoek en onderLiteratuur 1977. D.J.MALTHA, be indented: Books by two authors.25.3.1 : ScarecrowMetuchen research in music education, 4PudocWageningen: th A Guide toR.P. 1993. PHELPS, rapporterenschriftelijk en zoek Later edition onder-LiteratuurD.J.MALTHA, italics: Johannesburg:the Greg Blank story. Prisoner of power:GIBSON, R. 1997. Book with a subtitle(b San Diegoguide to African mammals. Kingdon fieldThe KINGDON, J. 1997. Maltha 1977:3).other ( Single-author books(a5.3.1.1 half century ago, all researchers withinA thereto) specific area were known to each other. publisher parentheses inside the text. place of publication edition (except the first) 5.2 year of publicationmethod.rd Council for Scientific and A “subordinate”: body is placed after a Ÿ Ÿ Division… Ÿ Ÿ . - . st (1 . The reference appears under the title of the work, with the name mentioned after rd . 9 Research Council. National Academy of Sciences, National has been translated Washington D.C.:Proceedings.1959. is not mentioned, and which information (1958: Washington D.C.). A book whose original author5.3.1.10 International conference on scientific the like Princeton: University Press. Proceedings of conferences, and5.3.1.7 Dineley & G. Windsor.Translated by D. A guide to fossils.MAYR, H. 1992 Butterworth.Bax. Durban: K.C.Randell and annotated by G.H. author the Cape of Good Hope, no. 19 of 1951 one other than the original municipal ordinance for the Province of A book translated by some5.3.1.9 TheCape of Good Hope. 1951. Government Printer. Pretoria:Ordinances. . 1958. Transvaal Department. Pretoria: Theed.Africa. 3 University Press. public of Southyearbook of the Re Edited by E.F. Keller. 1992. Harvard: South Africa 1976: officialtion. 1976. Keywords in evolutionary biology. ma-Department of InforSouth Africa. the title. Town: Government Printer. . CapeReportGender Equality. 1995. mission onon Establishment of Com A compiled or edited book5.3.1.8 mitteeAd Hoc Select ComSouth Africa. Batts. New York: Columbia University. Staatsdrukker. Frarey & C.C.J. Tauber, Edited by M.F. Pretoria:Desember 1971. 1968.System: outlines and papers. 1970 tot 31 berNovemtydperk 1 vir die Decimal ClassificationThe Dewey slagverJaarOpvoeding. 1971. sionale Na-Departement van Suid-Afrika University School of Library Science. Science). New York: Columbia Government Printer. Columbia University School of Library . Pretoria:a democratic South Africa : 1968:teaching of classification Negotiatingtional Development. 1993. Workshop on theScience, 1969. tu-Department of ConstiSouth Africa. Columbia University School of Library Staatsdrukker. Pretoria: verslag Press. Hoofuniversiteitswese. 1974. na die Manchester: Manchester University soekonderKommissie van Suid-Afrika Edited by D.J.L. Caldwell. 1968. publication A Government or official5.3.1.6 Dalton’s birth.bicentenary of mark the Manchester 19-24 September, 1966, to Corporation. Library… ference of historians of science held in science: Papers presented to a con-South African Broadcasting John Dalton and the progress ofNational… Synode . ReforméeEglise maritzburg: University of Natal. Pieter-Kienzle and M.C. Dent. S.W. Imperial Chemical Industries. Paint of Law… Lorentz, Edited by S.A. Road Ahead. TheHydrology in developing regions… University of Cape Town. Faculty fullstop: Proceedings:Symposium. 1993. South African National Hydrological Lancaster: University of Lancaster.Research… Industrial ings.ceedProHarrogate). 1969. : 1968:marketing at advanced level (3Community Elections Evaluation Conference of British teachers ofBritish Museum…These publications are normally in the strict sense of the word. The standard gives no specific examples or instructions in this re The standard’s principles toher with other existing conventions, are applied .BRADLEY, J.E. 1970. ; . . vir Uni SMITHERS, R.H.N. 1970. The mam- ( mals of Botswana. DSc thesis. Uni von Details of an encyclopaedia article K.H. . description are given in the following Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿname of the encyclopaedia (in italics, Ÿ Ÿ Library.) ma me- vor . vol. 14, . ed. von . 10 Schriftenreihe, Band 1), p.556-581. described in 5.3.1.3.. (DGD-tationDokumenVerlag Pullach: here, asal et Use can also be made of München-Uhlenried K.H. Meyer-und authorsbeckLutter, E. Laisiepen K. gegeben An article by more than two5.3.2.3Heraus-Einführung. einde mentation: Doku-und praktischen Information vol.6, p.618.paedia of Southern Africa,derGrundlagen . In Grundbegriffe Standard Encyclo-Libraries. 1972. MathematischeBELING, G. 1972. & IMMELMAN, R.F.M. D.H.VARLEY, An article by two authors5.3.2.2Aslib, p.376-387.London: Edited by W.E. Batten. 4work. th druk, p.258-359. and informationshiplibrarianspecial herzienegeheel et al. 3de, Banning Handbook ofInstructure retrieval. geredigeerd door W.denken, moderne J.F.B. 1975 ChemicalROWLAND, hethandboek van Encyclopaedisch Ja 22.1940 POORTMAN, J.J. p.243-271. worthButterLandman. Durban: W.A. p.185-187.deurGeredigeer navorsingspraktyk. Chambers Encyclopaedia, digekunopvoedInleiding tot die VerlaineUNDERWOOD, V.P. 1955. . Insingnahistoriese in die todologie NavorsingsPOTGIETER, F.J. 1980. vol.12, p.95-100.book edited by someone else nica,Encyclopaedia Britanscripts. nuAn author’s contribution in a5.3.1.12 HASSELHOFF, A. 1975. Illuminated An article by one author5.3.2.1 Random House. (The Modern pearspage(s) on which the article ap New York:The provincial letters. edition (except the first)Pensées andPASCAL, B. 1941. bold, or underlined) (The World’s Classics.) title of the articleOxford: Oxford University Press. yearThe Ambassadors. 1985.JAMES, H. b. author(s) (capital letters) Schriftenreihe, Band 1.)(DGD- sequence:Dokumentation.Verlag Pullach: München-Keyer-Uhlenried undLutterbeck, E. Laisiepen K. Herausgegeben1972. Einführung. Encyclopaedia articles5.3.2einedokumentation: und Information praktischender Grundlagen sity of Pretoria. ver-Librarianship, no.8.) Phineas W. Windsor Series in sity of Illinois Press.ver Onderwys. Urbana:the research library. HoërChristelike Universiteit The future ofCLAPP, V.W. 1964. sestroomPotchefverhandelingMA-Part of a seriesa. aspektekultuurenkele na ondersoek ‘n zikaMandlaDie New York: Harcourtmedieval. political theory. Part 1: Ancient and here. Western . , L.C. 1968MCDONALD under individual titles get comprising books appearing spect.named series or publication A book forming part of a5.3.1.11 lishedpub notNew York: Macmillan. thesesLanquines. 1960.Translated by F.B. Academic dissertations and5.3.1.13The song of Roland.Anonymous. Newspaper items should be treated in the same manner as journal articles. Details should be set out in the fol Ÿ Ÿauthor(s)/heading of the report (capi- Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿthe journal’s name (italics, bold, or Ÿ underlined; it may be abbreviated in Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ An article/report where the PETERSON, C. 1987. Falklanders fear weakening of UK resolve. BUYS, W. 1987. voor , matics, The norms as stated do not cover manuscripts and other unpublished material and in these instances the normative principles are adapted in accordance with other existing con SMITH, J.B. 1972. as ‘n . Reproduction, Pretoria, October 11 Service, ED 014900. Md.: ERIC Document ReproductionCanadian journal ofgroups. 1959. Bethesda,Learning from television.tionmaAdministration of technical infor & SCHRAMM, W. 1967.G.C.CHU, anonymous Microforms5.3.5.3An article whose author is5.3.3.4 June 1998.vol.7, no.3, p.117-129. , Israel Aircraft Industries, 1CrawfordJuly, 1997,Business Ethics Quarterly, Letter to WaltELAZAR, D. 1998. Ethical standards for business lobbying. HAMILTON, J.B. & HOCH, D. 1997. Letters5.3.5.2 1972.vol.22, no.3, p.24-28. roep May/June 1998,Online,services. be-VertalingSearching the web versus traditional A Reproduction5.3.5.1GARMAN, N. 1998. Head to Head: PEMPERTON, J.K., OJALA, M. & tions. ven- April 1983, vol.3, no.2 p.91.phy, ogra-Applied gecultural land in Ontario. Future urban growth and agri-1983. COCKLIN, C., GRAY, E.A. & SMIT, B. Refer to the comments at 5.3.2.3 authors Other sources5.3.5An article by more than two5.3.3.3 March 1938, vol.8, p.3. 1 January 1987, p.1.Times Metro, International journal of computer mathe- Sundayset up legalised brothels. 1987. context free languages.Semi-discrete Red-light row: council split over call toLATTEUX, M. & THIERRION, G. 1938. An anonymous report5.3.4.2An article by two authors5.3.3.2 1987, p.9.Januarie26 Beeldstel. June 1998, vol. 54, no.3, p.52-57. ge-keuses twee nou houerspolis May/Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Motorversekering:Sofia’s choice.PAVLOV, S. 1998. 21 January 1987, p.12News, 649. PretoriaJuly 1998, vol.50, no.4, p.617-Politics, Worldnational environmental politics. author is namedThe rise of inter-, M. 1998. ZüRN 5.3.4.1An article by one author5.3.3.1 pears:page(s) on which the article ap number volume page(s)month/season, date edition dateline with ISO-standard ISO 4) title of the newspaper title of the article yeartitle of the article tal letters for an heading)year of publication author(s) (capital letters) sequence:set out in the following sequence: lowingDescriptive details of journal articles are Journal articles5.3.3 Newspaper reports/articles5.3.4vol. 6, p.28.Americana, The EncyclopaediaPhoenicia. 1958. p.7-14.mentioned January 1959, vol.30, no.1,chemistry, An article whose author is not5.3.2.4EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT WAYS REFERENCES ARE USED IN THE TEXTThe Internet is not a network on its own, but a term which is used to describe a group of various networks worldwide, which are linked in such a is thus a combination of thousands of computer networks reaching millions ...of people throughout the world. The use of the Internet to obtain information can be useful for the more and more information are added that … The Internet was originally designed for computer specialists and user- friendliness was not included in the design, and the information is not E. van organized like a information system usually is. Advanced retrieval methods (e.g. Archie, Veronica, www) are now being develo- to the catalogues of the most References to information retrieved on tion retrieved from the Internet must also be referred to according to certain rules. The following elements th : … 12 Gopher sites to the example at 5.3.1.4: -history.html (5 Dec. 1994)., p.22 it is assumed … (ReferHistorians http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/lpb/mudModernIn a critical bibliography History. Multi-User Dimensions.” MUDof descriptive element is not an author Burka, Lauren P. “A Hypertext HistoryReference to a source whose first5.4.6 World Wide Web Sites canZuary, 1967) and one Smith, 1966; Examplesauthors (Blake, 1965; Doyle, 1965; This is in agreement with various other date consulted availabilitya specific place in the text volume number/pagesto more than one author inReference 5.4.5 date of publication type of mediumAslib, p.376-387.London: title of journal or monograph ed.Edited by W.E. Batten. 4work. title of article and informationlibrarianshipspecial author Handbook ofInStructure retrieval. ROWLAND, J.F.B. 1975. Chemical dered:must be consi (refer here to the example in 5.3.1.12): Rowland, 1975:383) but …printed ( InformaTechnical reports are not normally the Internetsomeone else published in a work edited by Reference to an author’s contribution5.4.4 important libraries and archives. ped on the Internet which allow access Gopher, Wyk (1970:3) reached the same viewpoint as T. van Wyk (1972:14) independently surname Reference to authors with the same5.4.3 1961a, 1961b, 1965) daily.Shear stressed repeatedly (1960, student since it is always available and different years Reference to an author published in5.4.2 throughchanged his viewpoint (1976b) Brown (1976a) found that … but he later way that it functions as one network. It more than once in a year Reference to an author published5.4.1 5.4 THE INTERNET5.5 14 April 1996.SABC, Preez, du Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Interview with Max, N. 1996. Mandela 1970.1485-1945: a critical bibliography.Sound recordings5.3.5.4 Modern historians on British history:Thomson, Barry. “Virtual Reality.” Undergraduate students faced with the task of creating a scientific assignment should be given the opportunity of dealing creatively with subject ma If an assignment is to be justified in scientific fashion, prescribed criteria must be met. The afore lines are ined to provide UP students with a framework within which ments can be prepared and written. Whilst bearing specific departmental instructions in mind, students should at the very least give this handbook. Students must also be tightly focused on what they wish to communicate through an assign and how they intend to convey a 13 particular message. ment, attention to the various facets covered in assign tendguide mentioned terial. CONCLUSION6. Personal e-mail (25 Jan. 1995). electronic mail (e-mail) 1994). newsday (5 Dec.tion/Selected Papers/ MUSEs in Educa-MOOs and MUDs, Koeln/Aboutgopher/University of Published in Newsday, 7 Nov. 1993. to Their World Build of MUD.” come, Joshua. “Far Out: WelQuittner 1987. Taalvaardigheid in die van die , BOTHAS, W.M. 1980. . dosent, BOTHA, W.M. . Inligtingkunde 110. afleiding en konsensus: literatuurondersoek en verslag-skrywingstegniek. Biblioteek- en BRASSEL, M. et al. 1988. Opleiding in die gebruik van Pretoria: DE WET, J.J. et al. 1981. Navorsingsmetodes in die Durban: Butterworth. DUMINY, W.W. 1975. vir die skryf van ‘n werkstuk. Pretoria: DU TOIT, A.P. & ORR. 1987. Achiever’s handbook. Johannesburg: Southern Book Publishers. ENGELDINGER, E.A. 1988. Bibliographic instruction and critical thinking: the Fakulteit en . 1987. vir die voorbereiding van werkstukke. Researching, writing and publishing local history. LANDMAN, W.A. 1980. Inleiding tot die opvoedkundige Durban: Butterworth. LEWIS, et al. 1982. The development of communication skills, under NATIONAL BUSINESS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION. 1998. Yearbook: integrating the 14 New York: McGraw-Hill.et al. 1980. Systems for study. RAYGOR, A.L. NBEA.. Internet into the Business curriculum PLET, vol.19, no.2, p.85-97.controlled conditions. adoptivelyB.R. navorsingspraktyk. Association for State and Local History. Nashville: AmericanFELT, T.E. 1981. Universiteit van Pretoria. Riglyne StaatswetenskappeEkonomiese Winter 1988, vol.28, no.2, p.195-202 RQ, contribution of an annotated bibliography. Merensky-biblioteek.Universiteit van Pretoria, uitgawe.hersiene 2de Wenke Opvoedkunde. Biblioteekdiens.Universiteit van Pretoria, inligtingsbronne. Universiteit van Pretoria.Inligtingkunde, Departement metodes, Wetenskaplike s.j vol.1, no.2, p.31-34. UP-Verwysingstegniek-literatuurondersoek-biblioteekgebruik vol.3 no.1, p.4-8.PeritusTechnikon Pretoria. aaneerstejaar-studentemoedertaalB.P.BISCHOFF, SOURCES