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what do teachers expect from students and also describes the what is teachers job performance
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Published Date:17-07-2017
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What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do TEACHERS ARE COMMITTED TO STUDENTS AND THEIR LEARNING TEACHERS KNOW THE SUBJECTS THEY TEACH AND HOW TO TEACH THOSE SUBJECTS TO STUDENTS TEACHERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING AND MONITORING STUDENT LEARNING TEACHERS THINK SYSTEMATICALLY ABOUT THEIR PRACTICE AND LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE TEACHERS ARE MEMBERS OF LEARNING COMMUNITIESINTRODUCTION The National Board for Professional Teaching Stan- are held in common by teachers of all grade levels dards was founded in 1987 to advance the quality and disciplines and underscore the accomplished of teaching and learning by: teacher’s commitment to advancing student learn- • maintaining high and rigorous standards for what ing and achievement. Together, the propositions accomplished teachers should know and be able form the basis of all National Board Standards, to do; which describe how teachers enact the Proposi- • providing a national voluntary system certifying tions in particular content areas and with students teachers who meet these standards; and of particular developmental levels, and serve as the • advocating related education reforms to inte- foundation for Board certification. National Board grate National Board Certification in American Certification—created by teachers, for teachers—is education and to capitalize on the expertise of the profession’s mark of accomplished teaching. National Board Certified Teachers. The explication of the Five Core Propositions in this This second edition of What Teachers Should Know edition of What Teachers Should Know and Be Able and Be Able to Do articulates the National Board’s to Do was updated in 2015 to reflect advances in Five Core Propositions for teaching. Similar to med- the field in research, professional language, and icine’s Hippocratic Oath, the Five Core Propositions practice. Remarkably, the Propositions themselves 89 Introduction have stood the test of time. The stability of the Five A distinguishing hallmark of a profession is that Core Propositions is an indication of the teaching those who are in it determine what its members profession’s ability to create and maintain a body of must know and do. For this reason, how these revi- knowledge that guides practice. Stylistic revisions sions took place is as important as the revisions were made to the explication of each proposition themselves. As is the case with all National Board to ensure the text resonates with modern ears, and Standards, the updated Five Core Propositions updates to the content include a stronger emphasis were written by teachers, for teachers. The Five on the roles that technology and language play in Core Propositions—in content and in authorship— students’ lives. are a statement of what our profession stands for. When What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do was first written in 1989, there were no National Board Certified Teachers. The Five Core Proposi - tions established in that document anchored the development of peer-reviewed standards and assessments for Board certification in 25 certifi - cate areas. As a testament to the strength of that visionary document, we can now say that over 700 Board-certified teachers contributed to the updated explication of the Five Core Propositions. They participated in the comment period, providing practice-based evaluations of the extent to which the descriptions of the Propositions have stood the test of time; they served on National Board’s staff, Certification Council, and Board of Directors, shepherding the revision process; and they made up the entirety of the committee that oversaw the revisions, basing their decisions on the comment period findings, research, and their considerable experience with students.THE FIVE CORE PROPOSITIONS Through National Board Certification, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards seeks to identify and recognize teachers who effectively enhance student learning and demonstrate the high level of knowledge, skills, abilities and commitments reflected in the following Five Core Propositions. 10THE FIVE CORE PROPOSITIONS 1. TEACHERS ARE COMMITTED TO STUDENTS AND THEIR LEARNING. 2. TEACHERS KNOW THE SUBJECTS THEY TEACH AND HOW TO TEACH THOSE SUBJECTS TO STUDENTS. 3. TEACHERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING AND MONITORING STUDENT LEARNING. 4. TEACHERS THINK SYSTEMATICALLY ABOUT THEIR PRACTICE AND LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE. 5. TEACHERS ARE MEMBERS OF LEARNING COMMUNITIES.PROPOSITION 1 Accomplished teachers base their practice on the social and educational settings, not simply within fundamental belief that all students can learn and their own learning environments. meet high expectations. Acknowledging the dis- tinctive traits and talents of each learner, teachers Teachers Recognize Individual Differences are dedicated to and skilled at making knowledge in Their Students and Adjust Their Practice accessible to all students. Educators are thus pas- Accordingly sionate about building meaningful relationships with Teachers must know many things about the stu- young people so students can advance their under- dents they instruct so they can respond effectively standing and experience success. Teachers know to individual differences. For instance, one teacher that ongoing achievement depends on their con- may find that in her class, Alex works with a speech viction in the value and dignity of all human beings pathologist, Maria loves science fiction, Toby is anx - as well as the potential that exists within each child. ious about mathematics, and Mikayla is captivated They therefore remain attentive to human variability, by music. Yet, accomplished teachers know much its influence on learning, and the interconnected - more about their students, such as where they ness of people in different contexts. Accomplished 1 call home, what their families are like, how they teachers become acquainted with students across 1 The terms “family” and “parent” are used throughout this document to refer to people who are the primary caregivers, guardians, or significant adults in the lives of children. 1213 Teachers are Committed to Students and Their Learning performed academically in the past, and who they prior knowledge. When planning a unit on genet- want to become in the future. Children and young ics, for instance, a biology instructor will anticipate adults live in a wide variety of physical locations and which concepts and activities certain students may household groups; to understand their hopes and find problematic; while listening to a small group, aspirations, educators must the teacher will then look for remain attuned to students’ signs of individual student unique living situations and engagement and address any Teachers must become “ family dynamics. misunderstandings as they attuned to their students’ arise. By keeping a finger on individual situations and Accomplished teachers fur- the pulse of the class, edu- changing circumstances. ther understand that student cators decide when to alter learning is influenced by per - plans, work with individual sonality—whether a student is shy or outgoing, students, or enrich instruction with additional exam- impulsive or reflective, stubborn or eager to please. ples, explanations, or activities. For example, a shy student might not perform well on an oral presentation. Similarly, an impulsive Recognizing that students bring different language student who fills in answers hastily may receive practices and proficiencies to the classroom, accom - standardized test results that do not truly reflect plished teachers also understand the complex role his or her knowledge. Accomplished educators that language plays in learning. For example, they take personality traits such as those into consider- respect the knowledge, perspectives, and experi- ation when interacting with students, planning for ences that English language learners possess and instruction, and interpreting assessments. That kind value the ways in which those factors can enhance of specific understanding is critical, for teachers use and strengthen the learning environment. Similarly, it constantly to tailor instruction for the individuals educators know that students use language dif- 2 within their classrooms. ferently based on social or academic context, and accomplished teachers empower their students by Teachers who are accomplished respond to student providing them with access points for participat- needs based on their pupils’ interests, abilities, and ing in various situations and occasions. Educators 2 All references to classrooms in this document, whether stated explicitly or not, refer to all educational settings (e.g., laborato- ries, gymnasiums, libraries, offices, outdoor locations).14 What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do explore opportunities to integrate diverse language deep understanding of their students and the com- practices meaningfully within the learning process. munities that shape their students’ values, outlooks, and attitudes toward learning. All the information Accomplished teachers gain knowledge about their that teachers acquire about students through the students by studying them carefully and seeking course of instruction subsequently informs their additional information from various sources. They understanding of teaching and learning, which learn from experience by listening to students, transforms their practice. watching them interact with peers, observing them work in different contexts, reading their thoughts Teachers Understand How Students Develop and reflections, and otherwise examining their and Learn actions and behavior in the learning environment. In addition to attaining knowledge specific to their Teachers also look closely at how students play students, accomplished educators consult a vari- so they can encourage those students to explore ety of learning and development theories to make their imagination during instruction. By engaging informed decisions about instructional content and students on a social, emotional, intellectual, and teaching methods. They are familiar with concepts physical basis, accomplished teachers enhance about teaching and learning generated by social learning at every age and developmental level. To and cognitive scientists. Moreover, educators inte- inform their pedagogical decisions further, educa- grate that knowledge with personal theories about tors analyze assessment data as well, considering learning and development generated from their it alongside input they receive from family members own practice. Based on their theoretical knowledge and other adults involved in their students’ lives. and practical experience in the classroom, accom- plished teachers understand that each student has Such an extensive evaluation represents no easy different cognitive strengths. Educators determine feat. What teachers are able to see, hear, and learn how to capitalize on those assets as they consider about students is influenced by their prior knowl - how best to nurture their students’ abilities and edge and experience as professionals. When aptitudes. working with children and young adults who have different backgrounds and experiences from their Accomplished teachers provide multiple opportu- own, accomplished teachers therefore monitor their nities for students to demonstrate their knowledge impressions and thoughts carefully to acquire a 15 Teachers are Committed to Students and Their Learning and showcase their abilities, both in and out of tra- urban community. That said, people share important ditional school settings. For example, students who similarities as well, regardless of their social affilia - find the calculation of percentages challenging in tion or cultural background. Those similarities and school may be able to determine value discounts differences are always shifting. readily while shopping—a Thus, teachers must become mathematics instructor attuned to their students’ may thus incorporate that Accomplished teachers therefore “ individual situations and activity within an exercise use everything they know about changing circumstances. to provide students with an effective—and ineffective— By doing so, accomplished alternate way to demon- practices to develop strategies teachers can develop an strate their knowledge that capitalize on their students’ array of strategies for shar- and improve their abilities. varied backgrounds, using diversity ing differences, identifying Accomplished teachers to enrich the learning environment similarities, and embracing strive to appreciate and diversity within the learning understand their students’ for every student. environment. Those strate- aptitudes and intelligences. gies provide educational experiences that capitalize By encouraging students to relate their personal on classroom diversity by connecting students with experience to the classroom environment, teachers various cultural experiences while broadening their help students make learning relevant and advance perspectives on learning and thinking. their skills across academic settings. Importantly, accomplished teachers recognize Teachers Treat Students Equitably that, in a multicultural world, students possess a As advocates for the interests of students, accom- wide range of abilities and aptitudes that might be plished teachers are vigilant in ensuring that all valued differently by families, local communities, pupils receive their fair share of attention. Educa- and schools. For instance, the knowledge, skills, tors recognize their own biases and make certain and dispositions nurtured in a Native American com- that any preconceptions based on real or perceived munity may differ from those promoted in a Latino ability differences, exceptionalities, socioeconomic community. Similarly, those cultivated by a suburban or cultural background, family configuration, sexual community may differ from those developed in an 16 What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do orientation, physical characteristics, race, ethnicity, part of the learning process; they show students language, religion, age, or gender do not distort how to cope with it and create environments their relationships with students. Accomplished in which learners are comfortable taking risks. teachers maintain an open mind and a balanced Through failure, children and young adults can perspective on their students. attain perseverance and resilience, which will help them achieve their potential. At the same time, That approach does not suggest that teachers treat accomplished teachers increase their students’ all students alike, because using the same tactics engagement and motivation by providing them with to address similar behavior by different students options from which to choose, fostering their own- does not necessarily result in an equitable educa- ership in learning, and setting high expectations. tion. Rather, teachers respond to die ff rences among Students come to understand that questioning and students, being careful to counter potential inequi- goal setting are integral aspects of the learning ties and avoid favoritism. Accomplished educators process. monitor their students’ access to resources and advocate to ensure that students have the tools Teachers model all those behaviors, using them they need to learn. That level of attention requires a to help students advocate for themselves in the well-tuned alertness, which can be difficult. Accom - classroom and in the community. As participants plished teachers therefore use everything they of a larger world, the students of accomplished know about effective—and ineffective—practices to teachers recognize the effect that their actions have develop strategies that capitalize on their students’ outside the classroom. They therefore develop civic varied backgrounds, using diversity to enrich the responsibility and digital citizenship, becoming learning environment for every student. aware of how their actions affect others. All those lessons—important in their own right—are essential to intellectual development as well. Accomplished Teachers Know Their Mission Transcends teachers consider their students’ potential in that the Cognitive Development of Their Students broader sense when making decisions about what Accomplished teachers are devoted to support- and how to teach. ing the development of character and preparing students for a successful future. To facilitate such growth, educators recognize that failure is a natural THE FIVE CORE PROPOSITIONS 1. TEACHERS ARE COMMITTED TO STUDENTS AND THEIR LEARNING. 2. TEACHERS KNOW THE SUBJECTS THEY TEACH AND HOW TO TEACH THOSE SUBJECTS TO STUDENTS. 3. TEACHERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING AND MONITORING STUDENT LEARNING. 4. TEACHERS THINK SYSTEMATICALLY ABOUT THEIR PRACTICE AND LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE. 5. TEACHERS ARE MEMBERS OF LEARNING COMMUNITIES.PROPOSITION 2 If one cardinal principle of teaching is a com- Teachers Appreciate How Knowledge in mitment to the welfare and education of young Their Subjects is Created, Organized, and Linked to Other Disciplines people, another is a commitment to subject matter. Accomplished teachers are dedicated to acquaint- Teachers who possess a firm command of their ing students with the social, cultural, ethical, and subject areas understand factual information as physical worlds in which we live, and they use the well as major themes and concepts. They also subjects they teach as an introduction to those comprehend the process of creative investigation realms. A comprehensive understanding of sub- and inquiry, whereby discoveries are made and ject matter entails more than the recitation of dates, new knowledge is formed, as demonstrated in the multiplication tables, or grammatical rules within a work of scholars and artists. For instance, physics single content domain. Rather, it requires the pursuit teachers know the role of hypothesis generation of substantive knowledge by exploring domains and and experimentation in scientific inquiry; geometry making connections to become fully engaged in the teachers know the modes of justification for sub - learning process. stantiating mathematical claims; fine arts teachers understand how creative ideas are developed and meaning is conveyed through performance; social studies teachers know how historians use evidence 1819 Teachers Know the Subjects They Teach and How to Teach Those Subjects to Students to interpret past events; and English language arts understanding. Knowing that multiple perspectives teachers understand the relationship between and interpretations of each content area exist, reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Literacy, educators expose students to different modes of a foundational component of learning across con- critical thinking and show them how to reason ana- tent domains, is instrumental lytically about subject matter. to comprehending subject While maintaining the integ- matter and connecting one rity of disciplinary methods, Whether they are specialists “ discipline to another. content, and structures of or generalists, accomplished organization, accomplished teachers use rich, complex Accomplished teachers value teachers encourage students subject matter to promote the relationships among to question prevailing norms student learning across subject areas, using those and assumptions so they can developmental levels. relationships to forge multi- think for themselves. ple paths to knowledge. Thus, early and middle childhood generalists know about Whether they are specialists or generalists, accom- geography and its relationship to economics and plished teachers use rich, complex subject matter history, and world language teachers know how to promote student learning across developmental political history and human migration inform an levels. By engaging children and young adults in a appreciation of language and culture. As those broad array of disciplines, educators provide stu- examples illustrate, accomplished teachers under- dents with appropriate points of entry to appreciate stand not only how content areas relate but also the content. For example, early childhood general- how they influence student learning. ists may not delve as deeply into cellular structure as high school biology teachers do, but they present Recognizing how knowledge is established within foundational knowledge that introduces students and across subject areas is crucial to the instruc- to the joys of discovery, while inspiring a desire to tion of logical reasoning. Critical thinking does not explore the natural world in which they live. Sim- occur in the abstract, for thinkers always evaluate ilarly, physical education teachers may focus on something. Accomplished teachers realize the fun- locomotor movement—such as walking, hopping, damental role that disciplinary study plays in the or skipping—to help students with moderate and development of critical analysis and conceptual profound physical limitations develop gross motor 20 What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do skills and achieve maximum independence. Teach- Teachers draw on pedagogical and subject matter ers must possess a thorough understanding of understandings to respond to common miscon- subject matter to help their students develop criti- ceptions within content areas; address challenging cal skills and pursue lifelong learning—the hallmark aspects of learning acquisition; and accommodate of accomplished teaching at every developmental prior knowledge, experience, and skills that students level. at different developmental levels typically bring to the classroom. For example, science teachers anticipate that some students may have misun- Teachers Command Specialized Knowledge derstandings about gravity that can influence their of How to Convey a Subject to Students learning, whereas fine arts and physical education Teachers require pedagogical insight to communi- teachers are prepared for young children to enter cate their subject knowledge effectively and impact school at various stages of maturity with respect students signic fi antly. Accomplished educators use to hand–eye coordination. Balancing the insights a specialized set of technical skills and abilities to of pedagogical and subject matter expertise helps convey instructional content and facilitate learning teachers evaluate and resolve daily issues—deci- so students can develop bodies of knowledge and sions that include which aspects of subject matter advance their systems of thinking. Pedagogical to emphasize and how to pace instruction. Accom- expertise incorporates wisdom related to the teach- plished educators use a comprehensive awareness ing and learning processes, as well as the dynamic of their students, their subjects, and their practice between student needs and content demands. to structure teaching that promotes learning in Accomplished teachers use their knowledge of their schools. the most appropriate ways to present subject matter through strategies and techniques such as To remain as effective as possible in the class - demonstrations, experiments, analogies and met- room, accomplished educators also demonstrate aphors, interactive learning, and appropriate uses a strong commitment to learning about new cur- of technology. ricular resources, such as textbook series, primary texts, classroom manipulatives, or research mate- Pedagogical experience yields a repertoire of rials available through professional organizations. instructional techniques that allow teachers to Educators keep abreast of technological develop- share their subject matter knowledge with students. ments that have implications for their subject areas 21 Teachers Know the Subjects They Teach and How to Teach Those Subjects to Students and their teaching, utilizing digital tools employed classroom to meet learning goals and accommo- within their disciplines. Teachers understand that date student dispositions as needed. Educators are maintaining familiarity with the technology used thus aware of the value that lies in both structured by practitioners helps them remain current in their and inductive learning. They understand that teach- fields. In addition, they explore ing students the concepts the influence that technology and principles that scholars has on their subject areas within each discipline have Accomplished educators use a “ because they know that it generated is useful, but comprehensive awareness of frequently affects the struc - accomplished teachers also their students, their subjects, ture and process of thinking know that helping students and their practice to structure within disciplines. Importantly, develop a critical mindset is teaching that promotes learning accomplished teachers posi- important. Through inquiry, in their schools. tion themselves as critical students search for prob- users of technology, ensuring lems, patterns, and solutions, that it is employed to enhance student understand- making discoveries and advancing their own ing. By modeling that stance, teachers help their learning. Accomplished educators model those students navigate the relationship between technol- processes for students, showing them how to pose ogy and learning, empowering them to use digital problems and work through alternative solutions, tools in authentic ways that advance their knowl- as well as how to examine the answers that others edge. Educators continually evaluate the usefulness have found to similar problems. of all curricular materials and pedagogical methods Posing and solving problems is central to the devel- they adopt in the classroom, basing that evaluation opment of true understanding. That process moves on their professional judgment. students far beyond a rote memorization of facts, an easy manipulation of formulas, or the facile repeti- Teachers Generate Multiple Paths to tion of a musical scale. Teaching for understanding Knowledge requires students to integrate discrete components Accomplished teachers wisely use the educational of knowledge within their habits of thinking, instead resources, pedagogical skills, and content knowl- of storing fragmented pieces of information without edge they possess, varying their approach in the further consideration. It challenges students to think 22 What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do in nonlinear ways, to approach issues from multiple vantage points, to weigh competing sets of crite- ria, and to evaluate the merits of multiple solutions. Thus, in the eyes of accomplished teachers, the acquisition of knowledge does not signify a lower form of understanding. Rather, it represents a dis- tinctly intellectual undertaking—a rich, demanding, creative process calling on the strategic coordina- tion of skills, abilities, and dispositions to develop a deeper, more discerning matrix of understanding. That mode of thinking encourages students to apply their knowledge to new and unfamiliar problems so they can continue exploring and advancing their understanding. As they share their knowledge in all its forms with students in the classroom, accom- plished teachers appreciate that this way of thinking and understanding will develop over time to support meaningful, substantial learning for a lifetime.THE FIVE CORE PROPOSITIONS 1. TEACHERS ARE COMMITTED TO STUDENTS AND THEIR LEARNING. 2. TEACHERS KNOW THE SUBJECTS THEY TEACH AND HOW TO TEACH THOSE SUBJECTS TO STUDENTS. 3. TEACHERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING AND MONITORING STUDENT LEARNING. 4. TEACHERS THINK SYSTEMATICALLY ABOUT THEIR PRACTICE AND LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE. 5. TEACHERS ARE MEMBERS OF LEARNING COMMUNITIES.PROPOSITION 3 Accomplished teachers maintain high expectations environment—observing student interactions, for all students. They view themselves as facilita- evaluating classroom performance, assessing all tors of student learning, helping children and young aspects of student development, and measur- adults reach their fullest potential. To achieve that ing learning outcomes relative to objectives. To goal, educators create vibrant, productive work- increase students’ success, teachers diligently spaces for their students, adjusting and improving manage the systems, programs, and resources organizational structures as needed while establish- that support every educational endeavor—fostering ing effective ways to monitor and manage traditional positive relationships in and out of the classroom, and nontraditional learning environments. making sure classroom materials are used appro- priately, maintaining schedules, ensuring student First and foremost, teachers facilitate the edu- safety, and otherwise maintaining all aspects of a cational process by designing opportunities for well-functioning learning environment. As masters learning—planning for and presenting students of pedagogical practice, accomplished educa- with inspiring material, promoting their participation, tors teach efficiently, making the most of every supporting substantive discourse, and sustaining instructional moment to maximize learning. They long-term engagement by collaboratively work- are dedicated to helping young people thrive by ing with students. To track their success, teachers respecting, encouraging, and advancing student carefully monitor activity within the learning interests and student learning at all times. 2425 Teachers are Responsible for Managing and Monitoring Student Learning Teachers Call on Multiple Methods to Meet and educational settings offer distinct learning Their Instructional Goals opportunities, accomplished teachers know how and when to alter the organizational structure of Accomplished teachers possess a range of peda- their classroom environments to support instruc- gogical skills—for instance, they facilitate student tional objectives. They transition among teaching inquiry, advise cooperative learning groups, and methods, social groupings, and physical layouts to mediate classroom discourse. Their instructional customize their approach, and they develop strat- strategies are largely informed by their students and egies based on learning goals and student needs. their subject matter, although professional knowl- For example, depending on instructional objectives, edge also guides their practice significantly. Thus, outdoor experiments or classroom simulations may accomplished teachers understand what they and be more productive for stu- their students can reasonably dents than would a lecture or achieve in a roundtable dis- a discussion. Alternately, in cussion, when they should To increase students’ success, “ some instances, journaling or hold back and allow students teachers diligently manage note taking might be a more to determine their own solu- the systems, programs, and effective way to engage stu - tions, and which questions resources that support every dents in thinking and learning they can pose to provoke the educational endeavor. than would discovery-based most thoughtful classroom activities or dramatic performances. Accomplished conversation. Importantly, effective educators educators understand the full breadth of pedagog- possess a comprehensive knowledge of instruc- ical options available to them. They use traditional tional methods, broad and deep in scope. They methods, and they employ innovative strategies to have a strong theoretical understanding of various advance student learning in pace with the dynamic instructional modes and sound practical experi- conditions of the classroom. ence implementing these strategies. Accomplished teachers examine pedagogical issues regularly and When shifting their approach, accomplished teach- reflect on their practice so that they use classroom ers modify their learning environments and their time constructively. instructional materials as needed. To inspire stu- dents further, teachers invite stakeholders and Because students have diverse learning styles colleagues to the classroom so they can share their 26 What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do experience and communicate their expertise on different groups of students. They manage those specific topics. Accomplished educators appreciate interactions carefully, establishing social norms how the knowledge and skills of other individuals for constructive communication, helping students can complement their own talents and enhance adopt productive roles vis-à-vis their teachers and their students’ understanding. They know the value their peers, and showing students how to assume of mobilizing students as peer tutors for the same responsibility for their learning and for that of their reason. Accomplished educators thus enlist a wide classmates. The environments that teachers create range of support—from students, teachers, and guide student behavior and support learning as paraprofessionals to family and community mem- it takes place in large or small groups, in pairs, bers—to provide their students with instructional independently, or one-on-one with the teacher or opportunities that will augment their learning. another adult. Accomplished teachers understand the strengths Because different pedagogical techniques may and weaknesses of the pedagogical approaches also require different types of social interaction, they take, as well as their suitability for different each carrying its own set of expectations, accom- students and student groups. The settings that plished teachers remain sensitive to shifting norms teachers design, the situations they create, and that cast students and teachers in new roles. To the strategies they select are all grounded in edu- ensure that the learning dynamic remains posi- cational research and professional experience. For tive and responsive, educators assess the relative accomplished educators, the classroom represents value of classroom structures and organizational a world of opportunities. One activity can lead to the requirements when determining which instructional possibility of many others that will engage students strategies will best enhance student learning in their and entice them to explore subjects further, some- classrooms. They continually search for new con- times with their teacher, sometimes with each other, figurations that will prove effective, expand their and sometimes alone. repertoire, and keep students excited to learn. The management techniques that accomplished teach- ers use are proactive rather than reactive, helping Teachers Support Student Learning in classroom participants focus on learning instead Varied Settings and Groups of controlling disruptive behavior. Educators thus Accomplished teachers know how to work with develop classroom customs and practices based